Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 469

Search results for: theme parks

469 Theme Park Investments: How to Beat the Average: A Case Study from the Netherlands

Authors: Pieter C. M. Cornelis

Abstract:

European theme parks invest approximately 10 percent of their yearly turnover into new rides and park improvements. Without these investments these parks assume not to be a very competitive and appealing daytrip for their target audiences. However, the impact of investments in attracting new visitors is not well-known and seems to differ dramatically between parks. This paper presents a case study from the Netherlands in which a small amusement park applied a suggested, not yet proven, investment method. The results of the investment are discussed in (a) the form of return on investment and (b) the success of the predictions with regard to this investment. Suggestions for future research are presented.

Keywords: entertainment industry, innovation, investments, theme parks

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468 Validating the Theme Park Service Quality Scale: A Case Study of Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom

Authors: Kat Jingjing Luo

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The development of theme parks in China has been through a rapid growth in the past decades. Increasing competition within service quality has forced theme park managers concerned the relationship between service quality and visitors’ satisfaction. Even though those existing service quality measurements such as SERVQUAL and THEMEQUAL have been applied in related researches, none of them is exclusive for Chinese theme park service quality. This study aims to investigate the service quality of the most popular theme park in China currently and develop a unique, reliable and valid scale. The reliability and validity analysis results from a survey of over 200 tourists in Chimelong ocean kingdom in Zhuhai city, south of China, indicate that the dimension of waiting time is a discover factor in the measurement of Chinese theme park service quality excluding in the THEMEQUAL instrument (i.e., tangibles, reliability, responsiveness and access, assurance, empathy and courtesy). The newly developed scale gives a better understand service quality in Chinese theme park industry, and the managerial implications in regard to the research, how to improve theme park service quality are discussed.

Keywords: theme park, scale development, China, service quality

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467 Profitability of Milkfish Production from Three Mariculture Parks in the Philippines

Authors: Rosie S. Abalos, John Patrick M. Dizon

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The operation of fish cages in mariculture parks for milkfish production remains a lucrative business for aquaculture operators. Three areas in the Philippines where mariculture parks are still in active operation were identified as study sites for this research. Financial analysis was used to estimate profitability of mariculture operations in the selected study sites. Based on the result of this research, milkfish production in mariculture parks remains profitable both in terms of net profit generation and the return on investment. To improve the profitability of aquaculture operations in mariculture parks, the relatively high price of operational inputs should be managed. As a recommendation, further studies should be conducted on the profitability of aquaculture operations in mariculture parks in the country to include other factors which may cause losses on the part of the operator and factors that may affect price of produce upon harvest.

Keywords: mariculture parks, milkfish production, aquaculture, profitability

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466 High Techno-Parks in the Economy of Azerbaijan and Their Management Problems

Authors: Rasim M. Alguliyev, Alovsat G. Aliyev, Roza O. Shahverdiyeva

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The paper investigated the role and position of high techno-parks, which is one of the priorities of Azerbaijan. The main objectives, functions and features of the establishment of high-techno parks, as well as organization of the activity of the structural elements, which are the parking complex and their interactions were analyzed. The development, organization and management of high techno-parks were studied. The key features and functions of innovative structures’ management were explained. The need for a comprehensive management system for the development of high-techno parks was emphasized and the major problems were analyzed. In addition, the methods were proposed for the development of information systems supporting decision making in systematic and sustainable management of the parks.

Keywords: innovative development, innovation processes, innovation economy, innovation infrastructure, high technology park, efficient management, management decisions, information insurance

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465 Does the Perceived Value of a National Park Increases Visitor Satisfaction and Loyalty?

Authors: Yoo-Shik Yoon, Hae-Kyung Sohn, Young-Hae Yoon, Hai-Long Cui

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This study focused on tourist subjects who have experience visiting national parks in Korea. The reason for selecting national parks as the subject of this study was that many Koreans visit national parks on weekends, and their visits continue even as changes are made to the parks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate what type of value perceived by tourists who visit national parks positively influences their satisfaction. Concurrently, the relationship between satisfaction and future behavioral intention was also examined. The understanding and analysis of this relationship is very important for the success of destination tourism development. This analysis can contribute to the creation of a marketing strategy that will induce tourists to stay longer, revisit, and recommend a national park to others. If national park administrators fully utilize the study results, they will be able to increase the number of visitors to their national parks. Furthermore, the results of this study will contribute to the development of Korean national parks as a tourist destination.

Keywords: national park, visitor satisfaction, loyalty, tourism management

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464 Sustainable Environmental Management through the Comparative Study of Two Recreational Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola, Cornelius Olatunji Omojola, Dayo Martins Oyeshomo

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The role of a recreational park in human and environmental development has attracted much interest in the recent time. Recreation parks' development could act as an effective planning strategy to enhance environmental sustainability, social cohesiveness, and users' quality of life. Similarly, parks enhance neighbourhood's aesthetics, refresh the air and enhance humans' contact with nature. In this connection, recreation parks create natural surroundings of rural areas for leisure, relaxation, recreation, psychological and physical comfort of the people. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the two recreational parks' development as a strategy for neighbourhood's environmental improvement, sustainability and the recreationists' cohesiveness. A total number of 158 survey questionnaires were distributed to the tourists at Ikogosi cold and warm spring in Ekiti state as well as Olumirin waterfalls, Erin-Ijesa, Osun State, in South-West, Nigeria. The quantitative results of the analyzed data with Relative Importance Index (RII) revealed that recreation parks provide optimum opportunities for users' social cohesiveness and well-being while parks' sustainable environment could be enhanced base on the provision of essential facilities, services, and future developmental plans. It is recommended that for recreation parks to realize their full potential in environmental sustainability, adequate maintenance and provision of essential facilities becomes imperative.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, neighbourhood development, recreational park, Nigeria

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463 Research on the Planning Spatial Mode of China's Overseas Industrial Park

Authors: Sidong Zhao, Xingping Wang

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Recently, the government of China has provided strong support the developments of overseas industrial parks. The global distribution of China overseas industrial parks has gradually moved from the 'sparks of fire' to the 'prairie fires.' The support and distribution have promoted developing overseas industrial parks to a strategy of constructing a China's new open economic system and a typical representative of the 'Chinese wisdom' and the 'China's plans' that China has contributed to the globalization of the new era under the initiative of the Belt and Road. As the industrial parks are the basis of 'work/employment', a basic function of a city (Athens Constitution), planning for developments of industrial parks has become a long-term focus of urban planning. Based on the research of the planning and the analysis of the present developments of some typical China overseas industrial parks, we found some interesting rules: First, large numbers of the China overseas industrial parks are located in less developed countries. These industrial parks have become significant drives of the developments of the host cities and even the regions in those countries, especially in investment, employment and paid tax fee for the local, etc. so, the planning and development of overseas industrial parks have received extensive attention. Second, there are some problems in the small part of the overseas Park, such as the planning of the park not following the planning of the host city and lack of implementation of the park planning, etc. These problems have led to the difficulties of the implementation of the planning and the sustainable developments of the parks. Third, a unique pattern of space development has been formed. in the dimension of the patterns of regional spatial distribution, there are five characteristics - along with the coast, along the river, along with the main traffic lines and hubs, along with the central urban area and along the connections of regions economic. In the dimension of the spatial relationships between the industrial park and the city, there is a growing and evolving trend as 'separation – integration - union'. In the dimension of spatial mode of the industrial parks, there are different patterns of development, such as a specialized industrial park, complex industrial park, characteristic town and new urban area of industry, etc. From the perspective of the trends of the developments and spatial modes, in the future, the planning of China overseas industrial parks should emphasize the idea of 'building a city based on the industrial park'. In other words, it's making the developments of China overseas industrial parks move from 'driven by policy' to 'driven by the functions of the city', accelerating forming the system of China overseas industrial parks and integrating the industrial parks and the cities.

Keywords: overseas industrial park, spatial mode, planning, China

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462 Disaster Adaptation Mechanism and Disaster Prevention Adaptation Planning Strategies for Industrial Parks in Response to Climate Change and Different Socio-Economic Disasters

Authors: Jen-Te Pai, Jao-Heng Liu, Shin-En Pai

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The impact of climate change has intensified in recent years, causing Taiwan to face higher frequency and serious natural disasters. Therefore, it is imperative for industrial parks manufacturers to promote adaptation policies in response to climate change. On the other hand, with the rise of the international anti-terrorism situation, once a terrorist attack occurs, it will attract domestic and international media attention, especially the strategic and economic status of the science park. Thus, it is necessary to formulate adaptation and mitigation strategies under climate change and social economic disasters. After reviewed the literature about climate change, urban disaster prevention, vulnerability assessment, and risk communication, the study selected 62 industrial parks compiled by the Industrial Bureau of the Ministry of Economic Affairs of Taiwan as the research object. This study explored the vulnerability and disaster prevention and disaster relief functional assessment of these industrial parks facing of natural and socio-economic disasters. Furthermore, this study explored planned adaptation of industrial parks management section and autonomous adaptation of corporate institutions in the park. The conclusion of this study is that Taiwan industrial parks with a higher vulnerability to natural and socio-economic disasters should employ positive adaptive behaviours.

Keywords: adaptive behaviours, analytic network process, vulnerability, industrial parks

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461 Utility, Satisfaction and Necessity of Urban Parks: An Empirical Study of Two Suburban Parks of Kolkata Metropolitan Area, India

Authors: Jaydip De

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Urban parks are open places, green fields and riverside gardens usually maintained by public or private authorities, or eventually by both jointly; and utilized for a multidimensional purpose by the citizens. These parks are indeed the lung of urban centers. In urban socio-environmental setup, parks are the nucleus of social integration, community building, and physical development. In contemporary cities, these green places seem to perform as the panacea of congested, complex and stressful urban life. The alarmingly increasing urban population and the resultant congestion of high-rises are making life wearisome in neo-liberal cities. This has made the citizen always quest for open space and fresh air. In such a circumstance, the mere existence of parks is not capable of satisfying the growing aspirations. Therefore in this endeavour, a structured attempt is so made to empirically identify the utility, visitors’ satisfaction, and future needs through the cases of two urban parks of Kolkata Metropolitan Area, India. This study is principally based upon primary information collected through visitors’ perception survey conducted at the Chinsurah ground and Chandernagore strand. The correlation between different utility categories is identified and analyzed systematically. At the same time, indices like Weighted Satisfaction Score (WSS), Facility wise Satisfaction Index (FSI), Urban Park Satisfaction Index (UPSI) and Urban Park Necessity Index (UPNI) are advocated to quantify the visitors’ satisfaction and future necessities. It is explored that the most important utilities are passive in nature. Simultaneously, satisfaction levels of visitors are average, and their requirements are centred on the daily needs of the next generation, i.e., the children. Further, considering the visitors’ opinion planning measures are promulgated for holistic development of urban parks to revitalize sustainability of citified life.

Keywords: citified life, future needs, visitors’ satisfaction, urban parks, utility

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460 A Descriptive Preference Analysis on Waterfront Parks Neighboring Lake Shihwa

Authors: J. H. Ahn, J. W. Moon, S. J. Noh, H. K. Kim

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Nowadays, as the ecology of Lake Shihwa has been restored significantly, the urban development is in progress around Lake Shihwa areas. Each development project includes a plan on utilizing waterfront areas, but there exist a difference on waterfront design criteria between experts and users. Therefore, it is significant to analyze preferences in design elements of existing waterfront parks around Lake Shihwa (Ansan Waterfront Park, Shihwa Reed Wetland Park, and T-Light Park) based on users’ perspectives and to reflect the result on upcoming waterfront developments. This study derives design elements on waterfront parks from literature reviews. The survey questionnaires are created based on these classified elements and the surveys are conducted to experts and users with in-depth interviews. For all three parks, several park facilities appear to be not recognized by users. Therefore, the circulation path should be introduced in guide maps and information activities and furthermore in disposition of park facilities.

Keywords: design elements, lake Shihwa, preference, waterfront park

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459 Early-Warning Lights Classification Management System for Industrial Parks in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Min Chang, Kuo-Sheng Tsai, Hung-Te Tsai, Chia-Hsin Li

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This paper presents the early-warning lights classification management system for industrial parks promoted by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) since 2011, including the definition of each early-warning light, objectives, action program and accomplishments. All of the 151 industrial parks in Taiwan were classified into four early-warning lights, including red, orange, yellow and green, for carrying out respective pollution management according to the monitoring data of soil and groundwater quality, regulatory compliance, and regulatory listing of control site or remediation site. The Taiwan EPA set up a priority list for high potential polluted industrial parks and investigated their soil and groundwater qualities based on the results of the light classification and pollution potential assessment. In 2011-2013, there were 44 industrial parks selected and carried out different investigation, such as the early warning groundwater well networks establishment and pollution investigation/verification for the red and orange-light industrial parks and the environmental background survey for the yellow-light industrial parks. Among them, 22 industrial parks were newly or continuously confirmed that the concentrations of pollutants exceeded those in soil or groundwater pollution control standards. Thus, the further investigation, groundwater use restriction, listing of pollution control site or remediation site, and pollutant isolation measures were implemented by the local environmental protection and industry competent authorities; the early warning lights of those industrial parks were proposed to adjust up to orange or red-light. Up to the present, the preliminary positive effect of the soil and groundwater quality management system for industrial parks has been noticed in several aspects, such as environmental background information collection, early warning of pollution risk, pollution investigation and control, information integration and application, and inter-agency collaboration. Finally, the work and goal of self-initiated quality management of industrial parks will be carried out on the basis of the inter-agency collaboration by the classified lights system of early warning and management as well as the regular announcement of the status of each industrial park.

Keywords: industrial park, soil and groundwater quality management, early-warning lights classification, SOP for reporting and treatment of monitored abnormal events

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458 Private Technology Parks–The New Engine for Innovation Development in Russia

Authors: K. Volkonitskaya, S. Lyapina

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According to the National Monitoring Centre of innovation infrastructure, scientific and technical activities and regional innovation systems by December 2014. 166 technology parks were established in Russia. Comparative analysis of technological parks performance in Russia, the USA, Israel and the European Union countries revealed significant reduction of key performance indicators in Russian innovation infrastructure institutes. The largest deviations were determined in the following indicators: new products and services launched, number of companies and jobs, amount of venture capital invested. Lower performance indicators of Russian technology parks can be partly explained by slack demand for national high-tech products and services, lack of qualified specialists in the sphere of innovation management and insufficient cooperation between different innovation infrastructure institutes. In spite of all constraints in innovation segment of Russian economy in 2010-2012 private investors for the first time proceeded to finance building of technological parks. The general purpose of the research is to answer two questions: why despite the significant investment risks private investors continue to implement such comprehensive infrastructure projects in Russia and is business model of private technological park more efficient than strategies of state innovation infrastructure institutes? The goal of the research was achieved by analyzing business models of private technological parks in Moscow, Kaliningrad, Astrakhan and Kazan. The research was conducted in two stages: the on-line survey of key performance indicators of private and state Russian technological parks and in-depth interviews with top managers and investors, who have already build private technological parks in by 2014 or are going to complete investment stage in 2014-2016. The results anticipated are intended to identify the reasons of efficient and inefficient technological parks performance. Furthermore, recommendations for improving the efficiency of state technological and industrial parks were formulated. Particularly, the recommendations affect the following issues: networking with other infrastructural institutes, services and infrastructure provided, mechanisms of public-private partnership and investment attraction. In general intensive study of private technological parks performance and development of effective mechanisms of state support can have a positive impact on the growth rates of the number of Russian technological, industrial and science parks.

Keywords: innovation development, innovation infrastructure, private technology park, public-private partnership

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457 Competition between Verb-Based Implicit Causality and Theme Structure's Influence on Anaphora Bias in Mandarin Chinese Sentences: Evidence from Corpus

Authors: Linnan Zhang

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Linguists, as well as psychologists, have shown great interests in implicit causality in reference processing. However, most frequently-used approaches to this issue are psychological experiments (such as eye tracking or self-paced reading, etc.). This research is a corpus-based one and is assisted with statistical tool – software R. The main focus of the present study is about the competition between verb-based implicit causality and theme structure’s influence on anaphora bias in Mandarin Chinese sentences. In Accessibility Theory, it is believed that salience, which is also known as accessibility, and relevance are two important factors in reference processing. Theme structure, which is a special syntactic structure in Chinese, determines the salience of an antecedent on the syntactic level while verb-based implicit causality is a key factor to the relevance between antecedent and anaphora. Therefore, it is a study about anaphora, combining psychology with linguistics. With analysis of the sentences from corpus as well as the statistical analysis of Multinomial Logistic Regression, major findings of the present study are as follows: 1. When the sentence is stated in a ‘cause-effect’ structure, the theme structure will always be the antecedent no matter forward biased verbs or backward biased verbs co-occur; in non-theme structure, the anaphora bias will tend to be the opposite of the verb bias; 2. When the sentence is stated in a ‘effect-cause’ structure, theme structure will not always be the antecedent and the influence of verb-based implicit causality will outweigh that of theme structure; moreover, the anaphora bias will be the same with the bias of verbs. All the results indicate that implicit causality functions conditionally and the noun in theme structure will not be the high-salience antecedent under any circumstances.

Keywords: accessibility theory, anaphora, theme strcture, verb-based implicit causality

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456 Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Urban Parks Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Techniques

Authors: Hira Jabbar, Tanzeel-Ur Rehman

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Urban parks and open spaces play a significant role in improving physical and mental health of the citizens, strengthen the societies and make the cities more attractive places to live and work. As the world’s cities continue to grow, continuing to value green space in cities is vital but is also a challenge, particularly in developing countries where there is pressure for space, resources, and development. Offering equal opportunity of accessibility to parks is one of the important issues of park distribution. The distribution of parks should allow all inhabitants to have close proximity to their residence. Remote sensing and Geographic information systems (GIS) can provide decision makers with enormous opportunities to improve the planning and management of Park facilities. This study exhibits the capability of GIS and RS techniques to provide baseline knowledge about the distribution of parks, level of accessibility and to help in identification of potential areas for such facilities. For this purpose Landsat OLI imagery for year 2016 was acquired from USGS Earth Explorer. Preprocessing models were applied using Erdas Imagine 2014v for the atmospheric correction and NDVI model was developed and applied to quantify the land use/land cover classes including built up, barren land, water, and vegetation. The parks amongst total public green spaces were selected based on their signature in remote sensing image and distribution. Percentages of total green and parks green were calculated for each town of Lahore City and results were then synchronized with the recommended standards. ANGSt model was applied to calculate the accessibility from parks. Service area analysis was performed using Network Analyst tool. Serviceability of these parks has been evaluated by employing statistical indices like service area, service population and park area per capita. Findings of the study may contribute in helping the town planners for understanding the distribution of parks, demands for new parks and potential areas which are deprived of parks. The purpose of present study is to provide necessary information to planners, policy makers and scientific researchers in the process of decision making for the management and improvement of urban parks.

Keywords: accessible natural green space standards (ANGSt), geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing (RS), United States geological survey (USGS)

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455 Green Space and Their Possibilities of Enhancing Urban Life in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Ummeh Saika, Toshio Kikuchi

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Population growth and urbanization is a global phenomenon. As the rapid progress of technology, many cities in the international community are facing serious problems of urbanization. There is no doubt that the urbanization will proceed to have significant impact on the ecology, economy and society at local, regional, and global levels. The inhabitants of Dhaka city suffer from lack of proper urban facilities. The green spaces are needed for different functional and leisure activities of the urban dwellers. Again growing densification, a number of green space are transferred into open space in the Dhaka city. As a result greenery of the city's decreases gradually. Moreover, the existing green space is frequently threatened by encroachment. The role of green space, both at community and city level, is important to improve the natural environment and social ties for future generations. Therefore, it seems that the green space needs to be more effective for public interaction. The main objective of this study is to address the effectiveness of urban green space (Urban Park) of Dhaka City. Two approaches are selected to fulfill the study. Firstly, analyze the long-term spatial changes of urban green space using GIS and secondly, investigate the relationship of urban park network with physical and social environment. The case study site covers eight urban parks of Dhaka metropolitan area of Bangladesh. Two aspects (Physical and Social) are applied for this study. For physical aspect, satellite images and aerial photos of different years are used to find out the changes of urban parks. And for social aspect, methods are used as questionnaire survey, interview, observation, photographs, sketch and previous information of parks to analyze about the social environment of parks. After calculation of all data by descriptive statistics, result is shown by maps using GIS. According to physical size, parks of Dhaka city are classified into four types: Small, Medium, Large and Extra Large parks. The observed result showed that the physical and social environment of urban parks varies with their size. In small size parks physical environment is moderate by newly tree plantation and area expansion. However, in medium size parks physical environment are poor, example- tree decrease, exposed soil increase. On the other hand, physical environment of large size and extra large size parks are in good condition, because of plenty of vegetation and well management. Again based on social environment, in small size parks people mainly come from surroundings area and mainly used as waiting place. In medium-size parks, people come to attend various occasion from different places. In large size and extra large size parks, people come from every part of the city area for tourism purpose. Urban parks are important source of green space. Its influence both physical and social environment of urban area. Nowadays green space area gradually decreases and transfer into open space. The consequence of this research reveals that changes of urban parks influence both physical and social environment and also impact on urban life.

Keywords: physical environment, social environment, urban life, urban parks

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454 String as a Design Element: The Work of Students for International Architecture Biennale, Antalya and Lohberg Coal Mine, Germany

Authors: Ayşe Duygu Kaçar

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Industrial regions and buildings that have stopped their primary functions are in the interest of the discipline of architecture in the last decades. The renewal of these spaces of production for different functions is a common aspect for contemporary world countries. Totally different functions can be added to the existing as well, which can help improving the social, cultural and aesthetic character of these beings and sustaining their uniqueness. Therefore, these sites linking the past and future can be used as museums, exhibition centers, art ateliers, city parks, recreational centers, botanic gardens, sculpture parks, theatres, etc. in order to continue their place in the collective memory of the cities. The present paper depicts a way of shedding light on the Cotton Textile Industry (İplik ve Dokuma Fabrikası A.Ş), a local industrial site in Antalya, the most popular tourism center of Turkey, as a part of International Architecture Biennale, 2011 and on Lohberg coal mine, a local industrial site in the Ruhr region of Germany. As a transparent, fragile, temporary and economical material, the string was used as a design element in both experiential architecture works with architecture students and the outcomes will be discussed and presented through the theme 'rejecting / reversing architecture'.

Keywords: industrial sites, the Cotton Textile Industry Antalya, Lohberg coal mine, architectural design, identity

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453 A Case Study on Theme-Based Approach in Health Technology Engineering Education: Customer Oriented Software Applications

Authors: Mikael Soini, Kari Björn

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Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (MUAS) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Degree Programme provides full-time Bachelor-level undergraduate studies. ICT Degree Programme has seven different major options; this paper focuses on Health Technology. In Health Technology, a significant curriculum change in 2014 enabled transition from fragmented curriculum including dozens of courses to a new integrated curriculum built around three 30 ECTS themes. This paper focuses especially on the second theme called Customer Oriented Software Applications. From students’ point of view, the goal of this theme is to get familiar with existing health related ICT solutions and systems, understand business around health technology, recognize social and healthcare operating principles and services, and identify customers and users and their special needs and perspectives. This also acts as a background for health related web application development. Built web application is tested, developed and evaluated with real users utilizing versatile user centred development methods. This paper presents experiences obtained from the first implementation of Customer Oriented Software Applications theme. Student feedback was gathered with two questionnaires, one in the middle of the theme and other at the end of the theme. Questionnaires had qualitative and quantitative parts. Similar questionnaire was implemented in the first theme; this paper evaluates how the theme-based integrated curriculum has progressed in Health Technology major by comparing results between theme 1 and 2. In general, students were satisfied for the implementation, timing and synchronization of the courses, and the amount of work. However there is still room for development. Student feedback and teachers’ observations have been and will be used to develop the content and operating principles of the themes and whole curriculum.

Keywords: engineering education, integrated curriculum, learning and teaching methods, learning experience

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452 Renovation of Industrial Zones in Ho Chi Minh City: An Approach from Changing Function of Processing to Urban Warehousing

Authors: Thu Le Thi Bao

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Industrial parks have both active roles in promoting economic development and source of appearance of boarding houses and slums in the adjacent area, lacking infrastructure, causing many social evils. The context of the recent pandemic and climate change on a global scale pose issues that need to be resolved for sustainable development. Ho Chi Minh City aims to develop housing for migrant workers to stabilize human resources and, at the same time, solve problems of social evils caused by poor living conditions. The paper focuses on the content of renovating existing industrial parks and worker accommodation in Ho Chi Minh City to propose appropriate models, contributing to the goal of urban embellishment and solutions for industrial parks to adapt to abnormal impact conditions such as pandemics, climate change, crises.

Keywords: industrial park, social housing, accommodation, distribution center

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451 Alienation in Somecontemporary Anglo Arab Novels

Authors: Atef Abdallah Abouelmaaty

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The aim of this paper is to study the theme of alienation in some contemporary novels of the most prominent Arab writers who live in Britain and write in English. The paper will focus on three female novelists of Arab origins who won wide fame among reading public, and also won international prizes for their literary creation. The first is the Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif(born in 1950) whose novel The Map of Love(1999) was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize, and has been translated into twenty one languages and sold over a million copies. The second is the Jordanian Fadia Faqir (born in 1956) whose My Name is Salma(2007) was translated into thirteen languages, and was a runner up for the ALOA literary prize. The third is the Sudanese Leila Aboulela(born in 1964) who The Translator was nominated for the Orange Prize and was chosen as a a notable book of the year by the New York Times in 2006. The main reason of choosing the theme of alienation is that it is the qualifying feature of the above mentioned novels. This is because the theme is clearly projected and we can see different kinds of alienation: alienation of man from himself, alienation of man from other men, and alienation of man from society. The paper is concerned with studying this central theme together with its different forms. Moreover, the paper will try to identify the main causes of this alienation among which are frustrated love, the failure to adjust to change, and ethnic pride.

Keywords: alienation, Anglo-Arab, contemporary, novels

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450 Systemic Functional Grammar Analysis of Barack Obama's Second Term Inaugural Speech

Authors: Sadiq Aminu, Ahmed Lamido

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This research studies Barack Obama’s second inaugural speech using Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG). SFG is a text grammar which describes how language is used, so that the meaning of the text can be better understood. The primary source of data in this research work is Barack Obama’s second inaugural speech which was obtained from the internet. The analysis of the speech was based on the ideational and textual metafunctions of Systemic Functional Grammar. Specifically, the researcher analyses the Process Types and Participants (ideational) and the Theme/Rheme (textual). It was found that material process (process of doing) was the most frequently used ‘Process type’ and ‘We’ which refers to the people of America was the frequently used ‘Theme’. Application of the SFG theory, therefore, gives a better meaning to Barack Obama’s speech.

Keywords: ideational, metafunction, rheme, textual, theme

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449 Optimizing Nature Protection and Tourism in Urban Parks

Authors: Milena Lakicevic

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The paper deals with the problem of optimizing management options for urban parks within different scenarios of nature protection and tourism importance. The procedure is demonstrated on a case study example of urban parks in Novi Sad (Serbia). Six management strategies for the selected area have been processed by the decision support method PROMETHEE. Two criteria used for the evaluation were nature protection and tourism and each of them has been divided into a set of indicators: for nature protection those were biodiversity and preservation of original landscape, while for tourism those were recreation potential, aesthetic values, accessibility and culture features. It was pre-assumed that each indicator in a set is equally important to a corresponding criterion. This way, the research was focused on a sensitivity analysis of criteria weights. In other words, weights of indicators were fixed and weights of criteria altered along the entire scale (from the value of 0 to the value of 1), and the assessment has been performed in two-dimensional surrounding. As a result, one could conclude which management strategy would be the most appropriate along with changing of criteria importance. The final ranking of management alternatives was followed up by investigating the mean PROMETHEE Φ values for all options considered and when altering the importance of nature protection/tourism. This type of analysis enabled detecting an alternative with a solid performance along the entire scale, i.e., regardlessly of criteria importance. That management strategy can be seen as a compromise solution when the weight of criteria is not defined. As a conclusion, it can be said that, in some cases, instead of having criteria importance fixed it is important to test the outputs depending on the different schemes of criteria weighting. The research demonstrates the state of the final decision when the decision maker can estimate criteria importance, but also in cases when the importance of criteria is not established or known.

Keywords: criteria weights, PROMETHEE, sensitivity analysis, urban parks

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448 The Singapore Innovation Web and Facilitation of Knowledge Processes

Authors: Ola Jon Mork, Irina Emily Hansen

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The European Growth Strategy Program calls for more efficient methods for knowledge creation and innovation. This study contributes with new insights into the Singapore Innovation System; more precisely how knowledge processes are facilitated. The research material is collected by visiting the different innovation locations in Singapore and depth interview with key persons. The different innovation actors web sites and brochures have been studied. Governmental reports and figures have also been studied. The findings show that facilitation of Knowledge Processes in the Singapore Innovation System has a basic structure with three processes, which is 1) Idea capturing – 2)Technology and Business Execution – 3)Idea Realization. Dedicated innovation parks work with the most promising entrepreneurs; more precisely: finding the persons with the motivation to 'change the world'. The innovation park will facilitate these entrepreneurs for 100 days, where they also will be connected to a global network of venture capital. And, the entrepreneurs will have access to mentors from these venture companies. Research institutes parks work with the development of world leading technology. To facilitate knowledge development they connect with industrial companies which are the most promising applicators of their technology. Knowledge facilitation is the main purpose, but this cooperation/testing is also serving as a platform for funding. Probably this is cooperation is also attractive for world leading companies. Dedicated innovation parks work with facilitation of innovators of new applications and perfection of products for the end- user. These parks can be specialized in special areas, like health products and life science products. Another example of this is automotive companies giving research call for these parks to develop and innovate new products and services upon their technology. Common characteristics for the knowledge facilitation in the Singapore Innovation System are a short trial period for promising actors, normally 100 days. It is also a strong focus on training of the entrepreneurs. Presentations and diffusion of knowledge is an important part of the facilitation. Funding will be available for the most successful entrepreneurs and innovators.

Keywords: knowledge processes, facilitation, innovation, Singapore innovation web

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447 Research on the Evaluation and Delineation of Value Units of New Industrial Parks Based on Implementation-Orientation

Authors: Chengfang Wang, Zichao Wu, Jianying Zhou

Abstract:

At present, much attention is paid to the development of new industrial parks in the era of inventory planning. Generally speaking, there are two types of development models: incremental development models and stock development models. The former relies on key projects to build a value innovation park, and the latter relies on the iterative update of the park to build a value innovation park. Take the Baiyun Western Digital Park as an example, considering the growth model of value units, determine the evaluation target. Based on a GIS platform, comprehensive land-use status, regulatory detailed planning, land use planning, blue-green ecological base, rail transit system, road network system, industrial park distribution, public service facilities, and other factors are used to carry out the land use within the planning multi-factor superimposed comprehensive evaluation, constructing a value unit evaluation system, and delineating value units based on implementation orientation and combining two different development models. The research hopes to provide a reference for the planning and construction of new domestic industrial parks.

Keywords: value units, GIS, multi-factor evaluation, implementation orientation

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446 Determinants of Income Diversification among Support Zone Communities of National Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Daniel Etim Jacob, Samuel Onadeko, Edem A. Eniang, Imaobong Ufot Nelson

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This paper examined determinants of income diversification among households in support zones communities of national parks in Nigeria. This involved the use household data collected through questionnaires administered randomly among 1009 household heads in the study area. The data obtained were analyzed using probability and non-probability statistical analysis such as regression and analysis of variance to test for mean difference between parks. The result obtained indicates that majority of the household heads were male (92.57%0, between the age class of 21 – 40 years (44.90%), had non-formal education (38.16%), were farmers (65.21%), owned land (95.44%), with a household size of 1 – 5 (36.67%) and an annual income range of ₦401,000 - ₦600,000 (24.58%). Mean Simpson index of diversity showed a general low (0.375) level of income diversification among the households. Income, age, off-farm dependence, education, household size and occupation where significant (p<0.01) factors that affected households’ income diversification. The study recommends improvement in the existing infrastructures and social capital in the communities as avenues to improve the livelihood and ensure positive conservation behaviors in the study area.

Keywords: income diversification, protected area, livelihood, poverty, Nigeria

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445 A Study on the Current Challenges Hindering Urban Park Development in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia

Authors: Bayarmaa Enkhbold, Kenichi Matsui

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Urban parks are important assets to every community in terms of providing space for health, cultural and leisure activities. However, Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, faces a shortage of green spaces, particularly urban parks, due to overpopulation and haphazard growth. Therefore, in order to increase green space per person, the city government has planned to increase green space per person up to 20m² by 2020 and 30m² by 2030 by establishing more urban parks throughout the city. But this plan was estimated that it is highly unlikely to reach those goals according to the analysis of the present status of plan implementation because the current amount of green space per person is still 4m². In the past studies globally, city planners and scientists agree that it is highly improbable to develop urban parks and keep maintenance sustainably without reflecting community perceptions and their involvement in the park establishment. Therefore, this research aims to find the challenges which stymie urban park development in Ulaanbaatar city and recommend dealing with the problems. In order to reach the goal, communities’ perceptions about the current challenges and their necessity for urban parks were identified and determined whether they differentiated depending on two different types of residential areas (urban and suburban areas). It also attempted to investigate international good practices on how they deal with similar problems. The research methodology was based on a questionnaire survey among city residents, a document review regarding the involvement of stakeholders, and a literature review of relevant past studies. According to the residents’ perceptions, the biggest challenge was a lack of land availability and followed by a lack of proper policy, planning, management, and maintenance out of seven key challenges identified. The biggest community demand from the urban park was a playground for children and followed by recreation and relaxation out of six types of needs. Based on research findings, the study proposed several recommendations for enhancements as institutional and legal framework, park plan and management, supportive environment and monitoring, evaluation, and reporting.

Keywords: challenges of urban park planning and maintenance, community-based urban park establishment, community perceptions and participation, urban parks in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

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444 Evaluating the Service Quality and Customers’ Satisfaction for Lihpaoland in Taiwan

Authors: Wan-Yu Liu, Tiffany April Lin, Yu-Chieh Tang, Yi-Lin Wang, Chieh-Hui Li

Abstract:

As the national income in Taiwan has been raised, the life style of the public has also been changed, so that the tourism industry gradually moves from a service industry to an experience economy. The Lihpaoland is one of the most popular theme parks in Taiwan. However, the related works on performance of service quality of the park have been lacking since its re-operation in 2012. Therefore, this study investigates the quality of software/hardware facilities and services of the Lihpaoland, and aims to achieve the following three goals: 1) analyzing how various sample data of tourists leads to different results for service quality of LihpaoLand; 2) analyzing how tourists respond to the service tangibility, service reliability, service responsiveness, service guarantee, and service empathy of LihpaoLand; 3) according to the theoretical and empirical results, proposing how to improve the overall facilities and services of LihpaoLand, and hoping to provide suggestions to the LihpaoLand or other related businesses to make decision. The survey was conducted on the tourists to the LihpaoLand using convenience sampling, and 400 questionnaires were collected successfully. Analysis results show that tourists paid much attention to maintenance of amusement facilities and safety of the park, and were satisfied with them, which are great advantages of the park. However, transportation around the LihpaoLand was inadequate, and the price of the Fullon hotel (which is the hotel closest to the LihpaoLand) were not accepted by tourists – more promotion events are recommended. Additionally, the shows are not diversified, and should be improved with the highest priority. Tourists did not pay attention to service personnel’s clothing and the ticket price, but they were not satisfied with them. Hence, this study recommends to design more distinctive costumes and conduct ticket promotions. Accordingly, the suggestions made in this study for LihpaoLand are stated as follows: 1) Diversified amusement facilities should be provided to satisfy the needs at different ages. 2) Cheep but tasty catering and more distinctive souvenirs should be offered. 3) Diversified propaganda schemes should be strengthened to increase number of tourists. 4) Quality and professional of the service staff should be enhanced to acquire public praise and tourists revisiting. 5) Ticket promotions in peak seasons, low seasons, and special events should be conducted. 6) Proper traffic flows should be planned and combined with technologies to reduce waiting time of tourists. 7) The features of theme landscape in LihpaoLand should be strengthened to increase willingness of the tourists with special preferences to visit the park. 8) Ticket discounts or premier points card promotions should be adopted to reward the tourists with high loyalty.

Keywords: service quality, customers’ satisfaction, theme park, Taiwan

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443 Modeling Jordan University of Science and Technology Parking Using Arena Program

Authors: T. Qasim, M. Alqawasmi, M. Hawash, M. Betar, W. Qasim

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Over the last decade, the over population that has happened in urban areas has been reflecting on the services that various local institutions provide to car users in the form of car parks, which is becoming a daily necessity in our lives. This study focuses on car parks at Jordan University of Science and Technology, in Irbid, Jordan, to understand the university parking needs. Data regarding arrival and departure times of cars and the parking utilization were collected, to find various options that the university can implement to solve and develop an efficient car parking system. Arena software was used to simulate a parking model. This model allows measuring the different solutions that solve the parking problem at Jordan University of Science and Technology.

Keywords: car park, simulation, modeling, service time

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442 Examination of Woody Taxa in Urban Parks in the Context of Climate Change: Resat Oyal Kulturpark and Hudavendigar Urban Park Samples

Authors: Murat Zencirkıran, Elvan Ender

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Climate change, which has become effective on a global scale, is accompanied by an increase in negative conditions for human, plant and animal life. Especially these negative conditions (drought, warming, glowing, etc.) are felt more rapidly in urban life and affect the sustainability of green areas which are of great importance in terms of life comfort. In this context, the choice of woody taxa used in the design and design of green spaces in the city increase one more time. Within the scope of this study, two of four urban parks located in the city center of Bursa province were selected and evaluated for woody taxa. Urban parks have been identified as the oldest and newest urban park in Bursa, and it has been tried to emphasize the differences that may exist over time. It was determined that 54 woody taxa took place in Resat Oyal Kulturpark and 76 woody taxa in Hudavendigar Urban Park. These taxa have been evaluated in terms of water consumption and ecological tolerances by taking into account climate change, and suggestions have been developed against possible problems.

Keywords: ecological hardiness, urban park, water consumption, woody plants

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441 Prime Ministers of Malaysia Musicals: Political Performances Trend in Istana Budaya (2007-2012)

Authors: Abdul Walid Ali

Abstract:

The trend of publishing political musicals in Istana Budaya has been popular since 2007 when Malaysia celebrated its 50th anniversary of independence. Istana Budaya has at least one musical of any politician since then. Normally, the politicians are former Prime Ministers and renowned ministers prior to Malaysia's independence in 1957. The first performance in Istana Budaya which represented a politician as a theme was Muzikal Cheng Lock (2007) followed by Muzikal Tun Abdul Razak (2009), Muzikal Tun Mahathir (2010), and Muzikal Tun Mahathir 2 (2011). In 2012, Lawak Ke Der has changed the trend with comic performance and put an end to politician musical. Tun Siti Hasmah the Musical (2012) is not listed in the research because she did not hold any position as a minister. This qualitative research focuses on musicals of political figures as a theme. Some factors of making this type of performance are analyzed based on Istana Budaya’s decisions during that time in Malaysia between 2007 and 2011. This research aims to document these musical themed performances in Istana Budaya for further research in the future. Political performances are listed and analyzed from 2007 to 2012 based on reports and previous research. The declination of audiences in 2012 and a new theme in theatre performances in Istana Budaya are important factors for the downfall of the political theatres' theme.

Keywords: musical, politician, Istana Budaya, theatre

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440 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

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Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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