Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18468

Search results for: high step-up ratio

18468 The Simple Two-Step Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Transferring Process for High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

Authors: Shaoxi Wang, Pouya Rezai

Abstract:

High aspect ratio is the necessary parts of complex microstructures. Some methods available to achieve high aspect ratio requires expensive materials or complex process; others is difficult to research simple high aspect ratio structures. The paper presents a simple and cheap two-step Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) transferring process to get high aspect ratio single pillars, which only requires covering the PDMS mold with [email protected] surface solution. The experimental results demonstrate the method efficiency and effective.

Keywords: high aspect ratio, microstructure, PDMS, Brij

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
18467 The Influence of Feedgas Ratio on the Ethene Hydroformylation using Rh-Co Bimetallic Catalyst Supported by Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: Jianli Chang, Yusheng Zhang, Yali Yao, Diane Hildebrandt, Xinying Liu

Abstract:

The influence of feed-gas ratio on the ethene hydroformylation over an Rh-Co bimetallic catalyst supported by reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been investigated in a tubular fixed bed reactor. Argon was used as balance gas when the feed-gas ratio was changed, which can keep the partial pressure of the other two kinds of gas constant while the ratio of one component in feed-gas was changed. First, the effect of single-component gas ratio on the performance of ethene hydroformylation was studied one by one (H₂, C₂H₄ and CO). Then an optimized ratio was found to obtain a high selectivity to C₃ oxygenates. The results showed that: (1) 0.5%Rh-20%Co/RGO is a promising heterogeneous catalyst for ethene hydroformylation. (2) H₂ and CO have a more significant influence than C₂H₄ on selectivity to oxygenates. (3) A lower H₂ ratio and a higher CO ratio in feed-gas can lead to a higher selectivity to oxygenates. (4) The highest selectivity to oxygenates, 61.70%, was obtained at the feed-gas ratio CO: C₂H₄: H₂ = 4: 2: 1.

Keywords: ethene hydroformylation, reduced graphene oxide, rhodium cobalt bimetallic catalyst, the effect of feed-gas ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
18466 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare

Abstract:

Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
18465 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani

Abstract:

Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: dry reforming of methane, microwave discharge, plasma technology, synthesis gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
18464 The Influence of Variable Geometrical Modifications of the Trailing Edge of Supercritical Airfoil on the Characteristics of Aerodynamics

Authors: P. Lauk, K. E. Seegel, T. Tähemaa

Abstract:

The fuel consumption of modern, high wing loading, commercial aircraft in the first stage of flight is high because the usable flight level is lower and the weather conditions (jet stream) have great impact on aircraft performance. To reduce the fuel consumption, it is necessary to raise during first stage of flight the L/D ratio value within Cl 0.55-0.65. Different variable geometrical wing trailing edge modifications of SC(2)-410 airfoil were compared at M 0.78 using the CFD software STAR-CCM+ simulation based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results obtained show that by increasing the width of the airfoil by 4% and by modifying the trailing edge airfoil, it is possible to decrease airfoil drag at Cl 0.70 for up to 26.6% and at the same time to increase commercial aircraft L/D ratio for up to 5.0%. Fuel consumption can be reduced in proportion to the increase in L/D ratio.

Keywords: L/D ratio, miniflaps, mini-TED, supercritical airfoil

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
18463 Nanowire by Ac Electrodeposition Into Nanoporous Alumina Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Metalic

Authors: M. Beyzaiea, S. Mohammadia

Abstract:

High aspect ratio metallic (silver, cobalt) nanowire arrays were fabricated using ac electrodeposition techniques into the nanoporous alumina template. The template with long pore dept fabricated by hard anodization (HA) and thinned for ac electrodeposition. Template preparation was done in short time by using HA technique and high speed thing process. The TEM and XRD investigation confirm the three dimensional nucleation growth mechanism of metallic nanowire inside the nanoporous alumina that fabricated by HA process.

Keywords: metallic, nanowire, nanoporous alumina, ac electrodeposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
18462 Shear Behavior of Ultra High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Ghada Diaa, Enas A. Khattab

Abstract:

Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) is a new advanced concrete that is being transferred from laboratory researches to practicable applications. In addition to its excellent durability properties, UHSC has high compressive and tensile strengths, and high modulus of elasticity. Despite of this low degree of hydration, ultra high strength values can be achieved by controlling the mixture proportions. In this research, an experimental program was carried out to investigate the shear behavior of ultra high strength concrete beams. A total of nine beams were tested to determine the effect of different parameters on the shear behavior of UHSC beams. The parameters include concrete strength, steel fiber volume, shear span to depth ratio, and web reinforcement ratio. The results demonstrated that nominal shear stress at cracking load and at ultimate load increased with the increase of concrete strength or the decrease in shear span-depth ratio. Using steel fibers or shear reinforcement increases the ultimate shear strength and makes the shear behavior more ductile. In this study, a simplified analytical model to calculate the shear strength of UHSC beams is introduced. Shear strength estimated according to the proposed method in this research is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: ultra high strength, shear strength, diagonal, cracking, steel fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 529
18461 Layout Design Optimization of Spars under Multiple Load Cases of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

Authors: Yu Li, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

The spar layout will affect the wing’s stiffness characteristics, and irrational spar arrangement will reduce the overall bending and twisting resistance capacity of the wing. In this paper, the active structural stiffness design theory is used to match the stiffness-center axis position and load-cases under the corresponding multiple flight conditions, in order to achieve better stiffness properties of the wing. The combination of active stiffness method and principle of stiffness distribution is proved to be reasonable supplying an initial reference for wing designing. The optimized layout of spars is eventually obtained, and the high-aspect-ratio wing will have better stiffness characteristics.

Keywords: active structural stiffness design theory, high-aspect-ratio wing, flight load cases, layout of spars

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
18460 A High Step-Up DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System Applications

Authors: Sopida Vacharasukpo, Sudarat Khwan-On

Abstract:

This paper proposes a high step-up DC-DC converter topology for renewable energy system applications. The proposed converter employs only a single power switch instead of using several switches. Compared to the conventional DC-DC step-up converters the higher voltage gain with small output ripples can be achieved by using the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter topology. It can step up the low input voltage (20-50Vdc) generated from the photovoltaic modules to the high output voltage level approximately 600Vdc in order to supply the three-phase inverter fed the three-phase motor drive. In this paper, the operating principle of the proposed converter topology and its control strategy under the continuous conduction mode (CCM) are described. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter with its control strategy to increase the voltage step-up conversion ratio.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, high step-up ratio, renewable energy, single switch

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
18459 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.

Keywords: high-speed railway vehicle, hunting motion, wheel axle, damping, creep, vibration model, analysis.

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
18458 Factors Influencing the Profitability of the Conventional and Islamic Banks in Four Asian Countries

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Ron Bird

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect of bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic variables on the profitability of conventional and Islamic banks. Our sample comprises 1,781 bank-year observations of 205 banks from four countries in the Asian region for the period 2004-2014. Our results suggest that credit quality, cost management and bank size are the keys factors that contribute positively to bank profitability in Asia. The banks with high non-performing loans and high cost-to-income ratio are more likely to be exposed to losses. The impacts of the bank-specific variables are stronger than are the industry-specific and macroeconomic variables. We find that Malaysian banks are the least profitable compared to the banks in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Pakistan. There is strong evidence to suggest that conventional banks are more profitable than Islamic banks. Our results suggest that the impact of capital adequacy ratio and bank size and loan to deposit ratio vary across Islamic and conventional banks and across different subsamples.

Keywords: capital adequacy ratio, Islamic banks, non-performing loan ratio, ownership

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
18457 Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio

Authors: Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.

Keywords: concrete, mixing ratio, textile, TRC

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
18456 Corporate Performance and Balance Sheet Indicators: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Hussain Bohra, Pradyuman Sharma

Abstract:

This study highlights the significance of Balance Sheet Indicators on the corporate performance in the case of Indian manufacturing companies. Balance sheet indicators show the actual financial health of the company and it helps to the external investors to choose the right company for their investment and it also help to external financing agency to give easy finance to the manufacturing companies. The period of study is 2000 to 2014 for 813 manufacturing companies for which the continuous data is available throughout the study period. The data is collected from PROWESS data base maintained by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd. Panel data methods like fixed effect and random effect methods are used for the analysis. The Likelihood Ratio test, Lagrange Multiplier test and Hausman test results proof the suitability of the fixed effect model for the estimation. Return on assets (ROA) is used as the proxy to measure corporate performance. ROA is the best proxy to measure corporate performance as it already used by the most of the authors who worked on the corporate performance. ROA shows return on long term investment projects of firms. Different ratios like Current Ratio, Debt-equity ratio, Receivable turnover ratio, solvency ratio have been used as the proxies for the Balance Sheet Indicators. Other firm specific variable like firm size, and sales as the control variables in the model. From the empirical analysis, it was found that all selected financial ratios have significant and positive impact on the corporate performance. Firm sales and firm size also found significant and positive impact on the corporate performance. To check the robustness of results, the sample was divided on the basis of different ratio like firm having high debt equity ratio and low debt equity ratio, firms having high current ratio and low current ratio, firms having high receivable turnover and low receivable ratio and solvency ratio in the form of firms having high solving ratio and low solvency ratio. We find that the results are robust to all types of companies having different form of selected balance sheet indicators ratio. The results for other variables are also in the same line as for the whole sample. These findings confirm that Balance sheet indicators play as significant role on the corporate performance in India. The findings of this study have the implications for the corporate managers to focus different ratio to maintain the minimum expected level of performance. Apart from that, they should also maintain adequate sales and total assets to improve corporate performance.

Keywords: balance sheet, corporate performance, current ratio, panel data method

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
18455 An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Anthropometric Measurements and Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents

Authors: Nalan Hakime Nogay

Abstract:

Childhood obesity is a significant health issue that is currently on the rise all over the world. In recent years, the relationship between childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease risk has been pointed out. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between some of the anthropometric indicators and blood lipid levels in adolescents. The present study has been conducted on a total of 252 adolescents -200 girls and 52 boys- within an age group of 12 to 18 years. Blood was drawn from each participant in the morning -after having fasted for 10 hours from the day before- to analyze their total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Their body weight, height, waist circumference, subscapular skinfold thicknesses and triceps skinfold thicknesses measurements were taken and their individual waist/height ratios, BMI and body fat ratios were calculated. The blood lipid levels of the participants were categorized as acceptable, borderline and high in accordance with the 2011 Expert Panel Integrated Guidelines. The body fat ratios, total blood cholesterol and HDL levels of the girls were significantly higher than the boys whereas their waist circumference values were lower. The triglyceride levels, total cholesterol/HDL, LDL/HDL, triglyceride/HDL ratios of the group with the BMI ≥ 95 percentile ratio (the obese group) were higher than the groups that were considered to be overweight and normal weight as per their respective BMI values, while the HDL level of the obese group was lower; a fact that was found to be statistically significant. No significant relationship could be established, however, between the total blood cholesterol and LDL levels with their anthropometric measurements. The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio, body fat ratio and triglyceride level of the group with the higher triglyceride level ( ≥ 130mg/dl) were found to be significantly higher compared to borderline (90-129 mg/dl) and the normal group (< 90 mg/dl). The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio values of the group with the lower HDL level ( < 40 mg/dl) were significantly higher than the normal ( > 45 mg/dl) and borderline (40-45 mg/dl) groups. All of the anthropometric measurements of the group with the higher triglyceride/HDL ratio ( ≥ 3) were found to be significantly higher than that of the group with the lower ratio (< 3). Having a high BMI, waist/height ratio and waist circumference is related to low HDL and high blood triglyceride and triglyceride/HDL ratio. A high body fat ratio, on the other hand, is associated with a low HDL and high triglyceride/HDL ratio. Tackling childhood and adolescent obesity are important in terms of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: adolescent, body fat, body mass index, lipid profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
18454 Calculation Analysis of an Axial Compressor Supersonic Stage Impeller

Authors: Y. Galerkin, E. Popova, K. Soldatova

Abstract:

There is an evident trend to elevate pressure ratio of a single stage of a turbo compressors - axial compressors in particular. Whilst there was an opinion recently that a pressure ratio 1,9 was a reasonable limit, later appeared information on successful modeling tested of stages with pressure ratio up to 2,8. The Authors recon that lack of information on high pressure stages makes actual a study of rational choice of design parameters before high supersonic flow problems solving. The computer program of an engineering type was developed. Below is presented a sample of its application to study possible parameters of the impeller of the stage with pressure ratio π*=3,0. Influence of two main design parameters on expected efficiency, periphery blade speed and flow structure is demonstrated. The results had lead to choose a variant for further analysis and improvement by CFD methods.

Keywords: supersonic stage, impeller, efficiency, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient, loss coefficient, oblique shock, direct shock

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
18453 DC-to-DC Converters for Low-Voltage High-Power Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Abdar Ali, Rizwan Ullah, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the study of DC-to-DC converters, which are suitable for low-voltage high-power applications. The output voltages generated by renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic arrays and fuel cell stacks are generally low and required to be increased to high voltage levels. Development of DC-to-DC converters, which provide high step-up voltage conversion ratios with high efficiencies and low voltage stresses is one of the main issues in the development of renewable energy systems. A procedure for three converters-conventional DC-to-DC converter, interleaved boost converter, and isolated flyback based converter, is illustrated for a given set of specifications. The selection among the converters for the given application is based on the voltage conversion ratio, efficiency, and voltage stresses.

Keywords: flyback converter, interleaved boost, photovoltaic array, fuel cell, switch stress, voltage conversion ratio, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
18452 Low NOx Combustion of Pulverized Petroleum Cokes

Authors: Sewon Kim, Minjun Kwon, Changyeop Lee

Abstract:

This study is aimed to study combustion characteristics of low NOx burner using petroleum cokes as fuel. The petroleum coke, which is produced through the oil refining process, is an attractive fuel in terms of its high heating value and low price. But petroleum coke is a challenging fuel because of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics and low ignitability. Therefore, the research and development regarding the petroleum coke burner is needed for applying this industrial system. In this study, combustion and emission characteristics of petroleum cokes burner are experimentally investigated in an industrial steam boiler. The low NOx burner is designed to control fuel and air mixing to achieve staged combustion, which, in turn reduces both flame temperature and oxygen. Air distribution ratio of triple staged air are optimized experimentally. The result showed that NOx concentration is lowest when overfire air is used, and the burner function at a fuel rich condition. That is, the burner is operated at the equivalence ratio of 1.67 and overall equivalence ratio including overfire air is kept 0.87.

Keywords: petroleum cokes, low NOx, combustion, equivalence ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 550
18451 Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Spelt and Flaxseed Pasta

Authors: Jelena Filipovic, Milenko Kosutic

Abstract:

The dynamic way of life has the tendency to simplify and decrease preparing healthy, quick, cheap and safe meals. Spelt pasta is meeting most of these goals. Contrary to bread, pasta can be stored a long time without deterioration in flavour, odour and usability without losing quality. This paper deals with the chemical composition and content of fatty acids in flaxseed and spelt flour. Ratio of essential fatty acids ω-6/ω-3 is also analysed in spelt pasta and pasta with 0%, 10% and 20% flaxseed flour. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is used for carrying out a quantitative analysis of flaxseed flour, spelt flour and pasta liposoluble extracts. Flaxseed flour has a better fatty acid profile than spelt flour, with low levels of saturated fat (approximately 9g/100g), high concentration of linolenic acid (57g/100g) and lower content of linoleic acid (16g/100g), as well as superior ω-6/ω-3 ratio that is 1:4. Flaxseed flour in the share of 10% and 20% in spelt pasta positively contributes to the essential fatty acids daily intake recommended by nutritionists and the improvement of ω-6/ω-3 ratio (6,7:1 and 1:1.2). This paper points out that investigated pasta with flaxseed is a new product with improved functional properties due to high level of ω-3 fatty acids and it is acceptable for consumers in regard to sensory properties.

Keywords: flaxseed, spelt, fatty acids, ω-3/ω-6 ratio, pasta

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
18450 Evaluating Portfolio Performance by Highlighting Network Property and the Sharpe Ratio in the Stock Market

Authors: Zahra Hatami, Hesham Ali, David Volkman

Abstract:

Selecting a portfolio for investing is a crucial decision for individuals and legal entities. In the last two decades, with economic globalization, a stream of financial innovations has rushed to the aid of financial institutions. The importance of selecting stocks for the portfolio is always a challenging task for investors. This study aims to create a financial network to identify optimal portfolios using network centralities metrics. This research presents a community detection technique of superior stocks that can be described as an optimal stock portfolio to be used by investors. By using the advantages of a network and its property in extracted communities, a group of stocks was selected for each of the various time periods. The performance of the optimal portfolios compared to the famous index. Their Sharpe ratio was calculated in a timely manner to evaluate their profit for making decisions. The analysis shows that the selected potential portfolio from stocks with low centrality measurement can outperform the market; however, they have a lower Sharpe ratio than stocks with high centrality scores. In other words, stocks with low centralities could outperform the S&P500 yet have a lower Sharpe ratio than high central stocks.

Keywords: portfolio management performance, network analysis, centrality measurements, Sharpe ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
18449 Application of Golden Ratio in Contemporary Textile Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Preferences

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez

Abstract:

This research aims to determine the influence of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through textile designs. This study was carried out by collecting a variety of designs from different textile industries. Top textile designers were also interviewed regarding golden ratio and its application on their designs and design execution process. This study revealed that most of the designs fulfilled the golden ratio and the designs that were according to golden ratio were more favorite to the consumers.

Keywords: golden ratio, Fibonacci numbers, textile design, designs

Procedia PDF Downloads 620
18448 Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments

Authors: M. Khalid Alamgir, Javed Ahsan Bhatti, M. Zafarullah Khan

Abstract:

Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.

Keywords: DLC, thin film, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, EDX

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
18447 Seismic Behavior and Loss Assessment of High–Rise Buildings with Light Gauge Steel–Concrete Hybrid Structure

Authors: Bing Lu, Shuang Li, Hongyuan Zhou

Abstract:

The steel–concrete hybrid structure has been extensively employed in high–rise buildings and super high–rise buildings. The light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, including light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure, is a new–type steel–concrete hybrid structure, which possesses some advantages of light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure. The seismic behavior and loss assessment of three high–rise buildings with three different concrete hybrid structures were investigated through finite element software, respectively. The three concrete hybrid structures are reinforced concrete column–steel beam (RC‒S) hybrid structure, concrete–filled steel tube column–steel beam (CFST‒S) hybrid structure, and tubed concrete column–steel beam (TC‒S) hybrid structure. The nonlinear time-history analysis of three high–rise buildings under 80 earthquakes was carried out. After simulation, it indicated that the seismic performances of three high–rise buildings were superior. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the maximum inter–storey drifts of three high–rise buildings are significantly lower than 1/50. The inter–storey drift and floor acceleration of high–rise building with CFST‒S hybrid structure were bigger than those of high–rise buildings with RC‒S hybrid structure, and smaller than those of high–rise building with TC‒S hybrid structure. Then, based on the time–history analysis results, the post-earthquake repair cost ratio and repair time of three high–rise buildings were predicted through an economic performance analysis method proposed in FEMA‒P58 report. Under frequent earthquakes, basic earthquakes and rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of three high-rise buildings were less than 5% and 15 days, respectively. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of high-rise buildings with TC‒S hybrid structure were the most among three high rise buildings. Due to the advantages of CFST-S hybrid structure, it could be extensively employed in high-rise buildings subjected to earthquake excitations.

Keywords: seismic behavior, loss assessment, light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, high–rise building, time–history analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
18446 Viscoelastic Cell Concentration in a High Aspect Ratio Microchannel Using a Non-Powered Air Compressor

Authors: Jeonghun Nam, Seonggil Kim, Hyunjoo Choi, Chae Seung Lim

Abstract:

Quantification and analysis of rare cells are challenging in clinical applications and cell biology due to its extremely small number in blood. In this work, we propose a viscoelastic microfluidic device for continuous cell concentration without sheath flows. Due to the viscoelastic effect on suspending cells, cells with the blockage ratio higher than 0.1 could be tightly focused at the center of the microchannel. The blockage ratio was defined as the particle diameter divided by the channel width. Finally, cells were concentrated through the center outlet and the additional suspending medium was removed to the side outlets. Since viscoelastic focusing is insensitive to the flow rate higher than 10 μl/min, the non-powered hand pump sprayer could be used with no accurate control of the flow rate, which is suitable for clinical settings in resource-limited developing countries. Using multiple concentration processes, high-throughput concentration of white blood cells in lysed blood sample was achieved by ~ 300-fold.

Keywords: cell concentration, high-throughput, non-powered, viscoelastic fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
18445 A 3Y/3Y Pole-Changing Winding of High-Power Asynchronous Motors

Authors: Gábor Kovács

Abstract:

Requirement for pole-changing motors emerged at the very early times of asynchronous motor design. Different solutions have been elaborated and some of them are generally used. An alternative is the so called 3 Y/3 Y pole-changing winding. This paper deals with high power application of this solution. A complete and comprehensive study is introduced, including features and design guidelines. The method presented in this paper is especially suitable for pole numbers being close to each other. The study also reveals that the method is more advantageous then the existing solutions for high power motors with 1:3 pole ratio. Using this motor, a new and complete drive supply system has been proposed as most appropriate arrangement of high power main naval propulsion drive. Further, the method makes possible to extend the pole ratio to 1:6, 1:9, 1:12, etc. At the end, the proposal is further extended to the here so far missing 1:4, 1:5, 1:7 etc. pole ratios. A complete proposal for the theoretically infinite range has been given in this way.

Keywords: induction motor, pole changing 3Y/3Y, pole phase modulation, pole changing 1:3, 1:6

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
18444 Load Relaxation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High-temperature deformation behavior of ferritic stainless steels such as STS 409L, STS 430J1L, and STS 429EM has been investigated in this study. Specimens with fully annealed microstructure were obtained by heat treatment. A series of load relaxation tests has been conducted on these samples at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900oC to construct flow curves in the strain rate range from 10-6 s-1 to 10-3 s-1. Strain hardening was not observed at high temperatures above 800oC in any stainless steels. Load relaxation behavior at the temperature was closely related with high-temperature mechanical properties such as the thermal fatigue and tensile behaviors. Load drop ratio of 436L stainless steel was much higher than that of the other steels. With increasing temperature, strength and load drop ratio of ferritic stainless steels showed entirely different trends.

Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, high temperature deformation, load relaxation, microstructure, strain rate sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
18443 A Novel Search Pattern for Motion Estimation in High Efficiency Video Coding

Authors: Phong Nguyen, Phap Nguyen, Thang Nguyen

Abstract:

High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) or H.265 Standard fulfills the demand of high resolution video storage and transmission since it achieves high compression ratio. However, it requires a huge amount of calculation. Since Motion Estimation (ME) block composes about 80 % of calculation load of HEVC, there are a lot of researches to reduce the computation cost. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to lower the number of Motion Estimation’s searching points. The number of computing points in search pattern is down from 77 for Diamond Pattern and 81 for Square Pattern to only 31. Meanwhile, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and bit rate are almost equal to those of conventional patterns. The motion estimation time of new algorithm reduces by at 68.23%, 65.83%compared to the recommended search pattern of diamond pattern, square pattern, respectively.

Keywords: motion estimation, wide diamond, search pattern, H.265, test zone search, HM software

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
18442 Epitaxial Growth of Crystalline Polyaniline on Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: D. Majumdar, M. Baskey, S. K. Saha

Abstract:

Graphene has already been identified as a promising material for future carbon based electronics. To develop graphene technology, the fabrication of a high quality P-N junction is a great challenge. In the present work, we have described a simple and general technique to grow single crystalline polyaniline (PANI) films on graphene sheets using in situ polymerization via the oxidation-reduction of aniline monomer and graphene oxide, respectively, to fabricate a high quality P-N junction, which shows diode-like behavior with a remarkably low turn-on voltage (60 mV) and high rectification ratio (1880:1) up to a voltage of 0.2 Volt. The origin of these superior electronic properties is the preferential growth of a highly crystalline PANI film as well as lattice matching between the d-values [~2.48 Å] of graphene and {120} planes of PANI.

Keywords: epitaxial growth, PANI, reduced graphene oxide, rectification ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
18441 Catalytic Deoxygenation of Non-Edible Oil to Renewable Fuel by Using Calcium-Based Nanocatalyst

Authors: Hwei Voon Lee, N. Asikin-Mijana, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, J. C. Juan, N. A. Rahman

Abstract:

Cracking–Deoxygenation process is one of the important reaction pathways for the production of bio-fuel with desirable n-C17 hydrocarbon chain via removal of oxygen compounds. Calcium-based catalyst has attracted much attention in deoxygenation process due to its relatively high capacity in removing oxygenated compounds in the form of CO₂ and CO under decarboxylation and decarbonylation reaction, respectively. In the present study, deoxygenation of triolein was investigated using Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst derived from low cost natural waste shells. The Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst was prepared via integration techniques between surfactant treatment (anionic and non-ionic) and wet sonochemical effect. Results showed that sonochemically assisted surfactant treatment has successfully enhanced the physicochemical properties of Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst in terms of nanoparticle sizes (∼50 nm), high surface area(∼130 m²g⁻¹), large porosity (∼18.6 nm) and strong basic strength. The presence of superior properties from surfactant treated Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalysts rendered high deoxygenation degree, which is capable of producing high alkane and alkene selectivity in chain length of n-C17(high value of C17/(n-C17+ n-C18)ratio = 0.88). Furthermore, both Ca(OH)₂–EG and Ca(OH)₂–CTAB nanocatalysts showed high reactivity with 47.37% and 44.50%, respectively in total liquid hydrocarbon content of triolein conversion with high H/C and low O/C ratio.

Keywords: clamshell, cracking, decarboxylation-decarbonylation, hydrocarbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
18440 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
18439 Fabrication and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanowires on Aluminum Oxide Template

Authors: Malik Imran Afzal

Abstract:

Cadmium supplied nanowires have unique electrical and optical properties and applications. To obtain cadmium supplied nanowires with regular and good aspect ratio, they can be synthesized by template synthesis method. Porous anodized aluminum oxide is the most promising template with regular hexagonal shapes. Their aspect ratio can be controlled by controlling the pores’ depth and diameter which greatly depend on anodization voltage and temperature of the electrolyte. In this research, high purity aluminium was used to prepare nanotemplates at 5-6°C in 1M phosphoric acid and cadmium supplied was deposited electrochemically using a co-solution of thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium acetate. pH was maintained at 11 in a heat bath at 75°C with the help of aqueous ammonia solution. Both porous anodized alumina and cadmium supplied nanowires were characterized suing SEM. A good quality Nanowires were obtained in bunches with reasonably high aspect ratio.

Keywords: bunches, electrodeposition, hexagonal, thiourea

Procedia PDF Downloads 245