Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: arching

12 Soil Arching Effect in Columnar Embankments: A Numerical Study

Authors: Riya Roy, Anjana Bhasi

Abstract:

Column-supported embankments provide a practical and efficient solution for construction on soft soil due to the low cost and short construction times. In the recent years, geosynthetic have been used in combination with column systems to support embankments. The load transfer mechanism in these systems is a combination of soil arching effect, which occurs between columns and membrane effect of the geosynthetic. This paper aims at the study of soil arching effect on columnar embankments using finite element software, ABAQUS. An axisymmetric finite element model is generated and using this model, parametric studies are carried out. Thus the effects of various factors such as height of embankment fill, elastic modulus of pile and tensile stiffness of geosynthetic, on soil arching have been studied. The development of negative skin friction along the pile-soil interface have also been studied and the results obtained from this study are compared with the current design methods.

Keywords: ABAQUS, geosynthetic, negative skin friction, soil arching

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11 Plane of Equal Settlement above HDD’s Borehole before Operational Condition

Authors: Shokoufeh Sadeghifard

Abstract:

This study is a review of the nature of soil arching that develops in the upper layer of soil during drilling processes before pulling product pipe inside the hole. This study is based on the results of some parametric studies which are investigating the behavior of drained sandy soil above HDD borehole using Plaxis finite element solution. The influence of drilling mud injection in these series of analyses has been ignored. However, a suitable drilling mud pressure helps to achieve stable arch when the height of soil cover over the drilling borehole is not enough. In this study, the soil response to the formation of a HDD borehole is compared to arching theory developed by Terzaghi (1943). It is found that Terzaghi’s approach is capable of describing all of the behaviour seen when a stable arch forms. According to the numerical results, a suitable safe depth of 4D, D is borehole diameter, is suggested for typical range of HDD borehole in sandy soil.

Keywords: HDD, Plaxis, finite element, arching, settlement, drilling

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10 A Solution to Analyze the Geosynthetic Reinforced Piled Embankments Considering Pile-Soil Interaction

Authors: Feicheng Liu, Weiming Liao, Jianjing Zhang

Abstract:

A pile-supported embankment with geosynthetic-reinforced mat (PSGR embankment) has been considered as an effective solution to reduce the total and differential settlement of the embankment constructed over soft soil. In this paper, a new simplified method proposed firstly incorporates the load transfer between piles and surrounding soil and the settlement of pile, and also considers arching effect in embankment fill, membrane effect of geosynthetic reinforcement, and subsoil resistance, to evaluate the behavior of PSGR embankment. Subsoil settlement is assumed to consist of two parts:(1) the settlement of subsoil surface between piles equivalent to that of pile caps assuming the geosynthetic reinforcement without deformation yet; (2) the subsoil subsiding along with the geosynthetic deforming, and the deflected geosynthetic being considered as centenary. The force equilibrium, including loads acting on the upper surface of geosynthetic, subsoil resistance, as well as the stress-strain relationship of the geosynthetic reinforcement at the edge of pile cap, is established, thus the expression of subsoil resistance is deduced, and subsequently the tension of geosynthetic and stress concentration ratio between piles can be calculated. The proposed method is validated through observed data from three field tests and also compared with other eight analytical solutions available in the literature. In addition, a sensitive analysis is provided to demonstrate the influence of with/without considering pile-soil interaction for evaluating the performance of PSGR embankment.

Keywords: pile-supported embankment, geosynthetic, analytical solution, soil arching effect, the settlement of pile, sensitive analysis

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9 Analysis of the Occurrence of Hydraulic Fracture Phenomena in Roudbar Lorestan Dam

Authors: Masoud Ghaemi, MohammadJafar Hedayati, Faezeh Yousefzadeh, Hoseinali Heydarzadeh

Abstract:

According to the statistics of the International Committee on Large Dams, internal erosion and piping (scour) are major causes of the destruction of earth-fill dams. If such dams are constructed in narrow valleys, the valley walls will increase the arching of the dam body due to the transfer of vertical and horizontal stresses, so the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing in these embankments is more likely. Roudbar Dam in Lorestan is a clay-core pebble earth-fill dam constructed in a relatively narrow valley in western Iran. Three years after the onset of impoundment, there has been a fall in dam behavior. Evaluation of the dam behavior based on the data recorded on the instruments installed inside the dam body and foundation confirms the occurrence of internal erosion in the lower and adjacent parts of the core on the left support (abutment). The phenomenon of hydraulic fracturing is one of the main causes of the onset of internal erosion in this dam. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis. To evaluate the validity of this hypothesis, the dam behavior during construction and impoundment has been first simulated with a three-dimensional numerical model. Then, using validated empirical equations, the safety factor of the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing phenomenon upstream of the dam score was calculated. Then, using the artificial neural network, the failure time of the given section was predicted based on the maximum stress trend created. The study results show that steep slopes of valley walls, sudden changes in coefficient, and differences in compressibility properties of dam body materials have caused considerable stress transfer from core to adjacent valley walls, especially at its lower levels. This has resulted in the coefficient of confidence of the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing in each of these areas being close to one in each of the empirical equations used.

Keywords: arching, artificial neural network, FLAC3D, hydraulic fracturing, internal erosion, pore water pressure

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8 A Lost Tradition: Reflections towards Select Tribal Songs of Odisha

Authors: Akshaya K. Rath, Manjit Mahanta

Abstract:

The paper aims at examining the oral tradition of the Kondh and Oroan people of Odisha. Highlighting the translated versions of Kondh and Oroan songs—chiefly highlighting issues on agriculture—we argue that the relevance of these songs have fallen apart in the recent decades with the advancement of modern knowledge and thinking. What remains instead is a faint voice in the oral tradition that sings the past indigenous knowledge in the form of oral literature. Though there have been few attempts to document the rich cultural tradition by some individuals—Sitakant Mahapatra’s can be cited as an example—the need to document the tradition remains ever arching. In short, the thesis examines Kondh and Oroan “songs” and argues for a need to document the tradition. It also shows a comparative study on both the tribes on Agriculture which shows their cultural identity and a diversification of both the tribes in nature and how these tribal groups are associated with nature and the cycle of it.

Keywords: oral tradition, Meriah, folklore, karma, Oroan

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7 Welfare beyond the State: a Conceptual Discursive of an ‘Ihsani’ Societal-Based Welfare

Authors: Maszlee Malik

Abstract:

If the contemporary notion of welfare arises from the horizontal material needs and to be structured by the vertical framework of the state, Islamic societal-based welfare is to be shaped by moral based and faith inspired ihsan (benevolence) culture in producing the ‘Ihsani’ version of the enhancement of the political participation, democratic culture, good governance and self-realisation, which eventually culminating towards the bigger picture of ‘development’. This paper will analytically investigate on how the over-arching principle of ‘ihsan’ could be an essential tool in harmonizing the social-based welfare instrument as another conceptual framework to formulate a conceptual approach towards development and poverty elevation beyond the state. Essentially, this research will employ the inductive method of exploration on Islamic epistemological sources and historical evidence, to formulate the discursive concept of non-state societal-based welfare based on the ‘ihsani’ framework.

Keywords: benevolent society, development, Hisbah, HomoIslamicus, Ihsani, islamic epistemology, state, social capital, societal-based welfare, zakat

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6 An Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of Lubricants in Reducing the Sidewall Friction

Authors: Jian Zheng, Li Li, Maxime Daviault

Abstract:

In several cases, one needs apply lubrication materials in laboratory tests to reduce the friction (shear strength) along the interfaces between a tested soil and the side walls of container. Several types of lubricants are available. Their effectiveness had been tested mostly through direct shear tests. These testing conditions are quite different than those when the tested soil is placed in the container. Thus, the shear strengths measured from direct shear tests may not be totally representative of those of interfaces between the tested soil and the sidewalls of container. In this paper, the effectiveness of different lubricants used to reduce the friction (shear strength) of soil-structure interfaces has been studied. Results show that the selected lubricants do not significantly reduce the sidewall friction (shear strength). Rather, the application of wax, graphite, grease or lubricant oil has effect to increase the sidewall shear strength due probably to the high viscosity of such materials. Subsequently, the application of lubricants between tested soil and sidewall and neglecting the friction (shear strength) along the sidewalls may lead to inaccurate test results.

Keywords: arching, friction, laboratory tests, lubricants

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5 The Role of Gender in English Language Acquisition for Chinese Medical Students

Authors: Christopher Celozzi, Sarah Kochav

Abstract:

Our research investigates the numerous challenges faced by Chinese ESL university students enrolled in the medical and related healthcare professional fields. The over-arching research question is how gender influences classroom participation and learning. The second research question addressed is 'what instructional strategies may be utilized to promote student participation and language acquisition?'. Participants’ language ability has been assessed and evaluated in order to facilitate the establishment of a statistical baseline for the subsequent intervention. This research delves deeper into each individual’s personal and academic circumstances, in an effort to reveal any held intrinsic gender beliefs and social identities that may influence learning. Also considered is the impact on learning for a homogenized student population within a uniform, highly structured learning environment. Specially, what is the influence of China’s ‘one-child policy’ on individual learning habits? The impact of their millennial identity and reliance on social media is also examined. A qualitative methodology with a case study approach is employed, with interviews conducted among the participants. Student response to the intervention and selected remediation strategies are documented, analyzed and discussed. The findings of the study may serve to inform educator instructional practice, while advancing the student learner in their pursuit of English competency in highly competitive professions.

Keywords: Chinese students, gender, English, language acquisition

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4 Dielectric Response Analysis Measurement for Diagnostic Oil-Paper Insulation System on Aged Inter Bus Transformer 3x10 MVA

Authors: Eki Farlen, Akas

Abstract:

Condition assessment of oil-paper-insulated power transformers, particularly of water content, is becoming increasingly important for aged transformers. As insulation ages, it can produce water, which reduces its dielectric strength, accelerates the cellulose ageing process, and causes gas bubbles to form at high temperatures. This paper mainly assesses the life condition of oil-paper insulation system of Inter Bus Transformer (IBT) 30 MVA, 150/30 kV in PT PLN-Substation Jelok that has been operating for 41 years, since 1974. Valuable information about the condition of high voltage insulation may be obtained by measuring its dielectric response. This paper describes in detail the interpretation of Dielectric Response Analysis (DIRANA) measurements and the test result compared to other insulation tests to get deep information for diagnostic, such as Tan delta test, oil characteristic test and Dissolve Gas Analysis (DGA) test. This paper mainly discusses the parameter relationship between moisture content, water content, acidity, oil conductivity and dissipation factor. The result and analysis show that IBT 30 MVA Jelok phase U and W had just been ageing due to high acidity level (>0.2 mgKOH/g) which cause high moisture in cellulose/paper (%) are in wet category about 4.7% and 5% and water content in oil (ppm) about 3.13 ppm and 3.33 ppm at temperature 20°C. High acidity level can make oxidation process and produce water in paper and particle which can decrease the value of Interfacial Tension (IFT) below 22 mN/m (poor category) for both phase U and W. Even if paper insulation of transformer are in wet condition, dissipation factor and capacitance at the same frequency (50 Hz) from both measurement DIRANA test and Tangent delta test give the same result (almost), the results are 0.69% and 0.71% (<1%), it may be acceptable and should not be investigated. The DGA results show that TDCG are in level one (1) condition and there are no found a Key Gases, it means that transformers had no failure during operation like arching, partial discharge and thermal in oil or cellulose.

Keywords: diagnostic, inter-bus transformer, oil-paper insulation, moisture, dissipation factor

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3 Potential Contribution of Local Food Resources towards Sustainable Food Tourism in Nueva Vizcaya

Authors: Marvin Eslava

Abstract:

The over-arching aim of this research is to determine the potential contribution of local food resources to the tourism growth of Nueva Vizcaya. It reviews some of the underpinning concepts and to provide a set of considerations for stakeholders to maximize the opportunity of local food can offer to businesses and the wider community. The basis of the study is to develop a sustainable food tourism model for Nueva Vizcaya. For the purpose of this research, there were 60 total numbers of respondents classified as samples from a six municipality. The respondents of the study were stakeholder consisting of government official, local producers, businessman and Non-government organizations in the selected municipalities of Nueva Vizcaya. Stratified purposive sampling was the appropriate technique that was used to the local government officials and employees, NGOs including the businessmen who are associated with local food resources and local producers. The documentary study, focus group discussion and survey questionnaire was used in order to meet the objectives of the study. Kruskall Wallis test was used to test the variances the ratings of the participants. This was used in the computation of hypothesis. The study concluded that the province of Nueva Vizcaya is blessed for its rich farmlands and fertile mountain soil boasts to produce high quality agricultural products. It is a home of various different indigenous groups creating a wide range of local cuisine. The province has substantial local food development evidence by the various food tourism related resources, increase in facilities and celebrating food tourism related events. The local food resources provide extensive potential economic empowerment and help in building the identity of the province. In addition, the local food resources extensively enhance the agriculture sector and other attractions in the province. Finally, it helps to preserve the authenticity of the food culture and generated pride among all stakeholders extensively. All stakeholders have the same perception on the potential contribution of local food resources to the development of the province of Nueva Vizcaya. The public and private sectors are cognizant on their roles to support the production of local food resources in Nueva Vizcaya. Major challenges and barriers in the development of sustainable food tourism in Nueva Vizcaya include production or supply and marketing.

Keywords: local food resources, contribution, food tourism, benefits

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2 Creativity and Innovation in Postgraduate Supervision

Authors: Rajendra Chetty

Abstract:

The paper aims to address two aspects of postgraduate studies: interdisciplinary research and creative models of supervision. Interdisciplinary research can be viewed as a key imperative to solve complex problems. While excellent research requires a context of disciplinary strength, the cutting edge is often found at the intersection between disciplines. Interdisciplinary research foregrounds a team approach and information, methodologies, designs, and theories from different disciplines are integrated to advance fundamental understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single discipline. Our aim should also be to generate research that transcends the original disciplines i.e. transdisciplinary research. Complexity is characteristic of the knowledge economy, hence, postgraduate research and engaged scholarship should be viewed by universities as primary vehicles through which knowledge can be generated to have a meaningful impact on society. There are far too many ‘ordinary’ studies that fall into the realm of credentialism and certification as opposed to significant studies that generate new knowledge and provide a trajectory for further academic discourse. Secondly, the paper will look at models of supervision that are different to the dominant ‘apprentice’ or individual approach. A reflective practitioner approach would be used to discuss a range of supervision models that resonate well with the principles of interdisciplinarity, growth in the postgraduate sector and a commitment to engaged scholarship. The global demand for postgraduate education has resulted in increased intake and new demands to limited supervision capacity at institutions. Team supervision lodged within large-scale research projects, working with a cohort of students within a research theme, the journal article route of doctoral studies and the professional PhD are some of the models that provide an alternative to the traditional approach. International cooperation should be encouraged in the production of high-impact research and institutions should be committed to stimulating international linkages which would result in co-supervision and mobility of postgraduate students and global significance of postgraduate research. International linkages are also valuable in increasing the capacity for supervision at new and developing universities. Innovative co-supervision and joint-degree options with global partners should be explored within strategic planning for innovative postgraduate programmes. Co-supervision of PhD students is probably the strongest driver (besides funding) for collaborative research as it provides the glue of shared interest, advantage and commitment between supervisors. The students’ field serves and informs the co-supervisors own research agendas and helps to shape over-arching research themes through shared research findings.

Keywords: interdisciplinarity, internationalisation, postgraduate, supervision

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1 The Lifecycle of a Heritage Language: A Comparative Case Study of Volga German Descendants in North America

Authors: Ashleigh Dawn Moeller

Abstract:

This is a comparative case study which examines the language attitudes and behaviors of descendants of Volga German immigrants in North America and how these attitudes combined with surrounding social conditions have caused their heritage language to develop differently within each community. Of particular interest for this study are the accounts of second- and third-generation descendants in Oregon, Kansas, and North Dakota regarding their parents’ and grandparents’ attitudes toward their language and how this correlates with the current sentiment as well as visibility of their heritage language and culture. This study discusses the point at which cultural identity could diverge from language identity and what elements play a role in this development, establishing the potential for environments (linguistic landscapes) which uphold their heritage yet have detached from the language itself. Emigrating from Germany in the 1700s, these families settled for over a hundred years along the Volga Region of Imperial Russia. Subsequently, many descendants of these settlers immigrated to the Americas in the 1800-1900s. Identifying neither as German nor Russian, they called themselves Wolgadeutche (Volga Germans). During their time in Russia, the German language was maintained relatively homogenously, yet the use and status of their heritage language diverged considerably upon settlement across the Americas. Data shows that specific conditions, such as community isolation, size, religion, location as well as language policy established prior to and following the Volga German immigration to North America have had a substantial impact on the maintenance of their heritage language—causing complete loss in some areas and peripheral use or even full rebirth in others. These past conditions combined with the family accounts correlate directly with the general attitudes and ideologies of the descendants toward their heritage language. Data also shows that in many locations, despite a strong presence of German within the linguistic landscape, minimal to no German is spoken nor understood; the attitude toward the language is indifferent while a staunch holding to the heritage is maintained and boasted. Data for this study was gathered from historical accounts, archived records and newspapers, and published biographies as well as from formal interviews with second- and third-generation descendants of Volga German immigrants conducted in Oregon and Kansas. Through the interviews, members of the community have shared and provided their family genealogies as well as biographies published by family members. These have helped to trace their relatives back to specific locations, thus allowing for comparisons within the same families residing in distinctly different areas of North America. This study is part of a larger ongoing project which researches the immigration of Volga and Black Sea Germans to North America and diachronically examines the over-arching sociological factors which have directly impacted the maintenance, loss, or rebirth of their heritage language. This project follows specific families who settled in areas of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Illinois, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and who later had relatives move west to areas of Oregon and Washington State. Interviews for the larger project will continue into the following year.

Keywords: heritage language, immigrant language, language change, language contact, linguistic landscape, Volga Germans, Wolgadeutsche

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