Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 829

Search results for: quantum fluids

829 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh


A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids

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828 A Steady State Characteristics of Four-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Couple Stress Fluids in Turbulent Flow Regime

Authors: Boualem Chetti, Samir Zahaf


This paper presents the steady-state performance analysis of a four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids operating in the turbulent regime, following Constantinescu’s turbulent lubrication theory. The modified Reynolds equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method taking into consideration the effects of the turbulence and the couple stress. In this analysis, the steady-state parameters in terms of the attitude angle, load carrying capacity, side leakage and friction coefficient are determined at various values of eccentricities ratio. The computed results show that the turbulence increases the load carrying capacity, the attitude angle and the friction coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a Newtonian or a couple stress fluids. It is found that the turbulence has strongly influence on the steady-state performances of the four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with Newtonian fluids or a couple stress fluids.

Keywords: Four-lobe journal bearings, static characteristics, couple-stress fluids, turbulent flow

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827 EHD Effect on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Journal Bearing Lubricated with Couple Stress Fluids

Authors: B. Chetti, W. A. Crosby


This paper presents a numerical analysis for the dynamic performance of a finite journal bearing lubricated with couple stress fluid taking into account the effect of the deformation of the bearing liner. The modified Reynolds equation has been solved by using finite difference technique. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness coefficients, damping coefficients, critical mass and whirl ratio are evaluated for different values of eccentricity ratio and elastic coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids and a Newtonian fluid. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids are improved compared to journal bearings lubricated with Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: journal bearing, elastohydrodynamic, stability, couple stress

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826 Borate Crosslinked Fracturing Fluids: Laboratory Determination of Rheology

Authors: Lalnuntluanga Hmar, Hardik Vyas


Hydraulic fracturing has become an essential procedure to break apart the rock and release the oil or gas which are trapped tightly in the rock by pumping fracturing fluids at high pressure down into the well. To open the fracture and to transport propping agent along the fracture, proper selection of fracturing fluids is the most crucial components in fracturing operations. Rheology properties of the fluids are usually considered the most important. Among various fracturing fluids, Borate crosslinked fluids have proved to be highly effective. Borate in the form of Boric Acid, borate ion is the most commonly use to crosslink the hydrated polymers and to produce very viscous gels that can stable at high temperature. Guar and HPG (Hydroxypropyl Guar) polymers are the most often used in these fluids. Borate gel rheology is known to be a function of polymer concentration, borate ion concentration, pH, and temperature. The crosslinking using Borate is a function of pH which means it can be formed or reversed simply by altering the pH of the fluid system. The fluid system was prepared by mixing base polymer with water at pH ranging between 8 to 11 and the optimum borate crosslinker efficiency was found to be pH of about 10. The rheology of laboratory prepared Borate crosslinked fracturing fluid was determined using Anton Paar Rheometer and Fann Viscometer. The viscosity was measured at high temperature ranging from 200ᵒF to 250ᵒF and pressures in order to partially stimulate the downhole condition. Rheological measurements reported that the crosslinking increases the viscosity, elasticity and thus fluid capability to transport propping agent.

Keywords: borate, crosslinker, Guar, Hydroxypropyl Guar (HPG), rheology

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825 Effects of Radiation on Mixed Convection in Power Law Fluids along Vertical Wedge Embedded in a Saturated Porous Medium under Prescribed Surface Heat Flux Condition

Authors: Qaisar Ali, Waqar A. Khan, Shafiq R. Qureshi


Heat transfer in Power Law Fluids across cylindrical surfaces has copious engineering applications. These applications comprises of areas such as underwater pollution, bio medical engineering, filtration systems, chemical, petroleum, polymer, food processing, recovery of geothermal energy, crude oil extraction, pharmaceutical and thermal energy storage. The quantum of research work with diversified conditions to study the effects of combined heat transfer and fluid flow across porous media has increased considerably over last few decades. The most non-Newtonian fluids of practical interest are highly viscous and therefore are often processed in the laminar flow regime. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of free and mixed convection in Newtonian fluids along vertical and horizontal cylinder embedded in a saturated porous medium, whereas very few analysis have been performed on Power law fluids along wedge. In this study, boundary layer analysis under the effects of radiation-mixed convection in power law fluids along vertical wedge in porous medium have been investigated using an implicit finite difference method (Keller box method). Steady, 2-D laminar flow has been considered under prescribed surface heat flux condition. Darcy, Boussinesq and Roseland approximations are assumed to be valid. Neglecting viscous dissipation effects and the radiate heat flux in the flow direction, the boundary layer equations governing mixed convection flow over a vertical wedge are transformed into dimensionless form. The single mathematical model represents the case for vertical wedge, cone and plate by introducing the geometry parameter. Both similar and Non- similar solutions have been obtained and results for Non similar case have been presented/ plotted. Effects of radiation parameter, variable heat flux parameter, wedge angle parameter ‘m’ and mixed convection parameter have been studied for both Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids. The results are also compared with the available data for the analysis of heat transfer in the prescribed range of parameters and found in good agreement. Results for the details of dimensionless local Nusselt number, temperature and velocity fields have also been presented for both Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids. Analysis of data revealed that as the radiation parameter or wedge angle is increased, the Nusselt number decreases whereas it increases with increase in the value of heat flux parameter at a given value of mixed convection parameter. Also, it is observed that as viscosity increases, the skin friction co-efficient increases which tends to reduce the velocity. Moreover, pseudo plastic fluids are more heat conductive than Newtonian and dilatant fluids respectively. All fluids behave identically in pure forced convection domain.

Keywords: porous medium, power law fluids, surface heat flux, vertical wedge

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824 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma


Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

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823 Performance of Non-toxic, Corrosion Resistant, and Lubricious Metalworking Fluids under Machining

Authors: Ajay Pratap Singh Lodhi, Deepak Kumar


Vegetable oil-based environmentally friendly metalworking fluids (MWFs) are formulated. The tribological performance, cytotoxicity, and corrosion resistance of the formulated fluids (FFs) are evaluated and benchmarked with commercial mineral oil-based MWFs (CF). Results show that FFs exhibited better machining characteristics (roughness, cutting forces, and surface morphology) during machining than CF. MTT assay and Live dead cell assay confirm the cytocompatibility nature of the FFs relative to the toxic CF. Electrochemical analysis shows that FFs and CF exhibited comparable corrosion current density.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, cytotoxicity, machining, MTT assay, Taguchi method, vegetable oil

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822 Stability Analysis of Three-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Micropolar Fluids

Authors: Boualem Chetti


The dynamic characteristics of a three-lobe journal bearing lubricated with micropolar fluids are determined by the linear stability theory. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modeled as micropolar fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the micropolar lubrication theory and the finite difference technique has been used to solve it. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness, damping coefficients, the critical mass and whirl ratio are determined for various values of size of material characteristic length and the coupling number. The computed results show compared with Newtonian fluids, that micropolar fluid exhibits better stability.

Keywords: three-lobe bearings, micropolar fluid, dynamic characteristics, stability analysis

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821 Magnetohydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer in a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid due to a Rotating Disk with Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump

Authors: Nur Dayana Khairunnisa Rosli, Seripah Awang Kechil


Swirling flows with velocity slip are important in nature and industrial processes. The present work considers the effects of velocity slip, temperature jump and suction/injection on the flow and heat transfer of power-law fluids due to a rotating disk in the presence of magnetic field. The system of the partial differential equations is highly non-linear. The number of independent variables is reduced by transforming the system into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The effects of suction/injection, velocity slip and temperature jump on the flow rates are investigated for various cases of shear thinning and shear thickening power law fluids. The thermal and velocity jump strongly reduce the heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient. Suction decreases the radial and tangential skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer. It is also observed that the effects are more pronounced in the case of shear thinning fluids as compared to shear thickening fluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, power-law fluids, rotating disk, suction or injection, temperature jump, velocity slip

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820 Vibration Damping Properties of Electrorheological Materials Based on Chitosan/Perlite Composite

Authors: M. Cabuk, M. Yavuz, T. A. Yesil, H. I. Unal


Electrorheological (ER) fluids are a class of smart materials exhibiting reversible changes in their rheological and mechanical properties under an applied electric field (E). ER fluids generally are composed of polarisable solid particles dispersed in non-conducting oil. ER fluids are fluids which exhibit. The resistance to motion of the ER fluid can be controlled by adjusting the applied E, due to their fast and reversible changes in their rheological properties presence of E. In this study, a series of chitosan/expanded perlite (CS/EP) composites with different chitosan mass fractions (10%, 20%, and 50%) was used. Characterizations of the composites were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. Antisedimentation stability and dielectric properties of the composites were also determined. The effects of volume fraction, electric field strength, shear rate, shear stress, and temperature onto ER properties of the CS/EP composite particles dispersed in silicone oil (SO) were investigated in detail. Vibration damping behavior of the CS/EP composites were determined as a function of frequence, storage (Gʹ) and loss (Gʹ ʹ) moduli. It was observed that ER response of the CS/EP/SO ER fluids increased with increasing electric field strength and exhibited the typical shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behaviors with increasing shear rate. The maximum yield stress was obtained with 1250 Pa under E = 3 kV/mm. Further, the CS/EP/SO ER fluids were observed to sensitive to vibration control by showing reversible viscosity enhancements (Gʹ > Gʹ ʹ). Acknowledgements: The authors thank the TÜBİTAK (214Z199) for the financial support of this work.

Keywords: chitosan, electrorheology, perlite, vibration control

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819 Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat

Authors: Mandip Singh


Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.

Keywords: Schrodinger-cat quantum states, macroscopic entanglement, macroscopic quantum fields, foundations of quantum physics

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818 Modelling the Yield Stress of Magnetorheological Fluids

Authors: Hesam Khajehsaeid, Naeimeh Alagheband


Magnetorheological fluids (MRF) are a category of smart materials. They exhibit a reversible change from a Newtonian-like fluid to a semi-solid state upon application of an external magnetic field. In contrast to ordinary fluids, MRFs can tolerate shear stresses up to a threshold value called yield stress which strongly depends on the strength of the magnetic field, magnetic particles volume fraction and temperature. Even beyond the yield, a magnetic field can increase MR fluid viscosity up to several orders. As yield stress is an important parameter in the design of MR devices, in this work, the effects of magnetic field intensity and magnetic particle concentration on the yield stress of MRFs are investigated. Four MRF samples with different particle concentrations are developed and tested through flow-ramp analysis to obtain the flow curves at a range of magnetic field intensity as well as shear rate. The viscosity of the fluids is determined by means of the flow curves. The results are then used to determine the yield stresses by means of the steady stress sweep method. The yield stresses are then determined by means of a modified form of the dipole model as well as empirical models. The exponential distribution function is used to describe the orientation of particle chains in the dipole model under the action of the external magnetic field. Moreover, the modified dipole model results in a reasonable distribution of chains compared to previous similar models.

Keywords: magnetorheological fluids, yield stress, particles concentration, dipole model

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817 Prediction of Oxygen Transfer and Gas Hold-Up in Pneumatic Bioreactors Containing Viscous Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Caroline E. Mendes, Alberto C. Badino


Pneumatic reactors have been widely employed in various sectors of the chemical industry, especially where are required high heat and mass transfer rates. This study aimed to obtain correlations that allow the prediction of gas hold-up (Ԑ) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), and compare these values, for three models of pneumatic reactors on two scales utilizing Newtonian fluids. Values of kLa were obtained using the dynamic pressure-step method, while  was used for a new proposed measure. Comparing the three models of reactors studied, it was observed that the mass transfer was superior to draft-tube airlift, reaching  of 0.173 and kLa of 0.00904s-1. All correlations showed good fit to the experimental data (R2≥94%), and comparisons with correlations from the literature demonstrate the need for further similar studies due to shortage of data available, mainly for airlift reactors and high viscosity fluids.

Keywords: bubble column, internal loop airlift, gas hold-up, kLa

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816 Path Integrals and Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure

Authors: Revant Nayar


In this work, we recast the equations describing large scale structure, and by extension all nonlinear fluids, in the path integral formalism. We first calculate the well known two and three point functions using Schwinger Keldysh formalism used commonly to perturbatively solve path integrals in non- equilibrium systems. Then we include EFT corrections due to pressure, viscosity, and noise as effects on the time-dependent propagator. We are able to express results for arbitrary two and three point correlation functions in LSS in terms of differential operators acting on a triple K master intergral. We also, for the first time, get analytical results for more general initial conditions deviating from the usual power law P∝kⁿ by introducing a mass scale in the initial conditions. This robust field theoretic formalism empowers us with tools from strongly coupled QFT to study the strongly non-linear regime of LSS and turbulent fluid dynamics such as OPE and holographic duals. These could be used to capture fully the strongly non-linear dynamics of fluids and move towards solving the open problem of classical turbulence.

Keywords: quantum field theory, cosmology, effective field theory, renormallisation

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815 Theoretical Investigation of Thermal Properties of Nanofluids with Application to Solar Collector

Authors: Reema Jain


Nanofluids are emergent fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Solar collectors are commonly used in areas such as industries, heating, and cooling for domestic purpose, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles, etc. Performance and efficiency of solar collectors depend upon various factors like collector & receiver material, solar radiation intensity, nature of working fluid, etc. The properties of working fluid which flow through the collectors greatly affects its performance. In this research work, a theoretical effort has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector by using Nano fluids instead of conventional fluid like water as working fluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, nanoparticles, heat transfer, solar collector

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814 Science behind Quantum Teleportation

Authors: Ananya G., B. Varshitha, Shwetha S., Kavitha S. N., Praveen Kumar Gupta


Teleportation is the ability to travel by just reappearing at some other spot. Though teleportation has never been achieved, quantum teleportation is possible. Quantum teleportation is a process of transferring the quantum state of a particle onto another particle, under the circumstance that one does not get to know any information about the state in the process of transformation. This paper presents a brief overview of quantum teleportation, discussing the topics like Entanglement, EPR Paradox, Bell's Theorem, Qubits, elements for a successful teleport, some examples of advanced teleportation systems (also covers few ongoing experiments), applications (that includes quantum cryptography), and the current hurdles for future scientists interested in this field. Finally, major advantages and limitations to the existing teleportation theory are discussed.

Keywords: teleportation, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement, qubits, EPR paradox, bell states, quantum particles, spooky action at a distance

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813 Fluid Prescribing Post Laparotomies

Authors: Gusa Hall, Barrie Keeler, Achal Khanna


Introduction: NICE guidelines have highlighted the consequences of IV fluid mismanagement. The main aim of this study was to audit fluid prescribing post laparotomies to identify if fluids were prescribed in accordance to NICE guidelines. Methodology: Retrospective database search of eight specific laparotomy procedures (colectomy right and left, Hartmann’s procedure, small bowel resection, perforated ulcer, abdominal perineal resection, anterior resection, pan proctocolectomy, subtotal colectomy) highlighted 29 laparotomies between April 2019 and May 2019. Two of 29 patients had secondary procedures during the same admission, n=27 (patients). Database case notes were reviewed for date of procedure, length of admission, fluid prescribed and amount, nasal gastric tube output, daily bloods results for electrolytes sodium and potassium and operational losses. Results: n=27 based on 27 identified patients between April 2019 – May 2019, 93% (25/27) received IV fluids, only 19% (5/27) received the correct IV fluids in accordance to NICE guidelines, 93% (25/27) who received IV fluids had the correct electrolytes levels (sodium & potassium), 100% (27/27) patients received blood tests (U&E’s) for correct electrolytes levels. 0% (0/27) no documentation on operational losses. IV fluids matched nasogastric tube output in 100% (3/3) of the number of patients that had a nasogastric tube in situ. Conclusion: A PubMed database literature review on barriers to safer IV prescribing highlighted educational interventions focused on prescriber knowledge rather than how to execute the prescribing task. This audit suggests IV fluids post laparotomies are not being prescribed consistently in accordance to NICE guidelines. Surgical management plans should be clearer on IV fluids and electrolytes requirements for the following 24 hours after the plan has been initiated. In addition, further teaching and training around IV prescribing is needed together with frequent surgical audits on IV fluid prescribing post-surgery to evaluate improvements.

Keywords: audit, IV Fluid prescribing, laparotomy, NICE guidelines

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812 Aperiodic and Asymmetric Fibonacci Quasicrystals: Next Big Future in Quantum Computation

Authors: Jatindranath Gain, Madhumita DasSarkar, Sudakshina Kundu


Quantum information is stored in states with multiple quasiparticles, which have a topological degeneracy. Topological quantum computation is concerned with two-dimensional many body systems that support excitations. Anyons are elementary building block of quantum computations. When anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state and produce Fibonacci anyons, which are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation (TQC).Here the exotic behavior of Fibonacci Superlattice is studied by using analytical transfer matrix methods and hence Fibonacci anyons. This Fibonacci anyons can build a quantum computer which is very emerging and exciting field today’s in Nanophotonics and quantum computation.

Keywords: quantum computing, quasicrystals, Multiple Quantum wells (MQWs), transfer matrix method, fibonacci anyons, quantum hall effect, nanophotonics

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811 The Nature of Mineralizing Fluids in the Hammam Zriba Deposit (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) in North-eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, David Banks


The Hammam Zriba (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) ore deposits of the Zaghouan district are located in northeast Tunisia, 60 Km south of Tunis. The host rocks belong to the Ressas Formation (Tithonian age) and lower Cretaceous layers. Mineralization occurs as stratiform replacement heaps and lenses. The mineral assemblage is composed of fluorite, barite, sphalerite, and galena. Primary fluid inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures ranging from 83 to 140°C, final melting temperature range from −18 to −7.0, corresponding to salinities of 5 to 21 wt % NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusions in fluorite homogenize to the liquid phase between 132 and 178°C. Final ice melting temperatures range from −25 to −6.8 °C, corresponding to salinities between 17 and 24 wt% NaCl Equivalent. The LA-ICP-MS analyses of the fluid inclusions in fluorite show that these fluids are dominated by Na>Ca>K>Mg, with the concentration of Fe being equivalent to that of Mg. Microthermometric analyses of the fluid inclusions observed in fluorite and sphalerite show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralization deposition: a warmer saline fluid (132-178°C, 17-24 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler saline fluid (83°C-140, 5-21 wt %NaCl equivalent). The ore fluid result from highly saline and Na-Ca dominated with lower Mg concentrations come from the leaching of the dolomitic host rocks by the fluids.

Keywords: Hammam Zriba , fluid inclusions, LA-ICP-MS, Zaghouan district

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810 Investigating what Effects Aviation Fluids Have on the Flatwise Compressive Strength of Nomex® Honeycomb Core Material

Authors: G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg


One of the disadvantages of honeycomb sandwich structure is that they are prone to fluid intrusion. The purpose of this study is to determine if the structural properties of honeycomb core are affected by contact with a fluid. The test specimens were manufactured of fiberglass prepreg for the facesheets and Nomex® honeycomb core for the core material in accordance with ASTM C-365/365M. Test specimens were soaked in several different kinds of fluids, such as aircraft fuel, turbine engine oil, hydraulic fluid, and water for a period of 60 days. A flatwise compressive test was performed, and the test results were analyzed to determine how the contact with aircraft fluids affected the compressive strength of the Nomex® honeycomb core and how the strength was recovered when the specimens were dry. In addition, the investigation of de-bonding between facesheet and core material after soaking were performed to support the study.

Keywords: sandwich structure, honeycomb, environmental degradation, debonding

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809 Alternative Acidizing Fluids and Their Impact on the Southern Algerian Shale Formations

Authors: Rezki Akkal, Mohamed Khodja, Slimane Azzi


Acidification is a technique used in oil reservoirs to improve annual production, reduce the skin and increase the pressure of an oil well while eliminating the formation damage that occurs during the drilling process, completion and, amongst others, to create new channels allowing the easy circulation of oil around a producing well. This is achieved by injecting an acidizing fluid at a relatively low pressure to prevent fracturing formation. The treatment fluid used depends on the type and nature of the reservoir rock traversed as well as its petrophysical properties. In order to understand the interaction mechanisms between the treatment fluids used for the reservoir rock acidizing, several candidate wells for stimulation were selected in the large Hassi Messaoud deposit in southern Algeria. The stimulation of these wells is completed using different fluids composed mainly of HCl acid with other additives such as corrosion inhibitors, clay stabilizers and iron controllers. These treatment fluids are injected over two phases, namely with clean tube (7.5% HCl) and matrix aidizing with HCl (15%). The stimulation results obtained are variable according to the type of rock traversed and its mineralogical composition. These results show that there has been an increase in production flow and head pressure respectively from 1.99 m3 / h to 3.56 m3 / h and from 13 Kgf / cm2 to 20 kgf / cm2 in the sands formation having good petrophysical properties of (porosity = 16%) and low amount of clay (Vsh = 6%).

Keywords: acidizing, Hassi-Messaoud reservoir, tube clean, matrix stimulation

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808 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian


A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: the linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure

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807 Effect of Cutting Tools and Working Conditions on the Machinability of Ti-6Al-4V Using Vegetable Oil-Based Cutting Fluids

Authors: S. Gariani, I. Shyha


Cutting titanium alloys are usually accompanied with low productivity, poor surface quality, short tool life and high machining costs. This is due to the excessive generation of heat at the cutting zone and difficulties in heat dissipation due to relatively low heat conductivity of this metal. The cooling applications in machining processes are crucial as many operations cannot be performed efficiently without cooling. Improving machinability, increasing productivity, enhancing surface integrity and part accuracy are the main advantages of cutting fluids. Conventional fluids such as mineral oil-based, synthetic and semi-synthetic are the most common cutting fluids in the machining industry. Although, these cutting fluids are beneficial in the industries, they pose a great threat to human health and ecosystem. Vegetable oils (VOs) are being investigated as a potential source of environmentally favourable lubricants, due to a combination of biodegradability, good lubricous properties, low toxicity, high flash points, low volatility, high viscosity indices and thermal stability. Fatty acids of vegetable oils are known to provide thick, strong, and durable lubricant films. These strong lubricating films give the vegetable oil base stock a greater capability to absorb pressure and high load carrying capacity. This paper details preliminary experimental results when turning Ti-6Al-4V. The impact of various VO-based cutting fluids, cutting tool materials, working conditions was investigated. The full factorial experimental design was employed involving 24 tests to evaluate the influence of process variables on average surface roughness (Ra), tool wear and chip formation. In general, Ra varied between 0.5 and 1.56 µm and Vasco1000 cutting fluid presented comparable performance with other fluids in terms of surface roughness while uncoated coarse grain WC carbide tool achieved lower flank wear at all cutting speeds. On the other hand, all tools tips were subjected to uniform flank wear during whole cutting trails. Additionally, formed chip thickness ranged between 0.1 and 0.14 mm with a noticeable decrease in chip size when higher cutting speed was used.

Keywords: cutting fluids, turning, Ti-6Al-4V, vegetable oils, working conditions

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806 Simplified Modelling of Visco-Elastic Fluids for Use in Recoil Damping Systems

Authors: Prasad Pokkunuri


Visco-elastic materials combine the stress response properties of both solids and fluids and have found use in a variety of damping applications – both vibrational and acoustic. Defense and automotive applications, in particular, are subject to high impact and shock loading – for example: aircraft landing gear, firearms, and shock absorbers. Field responsive fluids – a class of smart materials – are the preferred choice of energy absorbents because of their controllability. These fluids’ stress response can be controlled by the application of a magnetic or electric field, in a closed loop. Their rheological properties – elasticity, plasticity, and viscosity – can be varied all the way from that of a liquid such as water to a hard solid. This work presents a simplified model to study the impulse response behavior of such fluids for use in recoil damping systems. The well-known Burger’s equation, in conjunction with various visco-elastic constitutive models, is used to represent fluid behavior. The Kelvin-Voigt, Upper Convected Maxwell (UCM), and Oldroyd-B constitutive models are implemented in this study. Using these models in a one-dimensional framework eliminates additional complexities due to geometry, pressure, body forces, and other source terms. Using a finite difference formulation to numerically solve the governing equation(s), the response to an initial impulse is studied. The disturbance is confined within the problem domain with no-inflow, no-outflow boundary conditions, and its decay characteristics studied. Visco-elastic fluids typically involve a time-dependent stress relaxation which gives rise to interesting behavior when subjected to an impulsive load. For particular values of viscous damping and elastic modulus, the fluid settles into a stable oscillatory state, absorbing and releasing energy without much decay. The simplified formulation enables a comprehensive study of different modes of system response, by varying relevant parameters. Using the insights gained from this study, extension to a more detailed multi-dimensional model is considered.

Keywords: Burgers Equation, Impulse Response, Recoil Damping Systems, Visco-elastic Fluids

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805 Nanomaterials-Assisted Drilling Fluids for Application in Oil Fields - Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Husam Mohammed Saleh Alziyadi


The drilling fluid has a significant impact on drilling efficiency. Drilling fluids have several functions which make them most important within the drilling process, such as lubricating and cooling the drill bit, removing cuttings from down of hole, preventing formation damage, suspending drill bit cuttings, , and also removing permeable formation as a result, the flow of fluid into the formation process is delayed. In the oil and gas sector, unconventional shale reserves have been a central player in meeting world energy demands. Oil-based drilling fluids (OBM) are generally favored for drilling shale plays due to negligible chemical interactions. Nevertheless, the industry has been inspired by strict environmental regulations to design water-based drilling fluids (WBM) capable of regulating shale-water interactions to boost their efficiency. However, traditional additives are too large to plug the micro-fractures and nanopores of the shale. Recently, nanotechnology in the oil and gas industries has shown a lot of promise, especially with drilling fluids based on nanoparticles. Nanotechnology has already made a huge contribution to technical developments in the energy sector. In the drilling industry, nanotechnology can make revolutionary changes. Nanotechnology creates nanomaterials with many attractive properties that can play an important role in improving the consistency of mud cake, reducing friction, preventing differential pipe sticking, preserving the stability of the borehole, protecting reservoirs, and improving the recovery of oil and gas. The selection of suitable nanomaterials should be based on the shale formation characteristics intended for drilling. The size, concentration, and stability of the NPs are three more important considerations. The effects of the environment are highly sensitive to these materials, such as changes in ionic strength, temperature, or pH, all of which occur under downhole conditions. This review paper focused on the previous research and recent development of environmentally friendly drilling fluids according to the regulatory environment and cost challenges.

Keywords: nanotechnology, WBM, Drilling Fluid, nanofluids

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804 Quantum Entanglement and Thermalization in Superconducting Two-Qubit Systems

Authors: E. Karami, M. Bohloul, P. Najmadi


The superconducting system is a suitable system for quantum computers. Quantum entanglement is a fundamental phenomenon that is key to the power of quantum computers. Quantum entanglement has been studied in different superconducting systems. In this paper, we are investigating a superconducting two-qubit system as a macroscopic system. These systems include two coupled Quantronium circuits. We calculate quantum entanglement and thermalization for system evolution and compare them. We observe, thermalization and entanglement have different behavior, and equilibrium thermal state has maximum entanglement.

Keywords: macroscopic system, quantum entanglement, thermalization, superconducting system

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803 Numerical investigation of Hydrodynamic and Parietal Heat Transfer to Bingham Fluid Agitated in a Vessel by Helical Ribbon Impeller

Authors: Mounir Baccar, Amel Gammoudi, Abdelhak Ayadi


The efficient mixing of highly viscous fluids is required for many industries such as food, polymers or paints production. The homogeneity is a challenging operation for this fluids type since they operate at low Reynolds number to reduce the required power of the used impellers. Particularly, close-clearance impellers, mainly helical ribbons, are chosen for highly viscous fluids agitated in laminar regime which is currently heated through vessel wall. Indeed, they are characterized by high shear strains closer to the vessel wall, which causes a disturbing thermal boundary layer and ensures the homogenization of the bulk volume by axial and radial vortices. The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of Newtonian fluids in vessels agitated by helical ribbon impellers, has been mostly studied by many researchers. However, rarely researchers investigated numerically the agitation of yield stress fluid by means of helical ribbon impellers. This paper aims to study the effect of the Double Helical Ribbon (DHR) stirrers on both the hydrodynamic and the thermal behaviors of yield stress fluids treated in a cylindrical vessel by means of numerical simulation approach. For this purpose, continuity, momentum, and thermal equations were solved by means of 3D finite volume technique. The effect of Oldroyd (Od) and Reynolds (Re) numbers on the power (Po) and Nusselt (Nu) numbers for the mentioned stirrer type have been studied. Also, the velocity and thermal fields, the dissipation function and the apparent viscosity have been presented in different (r-z) and (r-θ) planes.

Keywords: Bingham fluid, Hydrodynamic and thermal behavior, helical ribbon, mixing, numerical modelling

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802 Topology Optimization of Heat and Mass Transfer for Two Fluids under Steady State Laminar Regime: Application on Heat Exchangers

Authors: Rony Tawk, Boutros Ghannam, Maroun Nemer


Topology optimization technique presents a potential tool for the design and optimization of structures involved in mass and heat transfer. The method starts with an initial intermediate domain and should be able to progressively distribute the solid and the two fluids exchanging heat. The multi-objective function of the problem takes into account minimization of total pressure loss and maximization of heat transfer between solid and fluid subdomains. Existing methods account for the presence of only one fluid, while the actual work extends optimization distribution of solid and two different fluids. This requires to separate the channels of both fluids and to ensure a minimum solid thickness between them. This is done by adding a third objective function to the multi-objective optimization problem. This article uses density approach where each cell holds two local design parameters ranging from 0 to 1, where the combination of their extremums defines the presence of solid, cold fluid or hot fluid in this cell. Finite volume method is used for direct solver coupled with a discrete adjoint approach for sensitivity analysis and method of moving asymptotes for numerical optimization. Several examples are presented to show the ability of the method to find a trade-off between minimization of power dissipation and maximization of heat transfer while ensuring the separation and continuity of the channel of each fluid without crossing or mixing the fluids. The main conclusion is the possibility to find an optimal bi-fluid domain using topology optimization, defining a fluid to fluid heat exchanger device.

Keywords: topology optimization, density approach, bi-fluid domain, laminar steady state regime, fluid-to-fluid heat exchanger

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801 Quantum Dots with Microwave Propagation in Future Quantum Internet Protocol for Mobile Telephony

Authors: A. B. R. Hazarika


In the present paper, Quantum dots of ZnS are used to study the faster microwave propagation in space and on earth which will be difficult to bypass as quantum key encryption-decryption is difficult to decode. The present study deals with Quantum internet protocol which is much faster, safer and secure in microwave propagation than the present Internet Protocol v6, which forms the aspect of our study. Assimilation of hardware, Quantum dots with Quantum protocol theory beautifies the aspect of the study. So far to author’s best knowledge, the study on mobile telephony with Quantum dots long-term evolution (QDLTE) has not been studied earlier, which forms the aspect of the study found that the Bitrate comes out to be 102.4 Gbps.

Keywords: encryption, decryption, internet protocol, microwave, mobile telephony, quantum key encryption, quantum dots

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800 Contribution of the Study of Inclusion Fluids to the Knowledge of the Conditions of Formation of the Layers with SN-W of Central Hoggar, Algeria

Authors: J. Bouguebrine, L. Bouabsa


The ground of study is localized in central Hoggar and contains the most important layers and Stanno-Wolframifére indices of the metallogenic province have tin and wolfram of Hoggar. These layers are always associate with post-orogenetic Panafrican magmatism (GMR) which was set up in the form of circumscribed granitic solid masses of relatively reduced size or in dykes of microgranites. The area studied are in Tounine, Aléméda, Hanana-hananére, Tim Amzi, El Karoussa. The geochemical data processing watch peralumineux character rich person out of Li-F and rare metals (MR). Pegmatites of the type stocksheider, formations of greisens and mineralization Sn-W accompany these granites. Mineralisation Sn-W, expressed particularly well in the seams of quartz and greinsen is spacialement and génitiquement dependent on the maguatism specific to white feldspar-topaz (GMR) (grained and microgrenu). the mineral paragenesis is primarily made up of wolframite and cassetérite. The minerals of gangue are represented by quartz, topaz, the micas containing lithia and the fluorite. A microthermometric study of fluid inclusions related to the granites end on white feldspar-topaz of Hanana, topaz of Hananére, the microgranite of Aléméda, and the seams of quartz D In Tounine (Tiftazouine) and of Tim Amzi; allows to characterize the fluids associated with these layers. It comes out from this study the abundance of aqueous inclusions and three types of fluids were given: -Hot and salted fluids rich in volatile elements particularly CO2; -follow-ups by aquo-carbonic fluids less hot and moderately salted with temperatures of homogenisations (HT) average respectively of 300°C and 180°C; -finally of the aqueous fluids very little salted (≤1%pds.éq.NaCl) and definitely colder. An estimate depths éteé made starting from the diagram of (Haas, 1971) in the system H2O-NaCl, the results are the following: • Inclusion aqueous (L and Lw): correspond to depths of about 50 à500m. • Inclusions aquo-carbonic (Lcw and Lwc): correspond to depths of L order of 600 with 1200m • Carbonic inclusion (Vcw): correspond to depths about 1400à1800m

Keywords: fluid inclusions microthermométrie, cassiterite wolframite, granites with rare metals, Central Hoggar

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