Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 240

Search results for: waxy reservoirs

240 Hydrofracturing for Low Temperature Waxy Reservoirs: Problems and Solutions

Authors: Megh Patel, Arjun Chauhan, Jay Thakkar

Abstract:

Hydrofracturing is the most prominent but at the same time expensive, highly skilled and time consuming well stimulation technique. Due to high cost and skilled labor involved, it is generally carried out as the consummate solution among other well stimulation techniques. Considering today’s global petroleum market, no gaffe or complications could be entertained during fracturing, as it would further hamper the current dwindling economy. The literature would be dealing with the challenges encountered during fracturing low temperature waxy reservoirs and the prominent solutions to overcome such teething troubles. During fracturing treatment for, shallow and high freezing point waxy oil reservoirs, the first line problems are to overcome uncompleted breakdown, uncompleted cleanup of fracturing fluids and cold damages to the formations by injecting cold fluid (fluid at ambient conditions). Injecting fracturing fluids at ambient conditions have the tendency to decrease the near wellbore reservoir temperature below the freezing point of oil reservoir and hence leading to wax deposition around the wellbore thereby hampering the fluid production as well as fracture propagation. To overcome such problems, solutions such as hot fracturing fluid injection, encapsulated heat generating hydraulic fracturing fluid system, and injection of wax inhibitor techniques would be discussed. The paper would also be throwing light on changes in rheological properties occurred during heating fracturing fluids and solutions to deal with it taking economic considerations into account.

Keywords: hydrofracturing, waxy reservoirs, low temperature, viscosity, crosslinkers

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
239 Effects of Hypoxic Duration at Different Growth Stages on Yield Potential of Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: S. Boonlertnirun, R. Suvannasara, K. Boonlertnirun

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Hypoxia has negative effects on growth and crop yield, its severity is so varied depending on crop growth stages, duration of hypoxia and crop species. The objective was to evaluate the sensitive growth stage and the duration of hypoxia negatively affecting growth and yield of waxy corn. Pot experiment was conducted using a split plot in randomized complete block with 3 growth stages: V3 (3-4 true leaves), V7 (7-8 true leaves), and R1 (silking stage), and three hypoxic durations: 6, 9, and 12 days, in an open–ended outdoor greenhouse during January to March 2013. The results revealed that different growth stages had significantly (p < 0.5) different responses to hypoxia, seeing that the sensitive growth stage affecting plant height, yield and yield components was mostly detected in V7 growth stage whereas leaf greenness and days to silking were sensitive to hypoxia at R1 growth stage. Different hypoxic durations significantly affected the yield and yield components, hypoxic duration of twelve days showed the most negative effect greater than the others. In this present study, it can be concluded that waxy corn plants were waterlogged at V7 growth stage for twelve days had the most negative effect on yield and yield components.

Keywords: hypoxia duration, waxy corn, growth stage, Zea mays L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
238 Polysaccharides as Pour Point Depressants

Authors: Ali M. EL-Soll

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Physical properties of Sarir waxy crude oil was investigated, pour-point was determined using ASTM D-79 procedure, paraffin content and carbon number distribution of the paraffin was determined using gas liquid Chromatography(GLC), polymeric additives were prepared and their structures were confirmed using IR spectrophotometer. The molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution of these additives were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). the performance of the synthesized additives as pour-point depressants was evaluated, for the mentioned crude oil.

Keywords: sarir, waxy, crude, pour point, depressants

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
237 Characteristics of Oil-In-Water Emulsion Stabilized with Pregelatinized Waxy Rice Starch

Authors: R. Yulianingsih, S. Gohtani

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Characteristics of pregelatinized waxy rice starch (PWR) gelatinized at different temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C, abbreviated as PWR 65, 75 and 85 respectively) and their emulsion-stabilizing properties at different starch concentrations (3, 5, 7, and 9%) were studied. The yield stress and consistency index value of PWR solution increased with an increase in starch concentration. The pseudoplasticity of PWR 65 solution increased and that for both PWR 75 and 85 solution decreased with an increase in starch concentration. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles analyzed by Kratky Plot indicated that PWR 65 is natively unfolded particles while PWR 75 and 85 are the globular particles. The characteristics of emulsions stabilized with PWR were influenced by the temperature of gelatinization process and starch concentration. Elevated concentration of starch decreased the value of yield stress and increased the consistency index. PWR 65 produce stable emulsion to creaming at starch concentrations more than 5%, while PWR 85 is able to produce stable emulsion to both creaming and coalescence of droplets.

Keywords: emulsion, gelatinization temperature, rheology, small-angle X-ray scattering, waxy rice starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
236 Field Scale Simulation Study of Miscible Water Alternating CO2 Injection Process in Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Hooman Fallah

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Vast amounts of world oil reservoirs are in natural fractured reservoirs. There are different methods for increasing recovery from fractured reservoirs. Miscible injection of water alternating CO2 is a good choice among this methods. In this method, water and CO2 slugs are injected alternatively in reservoir as miscible agent into reservoir. This paper studies water injection scenario and miscible injection of water and CO2 in a two dimensional, inhomogeneous fractured reservoir. The results show that miscible water alternating CO2¬ gas injection leads to 3.95% increase in final oil recovery and total water production decrease of 3.89% comparing to water injection scenario.

Keywords: simulation study, CO2, water alternating gas injection, fractured reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
235 Recommended Practice for Experimental Evaluation of the Seepage Sensitivity Damage of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs

Authors: Hao Liu, Lihui Zheng, Chinedu J. Okere, Chao Wang, Xiangchun Wang, Peng Zhang

Abstract:

The coalbed methane (CBM) extraction industry (an unconventional energy source) is yet to promulgated an established standard code of practice for the experimental evaluation of sensitivity damage of coal samples. The existing experimental process of previous researches mainly followed the industry standard for conventional oil and gas reservoirs (CIS). However, the existing evaluation method ignores certain critical differences between CBM reservoirs and conventional reservoirs, which could inevitably result in an inaccurate evaluation of sensitivity damage and, eventually, poor decisions regarding the formulation of formation damage prevention measures. In this study, we propose improved experimental guidelines for evaluating seepage sensitivity damage of CBM reservoirs by leveraging on the shortcomings of the existing methods. The proposed method was established via a theoretical analysis of the main drawbacks of the existing methods and validated through comparative experiments. The results show that the proposed evaluation technique provided reliable experimental results that can better reflect actual reservoir conditions and correctly guide future development of CBM reservoirs. This study is pioneering the research on the optimization of experimental parameters for efficient exploration and development of CBM reservoirs.

Keywords: coalbed methane, formation damage, permeability, unconventional energy source

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
234 The Impact of Water Reservoirs on Biodiversity and Food Security and the Creation of Adaptation Mechanisms

Authors: Inom S. Normatov, Abulqosim Muminov, Parviz I. Normatov

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Problems of food security and the preservation of reserved zones in the region of Central Asia under the conditions of the climate change induced by the placement and construction of large reservoirs are considered. The criteria for the optimum placement and construction of reservoirs that entail the minimum impact on the environment are established. The need for the accounting of climatic parameters is shown by the calculation of the water quantity required for the irrigation of agricultural lands.

Keywords: adaptation, biodiversity, food security, water reservoir, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
233 Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

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Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.

Keywords: hydrochemistry, water quality classification, water quality indexes, Torogh and Kardeh dam reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
232 Numerical Study for Examination of Flow Characteristics in Fractured Gas Reservoirs

Authors: M. K. Kim, C. H. Shin, W. G. Park

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Recently, natural gas resources are issued due to alternative and eco-friendly energy policies, and development of even unconventional gas resources including tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas is being rapidly expanded from North America all over the world. For developing these gas reservoirs, it is necessary to investigate reservoir characteristics by using reservoir simulation. In reservoir simulation, calculation of permeability of fractured zone is very important to predict the gas production. However, it is difficult to accurately calculate the permeability by using conventional methods which use analytic solution for laminar flow. The flow in gas reservoirs exhibits complex flow behavior such as slip around the wall roughness effect and turbulence because the size of the apertures of fractures is ranged over various scales from nano-scale to centi-scale. Therefore, it is required to apply new reservoir flow analysis methods which can accurately consider complex gas flow owing to the geometric characteristics and distributions of various pores and flow paths within gas reservoirs. Hence, in this study, the flow characteristics and the relation between each characteristic variable was investigated and multi-effect was quantified when the fractures are compounded for devising a new calculation model of permeability of fractured zone in gas reservoirs by using CFD.

Keywords: fractured zone, gas reservoir, permeability, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
231 Survey of Corrosion and Scaling of Urban Drinking Water Supply Reservoirs (Case Study: Ilam City)

Authors: Ehsan Derikvand, Hamid Kaykha, Rooholah Mansoori Yekta, Taleb Javanmard, Mohsen Mehdi Zadeh

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Corrosion and scaling are one of the most complicated and costly problems of drinking water supply. Corrosion has adverse effect on general health and public acceptance of water source and drinking water supply costs. The present study aimed to determine the potentials of corrosion and scaling of potable water supply reservoirs of Ilam city in June 2013 and August 2014 by Langelier Index (LI) and Reynar. The results of experiments and calculations show that the mean index of LSI in the first and second sampling stages is 0.34, 0.2, respectively and the mean index RSI in the first and second stages of sampling is 7.15 and 7.22, respectively. Based on LSI index of reservoirs water in the first phase, none of stations are corrosive and only one station in the second sampling phase has corrosive tendency. According to RSI index, there is no corrosive tendency in two phases. Based on the results, the water of drinking water reservoirs in Ilam city has no corrosion tendency and the analyses and results of Langelier Index (LI) and Ryznar are in relatively good condition.

Keywords: corrosion, scaling, water reservoirs, langelier and ryznar indices, Ilam city

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
230 Analysis of Interparticle interactions in High Waxy-Heavy Clay Fine Sands for Sand Control Optimization

Authors: Gerald Gwamba

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Formation and oil well sand production is one of the greatest and oldest concerns for the Oil and gas industry. The production of sand particles may vary from very small and limited amounts to far elevated levels which has the potential to block or plug the pore spaces near the perforated points to blocking production from surface facilities. Therefore, the timely and reliable investigation of conditions leading to the onset or quantifying sanding while producing is imperative. The challenges of sand production are even more elevated while producing in Waxy and Heavy wells with Clay Fine sands (WHFC). Existing research argues that both waxy and heavy hydrocarbons exhibit far differing characteristics with waxy more paraffinic while heavy crude oils exhibit more asphaltenic properties. Moreover, the combined effect of WHFC conditions presents more complexity in production as opposed to individual effects that could be attributed to a consolidation of a surmountable opposing force. However, research on a combined high WHFC system could depict a better representation of the surmountable effect which in essence is more comparable to field conditions where a one-sided view of either individual effects on sanding has been argued to some extent misrepresentative of actual field conditions since all factors act surmountably. In recognition of the limited customized research on sand production studies with the combined effect of WHFC however, our research seeks to apply the Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology based on latest literature to analyze the relationship between various interparticle factors in relation to selected sand control methods. Our research aims to unearth a better understanding of how the combined effect of interparticle factors including: strength, cementation, particle size and production rate among others could better assist in the design of an optimal sand control system for the WHFC well conditions. In this regard, we seek to answer the following research question: How does the combined effect of interparticle factors affect the optimization of sand control systems for WHFC wells? Results from experimental data collection will inform a better justification for a sand control design for WHFC. In doing so, we hope to contribute to earlier contrasts arguing that sand production could potentially enable well self-permeability enhancement caused by the establishment of new flow channels created by loosening and detachment of sand grains. We hope that our research will contribute to future sand control designs capable of adapting to flexible production adjustments in controlled sand management. This paper presents results which are part of an ongoing research towards the authors' PhD project in the optimization of sand control systems for WHFC wells.

Keywords: waxy-heavy oils, clay-fine sands, sand control optimization, interparticle factors, design of experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
229 Investigating Reservior Sedimentation Control in the Conservation of Water

Authors: Mosupi Ratshaa

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Despite years of diligent study, sedimentation is still undoubtedly the most severe technical problem faced by the dam industry. The problem of sedimentation build-up and its removal should be the focus as an approach to remedy this. The world's reservoirs lose about 1% of their storage capacity yearly to sedimentation, what this means is that 1% of water that could be stored is lost the world-over. The increase in population means that the need for water also increases and, therefore, the loss due to sedimentation is of great concern especially to the conservation of water. When it comes to reservoir sedimentation, the thought of water conservation comes with soil conservation since this increasing sediment that takes the volume meant for water is being lost from dry land. For this reason, reservoir sediment control is focused on reducing sediment entering the reservoir and reducing sediment within the reservoir. There are many problems with sediment control such as the difficulty to predict settling patterns, inability to greatly reduce the sediment volume entering the river flow which increases the reservoirs trap efficiency just to mention a few. Notably reservoirs are habitats for flora and fauna, the process of removing sediment from these reservoirs damages this ecosystem so there is an ethical point to be considered in this section. This paper looks at the methods used to control the sedimentation of reservoirs and their effects to the ecosystem in the aim of reducing water losses due to sedimentation. Various control measures which reduce sediment entering the reservoir such as Sabo dams or Check dams along with measures which emphasize the reduction in built-up settled sediment such as flushing will be reviewed all with the prospect of conservation.

Keywords: sedimentation, conservation, ecosystem, flushing

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
228 Water Dumpflood into Multiple Low-Pressure Gas Reservoirs

Authors: S. Lertsakulpasuk, S. Athichanagorn

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As depletion-drive gas reservoirs are abandoned when there is insufficient production rate due to pressure depletion, waterflooding has been proposed to increase the reservoir pressure in order to prolong gas production. Due to high cost, water injection may not be economically feasible. Water dumpflood into gas reservoirs is a new promising approach to increase gas recovery by maintaining reservoir pressure with much cheaper costs than conventional waterflooding. Thus, a simulation study of water dumpflood into multiple nearly abandoned or already abandoned thin-bedded gas reservoirs commonly found in the Gulf of Thailand was conducted to demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method and to determine the most suitable operational parameters for reservoirs having different system parameters. A reservoir simulation model consisting of several thin-layered depletion-drive gas reservoirs and an overlying aquifer was constructed in order to investigate the performance of the proposed method. Two producers were initially used to produce gas from the reservoirs. One of them was later converted to a dumpflood well after gas production rate started to decline due to continuous reduction in reservoir pressure. The dumpflood well was used to flow water from the aquifer to increase pressure of the gas reservoir in order to drive gas towards producer. Two main operational parameters which are wellhead pressure of producer and the time to start water dumpflood were investigated to optimize gas recovery for various systems having different gas reservoir dip angles, well spacings, aquifer sizes, and aquifer depths. This simulation study found that water dumpflood can increase gas recovery up to 12% of OGIP depending on operational conditions and system parameters. For the systems having a large aquifer and large distance between wells, it is best to start water dumpflood when the gas rate is still high since the long distance between the gas producer and dumpflood well helps delay water breakthrough at producer. As long as there is no early water breakthrough, the earlier the energy is supplied to the gas reservoirs, the better the gas recovery. On the other hand, for the systems having a small or moderate aquifer size and short distance between the two wells, performing water dumpflood when the rate is close to the economic rate is better because water is more likely to cause an early breakthrough when the distance is short. Water dumpflood into multiple nearly-depleted or depleted gas reservoirs is a novel study. The idea of using water dumpflood to increase gas recovery has been mentioned in the literature but has never been investigated. This detailed study will help a practicing engineer to understand the benefits of such method and can implement it with minimum cost and risk.

Keywords: dumpflood, increase gas recovery, low-pressure gas reservoir, multiple gas reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
227 Evaluation of Double Displacement Process via Gas Dumpflood from Multiple Gas Reservoirs

Authors: B. Rakjarit, S. Athichanagorn

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Double displacement process is a method in which gas is injected at an updip well to displace the oil bypassed by waterflooding operation from downdip water injector. As gas injection is costly and a large amount of gas is needed, gas dump-flood from multiple gas reservoirs is an attractive alternative. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of the novel approach of double displacement process via gas dump-flood from multiple gas reservoirs. A reservoir simulation model consisting of a dipping oil reservoir and several underlying layered gas reservoirs was constructed in order to investigate the performance of the proposed method. Initially, water was injected via the downdip well to displace oil towards the producer located updip. When the water cut at the producer became high, the updip well was shut in and perforated in the gas zones in order to dump gas into the oil reservoir. At this point, the downdip well was open for production. In order to optimize oil recovery, oil production and water injection rates and perforation strategy on the gas reservoirs were investigated for different numbers of gas reservoirs having various depths and thicknesses. Gas dump-flood from multiple gas reservoirs can help increase the oil recovery after implementation of waterflooding upto 10%. Although the amount of additional oil recovery is slightly lower than the one obtained in conventional double displacement process, the proposed process requires a small completion cost of the gas zones and no operating cost while the conventional method incurs high capital investment in gas compression facility and high-pressure gas pipeline and additional operating cost. From the simulation study, oil recovery can be optimized by producing oil at a suitable rate and perforating the gas zones with the right strategy which depends on depths, thicknesses and number of the gas reservoirs. Conventional double displacement process has been studied and successfully implemented in many fields around the world. However, the method of dumping gas into the oil reservoir instead of injecting it from surface during the second displacement process has never been studied. The study of this novel approach will help a practicing engineer to understand the benefits of such method and can implement it with minimum cost.

Keywords: gas dump-flood, multi-gas layers, double displacement process, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
226 Finite Element Model to Evaluate Gas Conning Phenomenon in Naturally Fractured Oil Reservoirs

Authors: Reda Abdel Azim

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Gas conning phenomenon considered one of the prevalent matter in oil field applications as it significantly affects the amount of produced oil, increase cost of production operation and it has a direct effect on oil reservoirs recovery efficiency as well. Therefore, evaluation of such phenomenon and study the reservoir mechanisms that may strongly affect invading gas to the producing formation is crucial. Gas conning is a result of an imbalance between two major forces controlling the oil production: gravitational and viscous forces especially in naturally fractured reservoirs where the capillary pressure forces are negligible. Once the gas invading the producing formation near the wellbore due to large producing oil rate, the oil gas contact will change and such reservoirs are prone to gas conning. Moreover, the oil volume expected to be produced requires the use of long horizontal perforated well. This work presents a numerical simulation study to predict and propose solutions to gas coning in naturally fractured oil reservoirs. The simulation work is based on discrete fractures and permeability tensors approaches. The governing equations are discretized using finite element approach and Galerkin’s least square technique (GLS) is employed to stabilize the equation solutions. The developed simulator is validated against Eclipse-100 using horizontal fractures. The matrix and fracture properties are modelled. Critical rate, breakthrough time and GOR are determined to be used in investigation of the effect of matrix and fracture properties on gas coning. Results show that fracture distribution in terms of diverse dip and azimuth has a great effect on conning occurring. In addition, fracture porosity, anisotropy ratio, and fracture aperture.

Keywords: gas conning, finite element, fractured reservoirs, multiphase

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
225 Investigating the Behavior of Water Shortage Indices for Performance Evaluation of a Water Resources System

Authors: Frederick N. F. Chou, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh

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The impact of water shortages has been increasingly severe as a consequence of population growth, urbanization, economic development, and climate change. The need for improvements in reliable water supply systems is urgent with the increasing living standards of regions. In this study, a suitable shortage index capable of multi-aspect description - frequency, magnitude, and duration - is adopted to more accurately describe the characteristics of a shortage situation. The values of the index were determined to cope with the increasing need for reliability. There are four reservoirs in series located on the Be River of the Dong Nai River Basin in Southern Vietnam. The primary purpose of the three upstream reservoirs is hydropower generation while the primary purpose of the fourth is water supply. A compromise between hydropower generation and water supply can be negotiated for these four reservoirs to reduce the severity of water shortages. A generalized water allocation model was applied to simulate the water supply, and hydropower generation of various management alternatives and the system’s reliability was evaluated using the adopted multiple shortage indices. Modifying management policies of water resources using data-based indexes can improve the reliability of water supply.

Keywords: cascade reservoirs, hydropower, shortage index, water supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
224 Targeting and Developing the Remaining Pay in an Ageing Field: The Ovhor Field Experience

Authors: Christian Ihwiwhu, Nnamdi Obioha, Udeme John, Edward Bobade, Oghenerunor Bekibele, Adedeji Awujoola, Ibi-Ada Itotoi

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Understanding the complexity in the distribution of hydrocarbon in a simple structure with flow baffles and connectivity issues is critical in targeting and developing the remaining pay in a mature asset. Subtle facies changes (heterogeneity) can have a drastic impact on reservoir fluids movement, and this can be crucial to identifying sweet spots in mature fields. This study aims to evaluate selected reservoirs in Ovhor Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria, with the objective of optimising production from the field by targeting undeveloped oil reserves, bypassed pay, and gaining an improved understanding of the selected reservoirs to increase the company’s reservoir limits. The task at the Ovhor field is complicated by poor stratigraphic seismic resolution over the field. 3-D geological (sedimentology and stratigraphy) interpretation, use of results from quantitative interpretation, and proper understanding of production data have been used in recognizing flow baffles and undeveloped compartments in the field. The full field 3-D model has been constructed in such a way as to capture heterogeneities and the various compartments in the field to aid the proper simulation of fluid flow in the field for future production prediction, proper history matching and design of good trajectories to adequately target undeveloped oil in the field. Reservoir property models (porosity, permeability, and net-to-gross) have been constructed by biasing log interpreted properties to a defined environment of deposition model whose interpretation captures the heterogeneities expected in the studied reservoirs. At least, two scenarios have been modelled for most of the studied reservoirs to capture the range of uncertainties we are dealing with. The total original oil in-place volume for the four reservoirs studied is 157 MMstb. The cumulative oil and gas production from the selected reservoirs are 67.64 MMstb and 9.76 Bscf respectively, with current production rate of about 7035 bopd and 4.38 MMscf/d (as at 31/08/2019). Dynamic simulation and production forecast on the 4 reservoirs gave an undeveloped reserve of about 3.82 MMstb from two (2) identified oil restoration activities. These activities include side-tracking and re-perforation of existing wells. This integrated approach led to the identification of bypassed oil in some areas of the selected reservoirs and an improved understanding of the studied reservoirs. New wells have/are being drilled now to test the results of our studies, and the results are very confirmatory and satisfying.

Keywords: facies, flow baffle, bypassed pay, heterogeneities, history matching, reservoir limit

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
223 Modeling of Gas Extraction from a Partially Gas-Saturated Porous Gas Hydrate Reservoir with Respect to Thermal Interactions with Surrounding Rocks

Authors: Angelina Chiglintseva, Vladislav Shagapov

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We know from the geological data that quite sufficient gas reserves are concentrated in hydrates that occur on the Earth and on the ocean floor. Therefore, the development of these sources of energy and the storage of large reserves of gas hydrates is an acute global problem. An advanced technology for utilizing gas is to store it in a gas-hydrate state. Under natural conditions, storage facilities can be established, e.g., in underground reservoirs, where quite large volumes of gas can be conserved compared with reservoirs of pure gas. An analysis of the available experimental data of the kinetics and the mechanism of the gas-hydrate formation process shows the self-conservation effect that allows gas to be stored at negative temperatures and low values of pressures of up to several atmospheres. A theoretical model has been constructed for the gas-hydrate reservoir that represents a unique natural chemical reactor, and the principal possibility of the full extraction of gas from a hydrate due to the thermal reserves of the reservoirs themselves and the surrounding rocks has been analyzed. The influence exerted on the evolution of a gas hydrate reservoir by the reservoir thicknesses and the parameters that determine its initial state (a temperature, pressure, hydrate saturation) has been studied. It has been established that the shortest time of exploitation required by the reservoirs with a thickness of a few meters for the total hydrate decomposition is recorded in the cyclic regime when gas extraction alternated with the subsequent conservation of the gas hydrate deposit. The study was performed by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project No.15-11-20022).

Keywords: conservation, equilibrium state, gas hydrate reservoir, rocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
222 An Experimental Investigation of Microscopic and Macroscopic Displacement Behaviors of Branched-Preformed Particle Gel in High Temperature Reservoirs

Authors: Weiyao Zhu, Bingbing Li, Yajing Liu, Zhiyong Song

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Branched-preformed particle gel (B-PPG) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in major oilfields. To provide a better understanding of the performance of B-PPG in high temperature reservoirs, a comprehensive experimental investigation was conducted by utilizing glass micromodel and synthetic core. The microscopic experimental results show that the B-PPG can selectively flow and plug in large pores. In terms of enhanced oil recovery, the decrease of residual oil in the margin regions (24.6%) was higher than that in the main stream (13.7%), which indicates it enlarged the sweep area. In addition, the effects of B-PPG injection concentration and injection rate on enhanced oil recovery were implemented by core flooding. The macroscopic experimental results indicate that the enhanced oil recovery increased with the increasing of injection concentration. However, the injection rate had a peak value. It is significant to get insight into the behaviors of B-PPG in reservoirs.

Keywords: branched-preformed particle gel, enhanced oil recovery, micromodel, core flooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
221 Estimation of Reservoirs Fracture Network Properties Using an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Authors: Reda Abdel Azim, Tariq Shehab

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The main objective of this study is to develop a subsurface fracture map of naturally fractured reservoirs by overcoming the limitations associated with different data sources in characterising fracture properties. Some of these limitations are overcome by employing a nested neuro-stochastic technique to establish inter-relationship between different data, as conventional well logs, borehole images (FMI), core description, seismic attributes, and etc. and then characterise fracture properties in terms of fracture density and fractal dimension for each data source. Fracture density is an important property of a system of fracture network as it is a measure of the cumulative area of all the fractures in a unit volume of a fracture network system and Fractal dimension is also used to characterize self-similar objects such as fractures. At the wellbore locations, fracture density and fractal dimension can only be estimated for limited sections where FMI data are available. Therefore, artificial intelligence technique is applied to approximate the quantities at locations along the wellbore, where the hard data is not available. It should be noted that Artificial intelligence techniques have proven their effectiveness in this domain of applications.

Keywords: naturally fractured reservoirs, artificial intelligence, fracture intensity, fractal dimension

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
220 Understanding the Role of Gas Hydrate Morphology on the Producibility of a Hydrate-Bearing Reservoir

Authors: David Lall, Vikram Vishal, P. G. Ranjith

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Numerical modeling of gas production from hydrate-bearing reservoirs requires the solution of various thermal, hydrological, chemical, and mechanical phenomena in a coupled manner. Among the various reservoir properties that influence gas production estimates, the distribution of permeability across the domain is one of the most crucial parameters since it determines both heat transfer and mass transfer. The aspect of permeability in hydrate-bearing reservoirs is particularly complex compared to conventional reservoirs since it depends on the saturation of gas hydrates and hence, is dynamic during production. The dependence of permeability on hydrate saturation is mathematically represented using permeability-reduction models, which are specific to the expected morphology of hydrate accumulations (such as grain-coating or pore-filling hydrates). In this study, we demonstrate the impact of various permeability-reduction models, and consequently, different morphologies of hydrate deposits on the estimates of gas production using depressurization at the reservoir scale. We observe significant differences in produced water volumes and cumulative mass of produced gas between the models, thereby highlighting the uncertainty in production behavior arising from the ambiguity in the prevalent gas hydrate morphology.

Keywords: gas hydrate morphology, multi-scale modeling, THMC, fluid flow in porous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
219 The Effects of Above-Average Precipitation after Extended Drought on Phytoplankton in Southern California Surface Water Reservoirs

Authors: Margaret K. Spoo-Chupka

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The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) manages surface water reservoirs that are a source of drinking water for more than 19 million people in Southern California. These reservoirs experience periodic planktonic cyanobacteria blooms that can impact water quality. MWDSC imports water from two sources – the Colorado River (CR) and the State Water Project (SWP). The SWP brings supplies from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that are characterized as having higher nutrients than CR water. Above average precipitation in 2017 after five years of drought allowed the majority of the reservoirs to fill. Phytoplankton was analyzed during the drought and after the drought at three reservoirs: Diamond Valley Lake (DVL), which receives SWP water exclusively, Lake Skinner, which can receive a blend of SWP and CR water, and Lake Mathews, which generally receives only CR water. DVL experienced a significant increase in water elevation in 2017 due to large SWP inflows, and there were no significant changes to total phytoplankton biomass, Shannon-Wiener diversity of the phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years despite the higher nutrient loads. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact DVL water quality (Microcystis spp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Dolichospermum spp., and Limnoraphis birgei) did not differ significantly between the heavy precipitation year and drought years. Compared to the other reservoirs, DVL generally has the highest concentration of cyanobacteria due to the water supply having greater nutrients. Lake Mathews’ water levels were similar in drought and wet years due to a reliable supply of CR water and there were no significant changes in the total phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton diversity, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Lake Mathews (L. birgei and Microcystis spp.) did not differ significantly between 2017 and previous drought years. Lake Mathews generally had the lowest cyanobacteria biomass due to the water supply having lower nutrients. The CR supplied most of the water to Lake Skinner during drought years, while the SWP was the primary source during 2017. This change in water source resulted in a significant increase in phytoplankton biomass in 2017, no significant change in diversity, and a significant increase in cyanobacteria biomass. Cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Skinner included: Microcystis spp., Dolichospermum spp., and A.flos-aquae. There was no significant difference in Microcystis spp. biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years, but biomass of Dolichospermum spp. and A.flos-aquae were significantly greater in 2017 compared to previous drought years. Dolichospermum sp. and A. flos-aquae are two cyanobacteria that are more sensitive to nutrients than Microcystis spp., which are more sensitive to temperature. Patterns in problem cyanobacteria abundance among Southern California reservoirs as a result of above-average precipitation after more than five years of drought were most closely related to nutrient loading.

Keywords: drought, reservoirs, cyanobacteria, and phytoplankton ecology

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218 Optimization of Pumping Power of Water between Reservoir Using Ant Colony System

Authors: Thiago Ribeiro De Alencar, Jacyro Gramulia Junior, Patricia Teixeira Leite Asano

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The area of the electricity sector that deals with energy needs by the hydropower and thermoelectric in a coordinated way is called Planning Operating Hydrothermal Power Systems. The aim of this area is to find a political operative to provide electrical power to the system in a specified period with minimization of operating cost. This article proposes a computational tool for solving the planning problem. In addition, this article will be introducing a methodology to find new transfer points between reservoirs increasing energy production in hydroelectric power plants cascade systems. The computational tool proposed in this article applies: i) genetic algorithms to optimize the water transfer and operation of hydroelectric plants systems; and ii) Ant Colony algorithm to find the trajectory with the least energy pumping for the construction of pipes transfer between reservoirs considering the topography of the region. The computational tool has a database consisting of 35 hydropower plants and 41 reservoirs, which are part of the southeastern Brazilian system, which has been implemented in an individualized way.

Keywords: ant colony system, genetic algorithms, hydroelectric, hydrothermal systems, optimization, water transfer between rivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
217 Improving Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Injection and Nanotechnology

Authors: Amir Gerayeli, Babak Moradi

Abstract:

The continuously declining oil reservoirs and reservoirs aging have created a huge demand for utilization of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods recently. Primary and secondary oil recovery methods have various limitations and are not practical for all reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to use chemical methods to improve oil recovery efficiency by reducing oil and water surface tension, increasing sweeping efficiency, and reducing displacer phase viscosity. One of the well-known methods of oil recovery is Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding that shown to have significant impact on enhancing oil recovery. As some of the biggest oil reservoirs including those of Iran’s are fractional reservoirs with substantial amount of trapped oil in their fractures, the use of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding method is increasingly growing, the method in which the impact of several parameters including type and concentration of the Alkaline, Surfactant, and polymer are particularly important. This study investigated the use of Nano particles to improve Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The study methodology included performing several laboratory tests on drill cores extracted from Karanj Oil field Asmary Formation in Khuzestan, Iran. In the experiments performed, Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12mim] [Cl])) were used as surfactant, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as alkaline, and Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Magnesium oxide (MgO) were used as Nano particles. The experiment findings suggest that water viscosity increased from 1 centipoise to 5 centipoise when hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer. The surface tension between oil and water was initially measured as 25.808 (mN/m). The optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 500 p, at which the oil and water tension surface was measured to be 2.90 (mN/m) when [C12mim] [Cl] was used, and 3.28 (mN/m) when SDBS was used. The Nano particles concentration ranged from 100 ppm to 1500 ppm in this study. The optimum Nano particle concentration was found to be 1000 ppm for MgO and 500 ppm for SiO2.

Keywords: alkaline-surfactant-polymer, ionic liquids, relative permeability, reduced surface tension, tertiary enhanced oil recovery, wettability change

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216 The Research of Water Levels in the Zhinvali Water Reservoir and Results of Field Research on the Debris Flow Tributaries of the River Tetri Aragvi Flowing in It

Authors: Givi Gavardashvili, Eduard Kukhalashvili, Tamriko Supatashvili, Giorgi Natroshvili, Konstantine Bziava, Irma Qufarashvili

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In the article to research water levels in the Zhinvali water reservoirs by field and theoretical research and using GPS and GIS technologies has been established dynamic of water reservoirs changes in the suitable coordinates and has been made water reservoir maps and is lined in the 3D format. By using of GPS coordinates and digital maps has been established water horizons of Zhinvali water reservoir in the absolute marks and has been calculated water levels volume. To forecast the filling of the Zhinvali water reservoir by solid sediment in 2018 conducted field experimental researches in the catchment basin of river Tetri (White) Aragvi. It has been established main hydrological and hydraulic parameters of the active erosion-debris flow tributaries of river Tetri Aragvi. It has been calculated erosion coefficient considering the degradation of the slope. By calculation is determined, that in the river Tetri Aragvi catchment basin the value of 1% maximum discharge changes Q1% = 70,0 – 550,0 m3/sec, and erosion coefficient - E = 0,73 - 1,62, with suitable fifth class of erosion and intensity 50-100 tone/hectare in the year.

Keywords: Zhinvali soil dam, water reservoirs, water levels, erosion, debris flow

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215 The First Report of Fresh Water Crab Potamon Potamios (Decapoda: brachyura) in Chahnimeh’s Water Reservoirs from Sistan, Iran

Authors: Ahmad Gharaei, Javad Mirdar Harijani

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The freshwater crab family (Potamidae Ortmann, 1896) is a big group and varies over 500 species in 74 genuses. This family distributed in South Europe, South Africa, East and South-east Asian. Iran's Sistan region located in the South East and recently after a decade of drought in the international wetland of Hamoon, in fact, the aquatic fauna in the Chahnimeh’s water reservoirs had taken refuge. This paper reports the second site for Potamon Potamios, in the southern half of the Iran. The specimens were collected from the shallow water in reservoir banks with muddy bottom in July 2010. The morphological features, habitat and systematic, are described.

Keywords: freshwater crab, potamon potamios, sistan, Iran

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214 Prediction of Oil Recovery Factor Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: O. P. Oladipo, O. A. Falode

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The determination of Recovery Factor is of great importance to the reservoir engineer since it relates reserves to the initial oil in place. Reserves are the producible portion of reservoirs and give an indication of the profitability of a field Development. The core objective of this project is to develop an artificial neural network model using selected reservoir data to predict Recovery Factors (RF) of hydrocarbon reservoirs and compare the model with a couple of the existing correlations. The type of Artificial Neural Network model developed was the Single Layer Feed Forward Network. MATLAB was used as the network simulator and the network was trained using the supervised learning method, Afterwards, the network was tested with input data never seen by the network. The results of the predicted values of the recovery factors of the Artificial Neural Network Model, API Correlation for water drive reservoirs (Sands and Sandstones) and Guthrie and Greenberger Correlation Equation were obtained and compared. It was noted that the coefficient of correlation of the Artificial Neural Network Model was higher than the coefficient of correlations of the other two correlation equations, thus making it a more accurate prediction tool. The Artificial Neural Network, because of its accurate prediction ability is helpful in the correct prediction of hydrocarbon reservoir factors. Artificial Neural Network could be applied in the prediction of other Petroleum Engineering parameters because it is able to recognise complex patterns of data set and establish a relationship between them.

Keywords: recovery factor, reservoir, reserves, artificial neural network, hydrocarbon, MATLAB, API, Guthrie, Greenberger

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213 Effect of Wettability Alteration on Production Performance in Unconventional Tight Oil Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Xinzhe Zhao

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In tight oil reservoirs, wettability alteration has generally been considered as an effective way to remove fracturing fluid retention on the surface of the fracture and consequently improved oil production. However, there is a lack of a reliable productivity prediction model to show the relationship between the wettability and oil production in tight oil well. In this paper, a new oil productivity prediction model of immiscible oil-water flow and miscible CO₂-oil flow accounting for wettability is developed. This mathematical model is established by considering two different length scales: nonporous network and propped fractures. CO₂ flow diffuses in the nonporous network and high velocity non-Darcy flow in propped fractures are considered by taking into account the effect of wettability alteration on capillary pressure and relative permeability. A laboratory experiment is also conducted here to validate this model. Laboratory experiments have been designed to compare the water saturation profiles for different contact angle, revealing the fluid retention in rock pores that affects capillary force and relative permeability. Four kinds of brines with different concentrations are selected here to create different contact angles. In water-wet porous media, as the system becomes more oil-wet, water saturation decreases. As a result, oil relative permeability increases. On the other hand, capillary pressure which is the resistance for the oil flow increases as well. The oil production change due to wettability alteration is the result of the comprehensive changes of oil relative permeability and capillary pressure. The results indicate that wettability is a key factor for fracturing fluid retention removal and oil enhancement in tight reservoirs. By incorporating laboratory test into a mathematical model, this work shows the relationship between wettability and oil production is not a simple linear pattern but a parabolic one. Additionally, it can be used for a better understanding of optimization design of fracturing fluids.

Keywords: wettability, relative permeability, fluid retention, oil production, unconventional and tight reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
212 Neuron Efficiency in Fluid Dynamics and Prediction of Groundwater Reservoirs'' Properties Using Pattern Recognition

Authors: J. K. Adedeji, S. T. Ijatuyi

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The application of neural network using pattern recognition to study the fluid dynamics and predict the groundwater reservoirs properties has been used in this research. The essential of geophysical survey using the manual methods has failed in basement environment, hence the need for an intelligent computing such as predicted from neural network is inevitable. A non-linear neural network with an XOR (exclusive OR) output of 8-bits configuration has been used in this research to predict the nature of groundwater reservoirs and fluid dynamics of a typical basement crystalline rock. The control variables are the apparent resistivity of weathered layer (p1), fractured layer (p2), and the depth (h), while the dependent variable is the flow parameter (F=λ). The algorithm that was used in training the neural network is the back-propagation coded in C++ language with 300 epoch runs. The neural network was very intelligent to map out the flow channels and detect how they behave to form viable storage within the strata. The neural network model showed that an important variable gr (gravitational resistance) can be deduced from the elevation and apparent resistivity pa. The model results from SPSS showed that the coefficients, a, b and c are statistically significant with reduced standard error at 5%.

Keywords: gravitational resistance, neural network, non-linear, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
211 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao

Abstract:

A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: tight reservoirs, cyclic O₂ injection, asphaltene, solubility, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 241