Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: P. Zlabek

4 Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Weldments

Authors: Pavel Zlabek, Vaclav Mentl

Abstract:

The fatigue crack growth rate evaluation is a basic experimental characteristic when assessment o f the remaining lifetime is needed. Within the repair welding technology project, the crack growth rate at cyclic loading was measured in base and weld metals and in the situation when cracks were initiated in base metal and grew into the weld metal through heat-affected zone and back to the base metal. Two welding technologies were applied and specimens in as-welded state and after heat treatment were tested. Fatigue crack growth rate measurement was performed on CrMoV pressure vessel steel and the tests were performed at room temperature. The crack growth rate was measured on CCT test specimens (see figure) for both the base and weld metals and also in the case of crack subsequent transition through all the weld zones. A 500 kN MTS controlled electro-hydraulic testing machine and Model 632.13C-20 MTS extensometer were used to perform the tests.

Keywords: cracks, fatigue, steels, weldments

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3 X-Ray Diffraction Technique as a Means for Degradation Assessment of Welded Joints

Authors: Jaroslav Fiala, Jaroslav Kaiser, Pavel Zlabek, Vaclav Mentl

Abstract:

The X-ray diffraction technique was recognized as a useful tool for the assessment of material degradation degree after a long-time service. In many industrial applications materials are subjected to degradation of mechanical properties as a result of real service conditions. The assessment of the remnant lifetime of components and structures is commonly based on correlated procedures including numerous destructive, non-destructive and mathematical techniques that should guarantee reasonable precise assessment of the current damage extent of materials in question and the remnant lifetime assessment. This paper summarizes results of an experimental programme concentrated on mechanical properties degradation of welded components. Steel an Al-alloy test specimens of base metal, containing welds and simple weldments were fatigue loaded at room temperature to obtain Woehler S-N curve. X-ray diffraction technique was applied to assess the degradation degree of material as a result of cyclic loading.

Keywords: fatigue loading, material degradation, steels, AL-alloys, X-ray diffraction

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2 Correlation of Material Mechanical Characteristics Obtained by Means of Standardized and Miniature Test Specimens

Authors: Vaclav Mentl, P. Zlabek, J. Volak

Abstract:

New methods of mechanical testing were developed recently that are based on making use of miniature test specimens (e.g. Small Punch Test). The most important advantage of these method is the nearly non-destructive withdrawal of test material and small size of test specimen what is interesting in cases of remaining lifetime assessment when a sufficient volume of the representative material cannot be withdrawn of the component in question. In opposite, the most important disadvantage of such methods stems from the necessity to correlate test results with the results of standardised test procedures and to build up a database of material data in service. The correlations among the miniature test specimen data and the results of standardised tests are necessary. The paper describes the results of fatigue tests performed on miniature tests specimens in comparison with traditional fatigue tests for several steels applied in power producing industry. Special miniature test specimens fixtures were designed and manufactured for the purposes of fatigue testing at the Zwick/Roell 10HPF5100 testing machine. The miniature test specimens were produced of the traditional test specimens. Seven different steels were fatigue loaded (R = 0.1) at room temperature.

Keywords: mechanical properties, miniature test specimens, correlations, small punch test, micro-tensile test, mini-charpy impact test

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1 Tissue-Specific Distribution of Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 3A in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Authors: Viktoriia Burkina, Vladimir Zlabek, Galia Zamaratskaia

Abstract:

Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are important family of enzymes in Phase I metabolism. Environmental pollutants often act as inducers of the gene expression and activities CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like isoforms in fish. The activities are generally measured in the fish liver or gills, and less is known about tissue distribution of expression. In present study, the CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like activities were measured in rainbow trout liver, gill, intestine, heart, brain and gonads. The activities of CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like proteins were estimated as the rates of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylation (BFCOD), respectively. The CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like activities were detectable in all investigated fish tissues, with the highest activity in hepatic tissue followed by heart > brain > gill > intestine > gonads. To confirm the presence of CYP1A1 in different tissues, EROD activity was measured in presence of the selective inhibitors ellipticine (CYP1A1), ketoconazole (CYP3A), 8-methoxypsoralen (human CYP2A) and diallyl sulphide (CYP2E1). It was found that ellipticine, ketoconazole and 8-methoxypsoralen inhibited hepatic EROD activity by 88-98%. Ellipticine inhibited gill, intestine, and gonad EROD activity by 50%. In conclusion, EROD and BFCOD activities were detected in rainbow trout liver, gill, intestine, heart, brain and gonads. Further studies are needed to fully identify all CYP450 isoforms responsible for these activities. Acknowledgement: The study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic - projects „CENAKVA “(No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), “CENAKVA Center Development “(No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0380), “CENAKVA II “(No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), and "Development of USB - International mobility (No. CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/16_027/0008364).

Keywords: BFCOD, EROD, fish, phase I metabolism, selective inhibitors

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