Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3945

Search results for: individual share

3945 Share Pledging and Financial Constraints in China

Authors: Zijian Cheng, Frank Liu, Yupu Sun

Abstract:

The relationship between the intensity of share pledging activities and the level of financial constraint in publicly listed firms in China is examined in this paper. Empirical results show that the high financial constraint level may motivate insiders to use share pledging as an alternative funding source and an expropriation mechanism. Share collateralization can cause a subsequently more constrained financing condition. Evidence is found that share pledging made by the controlling shareholder is likely to mitigate financial constraints in the following year. Research findings are robust to alternative measures and an instrumental variable for dealing with endogeneity problems.

Keywords: share pledge, financial constraint, controlling shareholder, dividend policy

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3944 International Financial Reporting Standard Adoption and Value Relevance of Earnings in Listed Consumer Goods Companies in Nigerian

Authors: Muktar Haruna

Abstract:

This research work examines the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) adoption and value relevance of earnings of listed consumer goods companies in the Nigerian. The population of the study comprises 22 listed consumer goods companies, out of which 15 were selected as sample size of the study. The scope of the study is a 12-year period covering from 2006 to 2018. Secondary data from the annual report of sampled companies were used, which consists of earnings per share (EPS), the book value of equity per share (BVE) as independent variables; firm size (FSZ) as a control variable, and market share price of sampled companies from Nigerian stock exchange as dependent variable. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The results of the study showed that IFRS did not improve the value relevance of earnings after the adoption, which translates to a decrease in value relevance of accounting numbers in the post-adoption period. The major recommendation is that the Nigerian Reporting Council should ensure full compliance to all provisions of IFRS and provide uniformity in the presentation of non-current assets in the statement of financial position, where some present only net current assets leaving individual figures for current assets and liabilities invisible.

Keywords: IFRS, adoption, value relevance, earning per share, book value of equity per share

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3943 Split-Share Structure Reform and Statutory Audit Fees in China

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Wang

Abstract:

The split-share structure reform in China represents one of the most significant milestones in the evolution of the capital market. With the goal of converting non-tradable shares into tradable shares, the reform laid the foundation and supported the development of full-scale privatization. This study explores China’s split-share structure reform and its impact on statutory audit fees. This study finds that auditors earn a significant statutory audit fee premium after the split-share structure reform. The Big 4 auditors who provide better audit quality receive higher statutory audit fee premium than non-Big 4 auditors after the share reform, which is attributable to their brand reputation, rather than the relative market dominance.

Keywords: chinese split-share structure reform, statutory audit fees, big-4 auditors, corporate governance

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3942 Graphical Theoretical Construction of Discrete time Share Price Paths from Matroid

Authors: Min Wang, Sergey Utev

Abstract:

The lessons from the 2007-09 global financial crisis have driven scientific research, which considers the design of new methodologies and financial models in the global market. The quantum mechanics approach was introduced in the unpredictable stock market modeling. One famous quantum tool is Feynman path integral method, which was used to model insurance risk by Tamturk and Utev and adapted to formalize the path-dependent option pricing by Hao and Utev. The research is based on the path-dependent calculation method, which is motivated by the Feynman path integral method. The path calculation can be studied in two ways, one way is to label, and the other is computational. Labeling is a part of the representation of objects, and generating functions can provide many different ways of representing share price paths. In this paper, the recent works on graphical theoretical construction of individual share price path via matroid is presented. Firstly, a study is done on the knowledge of matroid, relationship between lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials and ways to connect points in the lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials is suggested. Secondly, It is found that a general binary tree can be validly constructed from a connected lattice path matroid rather than general lattice path matroid. Lastly, it is suggested that there is a way to represent share price paths via a general binary tree, and an algorithm is developed to construct share price paths from general binary trees. A relationship is also provided between lattice integer points and Tutte polynomials of a transversal matroid. Use this way of connection together with the algorithm, a share price path can be constructed from a given connected lattice path matroid.

Keywords: combinatorial construction, graphical representation, matroid, path calculation, share price, Tutte polynomial

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3941 How to Reach Net Zero Emissions? On the Permissibility of Negative Emission Technologies and the Danger of Moral Hazards

Authors: Hanna Schübel, Ivo Wallimann-Helmer

Abstract:

In order to reach the goal of the Paris Agreement to not overshoot 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, various countries including the UK and Switzerland have committed themselves to net zero emissions by 2050. The employment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is very likely going to be necessary for meeting these national objectives as well as other internationally agreed climate targets. NETs are methods of removing carbon from the atmosphere and are thus a means for addressing climate change. They range from afforestation to technological measures such as direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCS), where CO2 is captured from the air and stored underground. As all so-called geoengineering technologies, the development and deployment of NETs are often subject to moral hazard arguments. As these technologies could be perceived as an alternative to mitigation efforts, so the argument goes, they are potentially a dangerous distraction from the main target of mitigating emissions. We think that this is a dangerous argument to make as it may hinder the development of NETs which are an essential element of net zero emission targets. In this paper we argue that the moral hazard argument is only problematic if we do not reflect upon which levels of emissions are at stake in order to meet net zero emissions. In response to the moral hazard argument we develop an account of which levels of emissions in given societies should be mitigated and not be the target of NETs and which levels of emissions can legitimately be a target of NETs. For this purpose, we define four different levels of emissions: the current level of individual emissions, the level individuals emit in order to appear in public without shame, the level of a fair share of individual emissions in the global budget, and finally the baseline of net zero emissions. At each level of emissions there are different subjects to be assigned responsibilities if societies and/or individuals are committed to the target of net zero emissions. We argue that all emissions within one’s fair share do not demand individual mitigation efforts. The same holds with regard to individuals and the baseline level of emissions necessary to appear in public in their societies without shame. Individuals are only under duty to reduce their emissions if they exceed this baseline level. This is different for whole societies. Societies demanding more emissions to appear in public without shame than the individual fair share are under duty to foster emission reductions and are not legitimate to reduce by introducing NETs. NETs are legitimate for reducing emissions only below the level of fair shares and for reaching net zero emissions. Since access to NETs to achieve net zero emissions demands technology not affordable to individuals there are also no full individual responsibilities to achieve net zero emissions. This is mainly a responsibility of societies as a whole.

Keywords: climate change, mitigation, moral hazard, negative emission technologies, responsibility

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3940 A Comparative Study of Dividend Policy and Share Price across the South Asian Countries

Authors: Anwar Hussain, Ahmed Imran, Farida Faisal, Fatima Sultana

Abstract:

The present research evaluates a comparative assessment of dividend policy and share price across the South Asian countries including Pakistan, India and Sri-Lanka over the period of 2010 to 2014. Academic writers found that dividend policy and share price relationship is not same in south Asian market due to different reasons. Moreover, Panel Models used = for the evaluation of current study. In addition, Redundant fixed effect Likelihood and Hausman test used for determine of Common, Fixed and Random effect model. Therefore Indian market dividend policies play a fundamental role and significant impact on Market Share Prices. Although, present research found that different as compared to previous study that dividend policy have no impact on share price in Sri-Lanka and Pakistan.

Keywords: dividend policy, share price, South Asian countries, panel data analysis, theories and parameters of dividend

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3939 Investors' Ratio Analysis and the Profitability of Listed Firms: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Abisola Akinola, Akinsulere Femi

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The stock market has continually been a source of economic development in most developing countries. This study examined the relationship between investors’ ratio analysis and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria using secondary data obtained from the annual reports of forty-two (42) companies. The study employed the multiple regression technique to analyze the relationship between investors’ ratio analysis (measured by dividend per share and earning per share) and profitability (measured by the return on equity). The results from the analysis show that investors’ ratio analysis, when measured by earnings per share, have a positive and significant impact on profitability. However, the study noted that investors’ ratio analysis, when measured by dividend per share, tend to have a positive impact on profitability but it is statistically insignificant. By implication, investors and other stakeholders that are interested in investing in stocks can predict the earning capacity of listed firms in the stock market.

Keywords: dividend per share, earnings per share, profitability, return on equity

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3938 Identifying Families in C-SPAN’s: U.S. Presidential Ratings: 2000, 2009, and 2017

Authors: Alexander Cramer, Kenneth Cramer

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Since the inauguration of President George Washington in 1789, the United States of America has seen the governance of some 44 individual presidents. Although such presidents share a variety of attributes, they still differ from one another on many others. Significantly, these traits may be used to construct distinct sets of 'families' of presidents throughout American history. By comparatively analyzing data from experts on the U.S. presidency – in this case, the C-SPAN Presidential Historians Surveys from 2000, 2009, and 2017 – this article identifies a consistent set of six presidential families: the All Stars; the Conservative Visionaries; the Postwar Progressives; the Average Joes; the Forgettables; and the Regrettables. In situating these categories in history, this article argues that U.S. presidents can be accurately organized into cohesive, like-performing families whose constituents share a common set of criteria.

Keywords: C-SPAN, POTUS presidential performance, presidential ranking, presidential studies, presidential surveys, United States

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3937 Value Relevance of Accounting Information: A Study of Steel Sector in India

Authors: Pradyumna Mohanty

Abstract:

The paper aims to explore whether accounting information of Indian companies in the Steel sector are value relevant or not. Ohlson’s model which usually takes into consideration book value per share (BV) and earnings per share (EARN) has been used and the same has been expanded to include two more variables such as cash flow from operations (CFO) and return on equity (ROE). The data were collected from CMIE-Prowess data base in respect of BSE-listed steel companies and the time frame spans from 2010 to 2014. OLS regression has been used to test the value relevance of these accounting numbers. Results indicate that both CFO and BV are having significant influence on the stock price in two out of five years of study. But, BV is emerging as the most significant and highly value relevant of all the four variables during the entire period of study.

Keywords: value relevance, accounting information, book value per share, earnings per share

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3936 The Impact of Insider Trading on Open Market Share Repurchase: A Study in Indian Context

Authors: Sarthak Kumar Jena, Chandra Sekhar Mishra, Prabina Rajib

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper aims to derive undervaluation signal from the insiders trading of Indian companies where the ownership is complex and concentrated, investors protection is weak, and the insider rules and regulations are not stringent like developed country. This study examines the relationship between insider trading with short term and long term abnormal return. The study also examines the relationship between insider trading and the actual share repurchase by the firm. Methodology: A sample of 78 companies over the period 2008-2013 are analyzed in the study due to not availability of insider data in Indian context. For preliminary analysis T-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test is used to find the difference between the insider trading before and after the share repurchase announcement. Tobit model is used to find out whether insider trading influence shares repurchase decisions or not. Return on the basis of market model and buy hold are calculated in the previous year and the following year of share repurchase announcement. Findings: The paper finds that insider trading around share repurchase is more than control firms and there is positive and significant difference in insider buying between the previous year of share buyback announcement and the following year of buyback announcement. Insider buying before share repurchase announcement has a positive influence on share repurchase decisions. We find insider buying has a positive and significant relationship with announcement return, whereas insider selling has a negative significant relationship with announcement return. Actual share repurchase and program completion also depend on insider trading before share repurchase. Research limitation: The study is constrained by the small sample size, so the results should be viewed by keeping this limitation in mind. Originality: The paper is to our best knowledge the first study based on Indian context to extend the insider trading literature to share repurchase event and examine insider trading to find out undervaluation signal associated with insider buying.

Keywords: insider trading, buyback, open market share repurchase, signalling

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3935 On the Impracticality of Kierkegaard's Community of Authentic Individuals

Authors: Andrew Ka Pok Tam

Abstract:

Kierkegaard has been misinterpreted as an anti-social philosopher for a long time until in recent years when there are more discussions on his concept of community in Journals and Papers inspired by Karl Bayer. Community which is based upon an individual's relations to others is different from the crowd or the public where the numerical or the majority make decisions. As a result, authenticity is only possible in the community. But Kierkegaard did not explain how we can preserve the individual's authenticity by establishing a community instead of a public in the reality. Kierkegaard was against the democratic reform in 1848 Denmark because he thought all elections mean the majority wins and the authenticity of a single individual would be suppressed. However, Kierkegaard himself does not suggest an alternative political system that may preserve the authenticity of individual. This paper aims to evaluate the possibility for us to establish a Kierkegaadian community in practice so as to preserve every individual's authenticity. This paper argues that the practicality of Kierekegaadian community is limited. In order to have effective communications and relations among individuals, a Kierkegaardian community must be small and inefficient as every individual's must remain authentic in all political decision for the whole community.

Keywords: authenticity, community, individual, kierkegaard

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3934 Impact of Financial Performance Indicators on Share Price of Listed Pharmaceutical Companies in India

Authors: Amit Das

Abstract:

Background and significance of the study: Generally investors and market forecasters use financial statement for investigation while it awakens contribute to investing. The main vicinity of financial accounting and reporting practices recommends a few basic financial performance indicators, namely, return on capital employed, return on assets and earnings per share, which is associated considerably with share prices. It is principally true in case of Indian pharmaceutical companies also. Share investing is intriguing a financial risk in addition to investors look for those financial evaluations which have noteworthy shock on share price. A crucial intention of financial statement analysis and reporting is to offer information which is helpful predominantly to exterior clients in creating credit as well as investment choices. Sound financial performance attracts the investors automatically and it will increase the share price of the respective companies. Keeping in view of this, this research work investigates the impact of financial performance indicators on share price of pharmaceutical companies in India which is listed in the Bombay Stock Exchange. Methodology: This research work is based on secondary data collected from moneycontrol database on September 28, 2015 of top 101 pharmaceutical companies in India. Since this study selects four financial performance indicators purposively and availability in the database, that is, earnings per share, return on capital employed, return on assets and net profits as independent variables and one dependent variable, share price of 101 pharmaceutical companies. While analysing the data, correlation statistics, multiple regression technique and appropriate test of significance have been used. Major findings: Correlation statistics show that four financial performance indicators of 101 pharmaceutical companies are associated positively and negatively with its share price and it is very much significant that more than 80 companies’ financial performances are related positively. Multiple correlation test results indicate that financial performance indicators are highly related with share prices of the selected pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore, multiple regression test results illustrate that when financial performances are good, share prices have been increased steadily in the Bombay stock exchange and all results are statistically significant. It is more important to note that sensitivity indices were changed slightly through financial performance indicators of selected pharmaceutical companies in India. Concluding statements: The share prices of pharmaceutical companies depend on the sound financial performances. It is very clear that share prices are changed with the movement of two important financial performance indicators, that is, earnings per share and return on assets. Since 101 pharmaceutical companies are listed in the Bombay stock exchange and Sensex are changed with this, it is obvious that Government of India has to take important decisions regarding production and exports of pharmaceutical products so that financial performance of all the pharmaceutical companies are improved and its share price are increased positively.

Keywords: financial performance indicators, share prices, pharmaceutical companies, India

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3933 The Mediating Effect of Individual Readiness for Change in the Relationship between Organisational Culture and Individual Commitment to Change

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Lois Farquharson, Gbola Gbadamosi, Wafi Al-Karaghouli, Ramadane Djbarni

Abstract:

A few recent research studies and mostly conceptual in nature have paid attention to the relationship between organizational culture (OC), individual readiness for change (IRFC) and individual affective commitment to change (IACC). Surprisingly enough, there is a lack of empirical studies investigating the influence of all four OC types on IRFC and IACC. Moreover, there is a very limited research investigating the mediating role of individual readiness for change between OC types and individual affective commitment to change. Therefore, this study is proposed to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement in the understanding of direct and indirect influences of OC on individual affective commitment to change. To achieve this, a questionnaire based survey was developed and self-administered to 226 middle managers in Algerian manufacturing organizations (AMOs). The results of this study indicated that group culture and adhocracy culture positively affect the IACC. Furthermore, the findings of this study show support for the mediating roles of self-efficacy and personally valence in the relationship between OC and IACC.

Keywords: individual readiness for change, individual commitment to change, organisational culture, manufacturing organisations

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3932 The Effectiveness of Exchange of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Using Digital and Face to Face Sharing

Authors: Delio I. Castaneda, Paul Toulson

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge sharing effectiveness of two types of knowledge, tacit and explicit, depending on two channels: face to face or digital. Participants were 217 knowledge workers in New Zealand and researchers who attended a knowledge management conference in the United Kingdom. In the study, it was found that digital tools are effective to share explicit knowledge. In addition, digital tools that facilitated dialogue were effective to share tacit knowledge. It was also found that face to face communication was an effective way to share tacit and explicit knowledge. Results of this study contribute to clarify in what cases digital tools are effective to share tacit knowledge. Additionally, even though explicit knowledge can be easily shared using digital tools, this type of knowledge is also possible to be shared through dialogue. Result of this study may support practitioners to redesign programs and activities based on knowledge sharing to make strategies more effective.

Keywords: digital knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge sharing, tacit knowledge

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3931 Extension of a Competitive Location Model Considering a Given Number of Servers and Proposing a Heuristic for Solving

Authors: Mehdi Seifbarghy, Zahra Nasiri

Abstract:

Competitive location problem deals with locating new facilities to provide a service (or goods) to the customers of a given geographical area where other facilities (competitors) offering the same service are already present. The new facilities will have to compete with the existing facilities for capturing the market share. This paper proposes a new model to maximize the market share in which customers choose the facilities based on traveling time, waiting time and attractiveness. The attractiveness of a facility is considered as a parameter in the model. A heuristic is proposed to solve the problem.

Keywords: competitive location, market share, facility attractiveness, heuristic

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3930 Identifying Self-Disclosure in Indonesian Reality Show: A Comprehensive Study

Authors: Dwi Ashari

Abstract:

This study attempts to disclose people’s privacy in Indonesian media. Many television (henceforth: TV) programs have shown the exposure of people’s privacy. People, not only celebrities, who appear in TV program often, share their life to the participants to get very intimate self-disclosure with them. Indonesia, as one of the countries with highest population, has many people who watch television everyday. This can be the major factor for some TV stations to create a program to get people’s attention to gain more profit. This study examines some factors of Indonesia TV programs that share the people’s privacy. The relation of privacy in Indonesia TV programs will be related to the concept of self-disclosure and intimacy between the people who share and watch the programs.

Keywords: Indonesia, media, privacy, self-disclosure

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3929 Cultural Identity and Self-Censorship in Social Media: A Qualitative Case Study

Authors: Nastaran Khoshsabk

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The evolution of communication through the Internet has influenced shaping and reshaping the self-presentation of social media users. Online communities both connect people and give voice to the voiceless allowing them to present themselves nationally and globally. People all around the world are experiencing censorship in different aspects of their life. Censorship can be externally imposed because of the political situations, or it can be self-imposed. Social media users choose the content they want to share and decide about the online audiences with whom they want to share this content. Most social media networks, such as Facebook, enable their users to be selective about the shared content and its availability to other people. However, sometimes instead of targeting a specific audience, users self-censor themselves or decide not to share various forms of information. These decisions are of particular importance in countries such as Iran where Internet is not the arena of free self-presentation and people are encouraged to stay away from political participation in the country and acting against the Islamic values. Facebook and some other social media tools are blocked in countries such as Iran. This project investigates the importance of social media in the life of Iranians to explore how they present themselves and construct their digital selves. The notion of cultural identity is applied in this research to explore the educational and informative role of social media in the identity formation and cultural representation of Facebook users. This study explores the self-censorship of Iranian adult Facebook users through their online self-representation and communication on the Internet. The data in this qualitative multiple case study have been collected through individual synchronous online interviews with the researcher’s Facebook friends and through the analysis of the participants’ Facebook profiles and activities over a period of six months. The data is analysed with an emphasis on the identity formation of participants through the recognition of the underlying themes. The exploration of online interviews is on the basis of participants’ personal accounts of self-censorship and cultural understanding through using social media. The driven codes and themes have been categorised considering censorship and place of culture on representation of self. Participants were asked to explain their views about censorship and conservatism through using social media. They reported their thoughts about deciding which content to share on Facebook and which to self-censor and their reasons behind these decisions. The codes and themes have been categorised considering censorship and its role in representation of idealised self. The ‘actual self’ showed to be hidden by an individual for different reasons such as its influence on their social status, academic achievements and job opportunities. It is hoped that this research will have implications for education contexts in countries that are experiencing social media filtering by offering an increased understanding of the importance of online communities; which can provide an educational environment to talk and learn about social taboos and constructing adults’ identity in virtual environment and through cultural self-presentation.

Keywords: cultural identity, identity formation, online communities, self-censorship

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3928 The Effect of Accounting Quality on Contribution-In-Kind Valuation

Authors: Catherine Heyjung Sonu

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of accounting quality on the process in which stock price is determined by focusing on contribution-in-kind valuations using Korean setting. In Korea, a number of chaebol firms have transformed into holding company system starting in 2003. With an attempt to gain as much voting right, management sold shares of subsidiaries to purchase shares of the holding company. In so doing, management of these firms received share issues for the contribution in kind that has been made to obtain additional shares of the holding company. The price of these share issues against contribution in kind is allowed to be discounted up to 30%. Using this interesting setting in Korea, this paper examines whether accounting quality affects the extent of the discount applied to the share issues. If the accounting quality of the firm for which the management is receiving share issues is poor, the extent of discount is likely to be high. The extent of discount is likely lower for firms with superior accounting quality. Using 24 cases, we find that, on average, the extent of discount is larger for share issues in which the accounting quality, proxied by the absolute value of discretionary accruals, is poor. This paper provides insight by examining the effect of accounting quality on the stock market. It sheds light on the intersection between finance and accounting research and should be of interest to researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: Accounting quality, Contribution-in-kind, discount, holding company

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3927 Factors Predicting Individual Health among Pilgrims of Kurdistan County: An Application of Health Belief Model

Authors: Arsalan Ghaderi, Behzad Karami Matin, Abdolrahim Afkhamzadeh, Abouzar Keshavarzi, Parvin Nokhasi

Abstract:

Background: Lack of individual health as one of the major health problems among the pilgrims can be followed by several complications. The main aim of this study was to determine factors predicting individual health among pilgrims of Kurdistan County; in the west of Iran and health belief model (HBM) was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 pilgrims who referred in the red crescent of Kurdistan County, the west of Iran which was randomly selected for participation in this study. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations and linear regression statistical tests. Results: The mean age of respondents was 59.45 years [SD: 11.56], ranged from 50 to 73 years. The HBM predictor variables accounted for 47% of the variation in the outcome measure of the individual health. The best predictors for individual health were perceived severity and cause to action. Conclusion: Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about complications of lack of individual health and increasing cause to action among the pilgrims may be useful in order to promote individual health among pilgrims.

Keywords: individual health, pilgrims, Iran, health belief model

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3926 The Effects of Three Leadership Styles on Individual Performance

Authors: Leilei Liang

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Leadership is commonly classified as formal leadership and informal leadership, which ignores and neglects the effects of 3rd type leadership. The emergence of 3rd type of leadership is closely related to special relations. To figure out the mechanism and effects of 3rd type leadership as well as the impacts of formal leadership and informal leadership on employee performance, this study collects data from 350 participants through a survey and proposes three hypotheses respectively from the perspective of expectation theory. The analytical results provide strong evidence for two of the three hypotheses, which demonstrate the positive correlation between formal leadership and individual performance and the negative relationship between 3rd type leadership and individual performance. This study contributes to leadership literature by putting forward the concept of the 3rd type of leadership. In addition, the effects of formal leadership, informal leadership, and 3rd type leadership on individual performance are discussed respectively in this study.

Keywords: formal leadership, informal leadership, 3rd leadership, individual performance, expectation theory

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3925 Viral Advertising: Popularity and Willingness to Share among the Czech Internet Population

Authors: Martin Klepek

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This paper presents results of primary quantitative research on viral advertising with focus on popularity and willingness to share viral video among Czech Internet population. It starts with brief theoretical debate on viral advertising, which is used for the comparison of the results. For purpose of collecting data, online questionnaire survey was given to 384 respondents. Statistics utilized in this research included frequency, percentage, correlation and Pearson’s Chi-square test. Data was evaluated using SPSS software. The research analysis disclosed high popularity of viral advertising video among Czech Internet population but implies lower willingness to share it. Significant relationship between likability of viral video technique and age of the viewer was found.

Keywords: internet advertising, internet population, promotion, marketing communication, viral advertising, viral video

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3924 No-Par Shares Working in European LLCs

Authors: Agnieszka P. Regiec

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Capital companies are based on monetary capital. In the traditional model, the capital is the sum of the nominal values of all shares issued. For a few years within the European countries, the limited liability companies’ (LLC) regulations are leaning towards liberalization of the capital structure in order to provide higher degree of autonomy regarding the intra-corporate governance. Reforms were based primarily on the legal system of the USA. In the USA, the tradition of no-par shares is well-established. Thus, as a point of reference, the American legal system is being chosen. Regulations of Germany, Great Britain, France, Netherlands, Finland, Poland and the USA will be taken into consideration. The analysis of the share capital is important for the development of science not only because the capital structure of the corporation has significant impact on the shareholders’ rights, but also it reflects on relationships between creditors of the company and the company itself. Multi-level comparative approach towards the problem will allow to present a wide range of the possible outcomes stemming from the novelization. The dogmatic method was applied. The analysis was based on the statutes, secondary sources and judicial awards. Both the substantive and the procedural aspects of the capital structure were considered. In Germany, as a result of the regulatory competition, typical for the EU, the structure of LLCs was reshaped. New LLC – Unternehmergesellschaft, which does not require a minimum share capital, was introduced. The minimum share capital for Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung was lowered from 25 000 to 10 000 euro. In France the capital structure of corporations was also altered. In 2003, the minimum share capital of société à responsabilité limitée (S.A.R.L.) was repealed. In 2009, the minimum share capital of société par actions simplifiée – in the “simple” version of S.A.R.L. was also changed – there is no minimum share capital required by a statute. The company has to, however, indicate a share capital without the legislator imposing the minimum value of said capital. In Netherlands the reform of the Besloten Vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid (B.V.) was planned with the following change: repeal of the minimum share capital as the answer to the need for higher degree of autonomy for shareholders. It, however, preserved shares with nominal value. In Finland the novelization of yksityinen osakeyhtiö took place in 2006 and as a result the no-par shares were introduced. Despite the fact that the statute allows shares without face value, it still requires the minimum share capital in the amount of 2 500 euro. In Poland the proposal for the restructuration of the capital structure of the LLC has been introduced. The proposal provides among others: devaluation of the capital to 1 PLN or complete liquidation of the minimum share capital, allowing the no-par shares to be issued. In conclusion: American solutions, in particular, balance sheet test and solvency test provide better protection for creditors; European no-par shares are not the same as American and the existence of share capital in Poland is crucial.

Keywords: balance sheet test, limited liability company, nominal value of shares, no-par shares, share capital, solvency test

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3923 Positive Obligations of the State Concerning the Protection of Human Rights

Authors: Monika Florczak-Wator

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The model of positive obligations of the state concerning the protection of the rights of an individual was created within the jurisdiction of the German Federal Constitutional Court in the 1970s. That model assumes that the state should protect an individual against infringement of their fundamental rights by another individual. It is based on the idea concerning the modification of the function and duties of the state towards an individual and society. Initially the state was perceived as the main infringer of the fundamental rights of an individual formulating the individual’s obligations of negative nature (obligation of noninterference), however, at present the state is perceived as a guarantor and protector of the fundamental rights of an individual of positive nature (obligation of protection). Examination of the chosen judicial decisions of that court will enable us to determine what the obligation of protection is specifically about, when it is updated and whether it is accompanied by claims of an individual requesting the state to take actions protecting their fundamental rights against infringement by the private entities. The comparative perspective for the German model of positive obligations of the state will be an analogous model present in the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights. It is justified to include it in the research as the Convention, similarly to the constitution, focuses on the protection of an individual against the infringement of their rights by the state and both models have been developed within the jurisdiction for several dozens of years. Analysis of the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland as well as judgements of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal will allow for the presentation of the application the model of the protective duties of the state in Poland.

Keywords: human rights, horizontal relationships, constitution, state protection

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3922 Voice of Customer: Mining Customers' Reviews on On-Line Car Community

Authors: Kim Dongwon, Yu Songjin

Abstract:

This study identifies the business value of VOC (Voice of Customer) on the business. Precisely, we intend to demonstrate how much negative and positive sentiment of VOC has an influence on car sales market share in the unites states. We extract 7 emotions such as sadness, shame, anger, fear, frustration, delight and satisfaction from the VOC data, 23,204 pieces of opinions, that had been posted on car-related on-line community from 2007 to 2009(a part of data collection from 2007 to 2015), and intend to clarify the correlation between negative and positive sentimental keywords and contribution to market share. In order to develop a lexicon for each category of negative and positive sentiment, we took advantage of Corpus program, Antconc 3.4.1.w and on-line sentimental data, SentiWordNet and identified the part of speech(POS) information of words in the customers' opinion by using a part-of-speech tagging function provided by TextAnalysisOnline. For the purpose of this present study, a total of 45,741 pieces of customers' opinions of 28 car manufacturing companies had been collected including titles and status information. We conducted an experiment to examine whether the inclusion, frequency and intensity of terms with negative and positive emotions in each category affect the adoption of customer opinions for vehicle organizations' market share. In the experiment, we statistically verified that there is correlation between customer ideas containing negative and positive emotions and variation of marker share. Particularly, "Anger," a domain of negative domains, is significantly influential to car sales market share. The domain "Delight" and "Satisfaction" increased in proportion to growth of market share.

Keywords: data mining, opinion mining, sentiment analysis, VOC

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3921 Two Steady States and Two Movement Patterns under the Balanced Budget Rule: An Economy with Divisible Labor

Authors: Fujio Takata

Abstract:

When governments levy taxes on labor income on the basis of a balanced budget rule, two steady states in an economy exist, of which one can cause two movement patterns, namely, indeterminacy paths and a saddle path. However, in this paper, we assume an economy with divisible labor, in which labor adjustment is made by an intensive margin. We demonstrate that there indeed exist the two paths in the economy and that there exists a critical condition dividing them. This is proved by establishing the relationship between a finite elasticity of labor with regard to real wages and the share of capital in output. Consequently, we deduce the existence of an upper limit in the share of capital in output for indeterminacy to occur. The largest possible value of that share is less than 0.5698.

Keywords: balanced budget rule, divisible labor, labor income taxation, two movement patterns

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3920 Active Learning Techniques in Engineering Education

Authors: H. M. Anitha, Anusha N. Rao

Abstract:

The current developments in technology and ideas have given entirely new dimensions to the field of research and education. New delivery methods are proposed which is an added feature to the engineering education. Particularly, more importance is given to new teaching practices such as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). It is vital to adopt the new ICT methods which lead to the emergence of novel structure and mode of education. The flipped classroom, think pair share and peer instruction are the latest pedagogical methods which give students to learn the course. This involves students to watch video lectures outside the classroom and solve the problems at home. Students are engaged in group discussions in the classroom. These are the active learning methods wherein the students are involved diversely to learn the course. This paper gives a comprehensive study of past and present research which is going on with flipped classroom, thinks pair share activity and peer instruction.

Keywords: flipped classroom, think pair share, peer instruction, active learning

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3919 Unified Coordinate System Approach for Swarm Search Algorithms in Global Information Deficit Environments

Authors: Rohit Dey, Sailendra Karra

Abstract:

This paper aims at solving the problem of multi-target searching in a Global Positioning System (GPS) denied environment using swarm robots with limited sensing and communication abilities. Typically, existing swarm-based search algorithms rely on the presence of a global coordinate system (vis-à-vis, GPS) that is shared by the entire swarm which, in turn, limits its application in a real-world scenario. This can be attributed to the fact that robots in a swarm need to share information among themselves regarding their location and signal from targets to decide their future course of action but this information is only meaningful when they all share the same coordinate frame. The paper addresses this very issue by eliminating any dependency of a search algorithm on the need of a predetermined global coordinate frame by the unification of the relative coordinate of individual robots when within the communication range, therefore, making the system more robust in real scenarios. Our algorithm assumes that all the robots in the swarm are equipped with range and bearing sensors and have limited sensing range and communication abilities. Initially, every robot maintains their relative coordinate frame and follow Levy walk random exploration until they come in range with other robots. When two or more robots are within communication range, they share sensor information and their location w.r.t. their coordinate frames based on which we unify their coordinate frames. Now they can share information about the areas that were already explored, information about the surroundings, and target signal from their location to make decisions about their future movement based on the search algorithm. During the process of exploration, there can be several small groups of robots having their own coordinate systems but eventually, it is expected for all the robots to be under one global coordinate frame where they can communicate information on the exploration area following swarm search techniques. Using the proposed method, swarm-based search algorithms can work in a real-world scenario without GPS and any initial information about the size and shape of the environment. Initial simulation results show that running our modified-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) without global information we can still achieve the desired results that are comparable to basic PSO working with GPS. In the full paper, we plan on doing the comparison study between different strategies to unify the coordinate system and to implement them on other bio-inspired algorithms, to work in GPS denied environment.

Keywords: bio-inspired search algorithms, decentralized control, GPS denied environment, swarm robotics, target searching, unifying coordinate systems

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3918 Online Think–Pair–Share in a Third-Age Information and Communication Technology Course

Authors: Daniele Traversaro

Abstract:

Problem: Senior citizens have been facing a challenging reality as a result of strict public health measures designed to protect people from the COVID-19 outbreak. These include the risk of social isolation due to the inability of the elderly to integrate with technology. Never before have information and communication technology (ICT) skills become essential for their everyday life. Although third-age ICT education and lifelong learning are widely supported by universities and governments, there is a lack of literature on which teaching strategy/methodology to adopt in an entirely online ICT course aimed at third-age learners. This contribution aims to present an application of the Think-Pair-Share (TPS) learning method in an ICT third-age virtual classroom with an intergenerational approach to conducting online group labs and review activities. This collaborative strategy can help increase student engagement, promote active learning and online social interaction. Research Question: Is collaborative learning applicable and effective, in terms of student engagement and learning outcomes, for an entirely online third-age ICT introductory course? Methods: In the TPS strategy, a problem is posed by the teacher, students have time to think about it individually, and then they work in pairs (or small groups) to solve the problem and share their ideas with the entire class. We performed four experiments in the ICT course of the University of the Third Age of Genova (University of Genova, Italy) on the Microsoft Teams platform. The study cohort consisted of 26 students over the age of 45. Data were collected through online questionnaires. Two have been proposed, one at the end of the first activity and another at the end of the course. They consisted of five and three close-ended questions, respectively. The answers were on a Likert scale (from 1 to 4) except two questions (which asked the number of correct answers given individually and in groups) and the field for free comments/suggestions. Results: Results show that groups perform better than individual students (with scores greater than one order of magnitude) and that most students found it helpful to work in groups and interact with their peers. Insights: From these early results, it appears that TPS is applicable to an online third-age ICT classroom and useful for promoting discussion and active learning. Despite this, our experimentation has a number of limitations. First of all, the results highlight the need for more data to be able to perform a statistical analysis in order to determine the effectiveness of this methodology in terms of student engagement and learning outcomes as a future direction.

Keywords: collaborative learning, information technology education, lifelong learning, older adult education, think-pair-share

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3917 The School-to-Work Transition: The Case of NEET Youths from Rural Areas

Authors: Anđelka Stojanović, Ivan Mihajlović, Ivica Nikolić

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In the past years, due to the financial crisis and the tightening of conditions on the labor market, young people are facing great challenges in achieving financial independence and finding their place in society. Higher unemployment rates, poorer living conditions, separation from the labor market, and longer school-to-work transitions particularly affect rural youth and make significant differences between youth groups in rural and urban areas. Improving employability skills and development of instruments for further learning among young people “Not in Education, Employment, or Training” (NEET) should not be only the concerns of these people, already adequately be directed and supported by the institutions. According to the World Bank data, the share of youth not in education, employment or training (NEET), in the European Union in the past few years decreases but still shows a significant share in the total percentage of the youth population. In 2017 rate was 10.96% while in 2018 that value was 10.38%. When observing individual countries in Europe, especially those with lower incomes, this rate is much higher. It was concluded that this topic was not sufficiently elaborated and presented in the social and scientific environment. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify and systematize the problems of school-to-work transition among young NEETs living in rural areas as well as the initiatives for addressing their problems.

Keywords: NEET youth, risks and initiatives, rural youth, school-to-work transition

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3916 Establishing Forecasts Pointing Towards the Hungarian Energy Change Based on the Results of Local Municipal Renewable Energy Production and Energy Export

Authors: Balazs Kulcsar

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Professional energy organizations perform analyses mainly on the global and national levels about the expected development of the share of renewables in electric power generation, heating, and cooling, as well as the transport sectors. There are just a few publications, research institutions, non-profit organizations, and national initiatives with a focus on studies in the individual towns, settlements. Issues concerning the self-supply of energy on the settlement level have not become too wide-spread. The goal of our energy geographic studies is to determine the share of local renewable energy sources in the settlement-based electricity supply across Hungary. The Hungarian energy supply system defines four categories based on the installed capacities of electric power generating units. From these categories, the theoretical annual electricity production of small-sized household power plants (SSHPP) featuring installed capacities under 50 kW and small power plants with under 0.5 MW capacities have been taken into consideration. In the above-mentioned power plant categories, the Hungarian Electricity Act has allowed the establishment of power plants primarily for the utilization of renewable energy sources since 2008. Though with certain restrictions, these small power plants utilizing renewable energies have the closest links to individual settlements and can be regarded as the achievements of the host settlements in the shift of energy use. Based on the 2017 data, we have ranked settlements to reflect the level of self-sufficiency in electricity production from renewable energy sources. The results show that the supply of all the energy demanded by settlements from local renewables is within reach now in small settlements, e.g., in the form of the small power plant categories discussed in the study, and is not at all impossible even in small towns and cities. In Hungary, 30 settlements produce more renewable electricity than their own annual electricity consumption. If these overproductive settlements export their excess electricity towards neighboring settlements, then full electricity supply can be realized on further 29 settlements from renewable sources by local small power plants. These results provide an opportunity for governmental planning of the realization of energy shift (legislative background, support system, environmental education), as well as framing developmental forecasts and scenarios until 2030.

Keywords: energy geography, Hungary, local small power plants, renewable energy sources, self-sufficiency settlements

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