Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 706

Search results for: exponentially stretching sheet

706 Magnetohydrodynamic Flow over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet

Authors: Raj Nandkeolyar, Precious Sibanda


The flow of a viscous, incompressible, and electrically conducting fluid under the influence of aligned magnetic field acting along the direction of fluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet is investigated numerically. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the flow model is transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation and the solution is obtained using a local linearization method followed by the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The effects of various parameters affecting the flow and heat transfer as well as the induced magnetic field are discussed using suitable graphs and tables.

Keywords: aligned magnetic field, exponentially stretching sheet, induced magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
705 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin, Norihan M. Arifin, Ioan Pop


In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate, and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

Keywords: boundary layer, exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet, generalized slip, heat transfer, numerical solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
704 Flow over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet with Hall and Cross-Diffusion Effects

Authors: Srinivasacharya Darbhasayanam, Jagadeeshwar Pashikanti


This paper analyzes the Soret and Dufour effects on mixed convection flow, heat and mass transfer from an exponentially stretching surface in a viscous fluid with Hall Effect. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are reduced to a system of linear differential equations using the successive linearization method and then solved the resulting linear system using the Chebyshev pseudo spectral method. The numerical results for the velocity components, temperature and concentration are presented graphically. The obtained results are compared with the previously published results, and are found to be in excellent agreement. It is observed from the present analysis that the primary and secondary velocities and concentration are found to be increasing, and temperature is decreasing with the increase in the values of the Soret parameter. An increase in the Dufour parameter increases both the primary and secondary velocities and temperature and decreases the concentration.

Keywords: Exponentially stretching sheet, Hall current, Heat and Mass transfer, Soret and Dufour Effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
703 A Note on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over a Curved Stretching Sheet by Considering Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows


The mixed convective flow of MHD incompressible, steady boundary layer in heat transfer over a curved stretching sheet due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity is studied. We use curvilinear coordinate system in order to describe the governing flow equations. Finite difference solutions with central differencing have been used to solve the transform governing equations. Numerical results for the flow velocity and temperature profiles are presented as a function of the non-dimensional curvature radius. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number at the surface of the curved sheet are discussed as well.

Keywords: curved stretching sheet, finite difference method, MHD, variable thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
702 Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

Authors: S. S. P. M. Isa, N. M. Arifin, R. Nazar, N. Bachok, F. M. Ali, I. Pop


A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Keywords: exponentially shrinking sheet, magnetic field, mixed convection, suction

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
701 Nano Liquid Thin Film Flow over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet

Authors: Prashant G. Metri


A numerical model is developed to study nano liquid film flow over an unsteady stretching sheet in the presence of hydromagnetic have been investigated. Similarity transformations are used to convert unsteady boundary layer equations to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg and Newton-Raphson schemes. A relationship between film thickness β and the unsteadiness parameter S is found, the effect of unsteadiness parameter S, and the hydromagnetic parameter S, on the velocity and temperature distributions are presented. The present analysis shows that the combined effect of magnetic field and viscous dissipation has a significant influence in controlling the dynamics of the considered problem. Comparison with known results for certain particular cases is in excellent agreement.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, nanoliquid, thin film, unsteady stretching sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
700 Stagnation-Point Flow towards a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet in a Nanofluid: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak


The characteristics of stagnation point flow of a nanofluid towards a stretching/shrinking sheet are investigated. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. The numerical results show that dual (upper and lower branch) solutions exist for the shrinking case, while for the stretching case, the solution is unique. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the dual solutions. It is found that the skin friction decreases when the sheet is stretched, but increases when the suction effect is increased. It is also found that increasing the thermophoresis parameter reduces the heat transfer rate at the surface, while increasing the Brownian motion parameter increases the mass transfer rate at the surface.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, forced convection, nanofluid, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
699 Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids over Stretching Sheet with a Non Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Bandari Shankar, Yohannes Yirga


In this paper, the problem of heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD boundary-layer flow of nanofluids over stretching sheet with a non uniform heat source/sink is considered. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Keller box method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles were obtained and utilized to compute the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number for different values of the governing parameters viz. solid volume fraction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, space-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters for heat source/sink. A comparison of the numerical results of the present study with previously published data revealed an excellent agreement

Keywords: unsteady, heat and mass transfer, manetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, non-uniform heat source/sink, stretching sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
698 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay


The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
697 Radiation Effect on MHD Casson Fluid Flow over a Power-Law Stretching Sheet with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Motahar Reza, Rajni Chahal, Neha Sharma


This article addresses the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson fluid over a nonlinearly permeable stretching surface with chemical reaction in the presence of variable magnetic field. The effect of thermal radiation is considered to control the rate of heat transfer at the surface. Using similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations of this problem are reduced into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by finite difference method. It is observed that the velocity at fixed point decreases with increasing the nonlinear stretching parameter but the temperature increases with nonlinear stretching parameter.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, nonlinear stretching, Casson fluid, heat transfer, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
696 Boundary Layer Flow of a Casson Nanofluid Past a Vertical Exponentially Stretching Cylinder in the Presence of a Transverse Magnetic Field with Internal Heat Generation/Absorption

Authors: G. Sarojamma, K. Vendabai


An analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of magnetic field and heat source on the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson nanofluid over a vertical cylinder stretching exponentially along its radial direction. Using a similarity transformation, the governing mathematical equations, with the boundary conditions are reduced to a system of coupled, non –linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting system is solved numerically by the fourth order Runge – Kutta scheme with shooting technique. The influence of various physical parameters such as Reynolds number, Prandtl number, magnetic field, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Lewis number and the natural convection parameter are presented graphically and discussed for non – dimensional velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction. Numerical data for the skin – friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number have been tabulated for various parametric conditions. It is found that the local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of Brownian motion parameter Nb and the thermophoresis parameter Nt.

Keywords: casson nanofluid, boundary layer flow, internal heat generation/absorption, exponentially stretching cylinder, heat transfer, brownian motion, thermophoresis

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
695 A Detailed Experimental Study and Evaluation of Springback under Stretch Bending Process

Authors: A. Soualem


The design of multi stage deep drawing processes requires the evaluation of many process parameters such as the intermediate die geometry, the blank shape, the sheet thickness, the blank holder force, friction, lubrication etc..These process parameters have to be determined for the optimum forming conditions before the process design. In general sheet metal forming may involve stretching drawing or various combinations of these basic modes of deformation. It is important to determine the influence of the process variables in the design of sheet metal working process. Especially, the punch and die corner for deep drawing will affect the formability. At the same time the prediction of sheet metals springback after deep drawing is an important issue to solve for the control of manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the importance of this problem increases because of the use of steel sheeting with high stress and also aluminum alloys. The aim of this paper is to give a better understanding of the springback and its effect in various sheet metals forming process such as expansion and restraint deep drawing in the cup drawing process, by varying radius die, lubricant for two commercially available materials e.g. galvanized steel and Aluminum sheet. To achieve these goals experiments were carried out and compared with other results. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback.

Keywords: springback, deep drawing, expansion, restricted deep drawing

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
694 A Mathematical Study of Magnetic Field, Heat Transfer and Brownian Motion of Nanofluid over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

Authors: Madhu Aneja, Sapna Sharma


Thermal conductivity of ordinary heat transfer fluids is not adequate to meet today’s cooling rate requirements. Nanoparticles have been shown to increase the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer to the base fluids. One of the possible mechanisms for anomalous increase in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is the Brownian motions of the nanoparticles in the basefluid. In this paper, the natural convection of incompressible nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field is studied. The flow and heat transfer induced by stretching sheets is important in the study of extrusion processes and is a subject of considerable interest in the contemporary literature. Appropriate similarity variables are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary (similarity) differential equations. For computational purpose, Finite Element Method is used. The effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid are calculated by KKL (Koo – Klienstreuer – Li) correlation. In this model effect of Brownian motion on thermal conductivity is considered. The effect of important parameter i.e. nonlinear parameter, volume fraction, Hartmann number, heat source parameter is studied on velocity and temperature. Skin friction and heat transfer coefficients are also calculated for concerned parameters.

Keywords: Brownian motion, convection, finite element method, magnetic field, nanofluid, stretching sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
693 MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Mania Goyal


The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

Keywords: viscoelastic nanofluid, partial slip, stretching sheet, heat generation/absorption, MHD flow, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
692 Acute Effects of Active Dynamic, Static Stretching and Passive Static Stretching Exercise on Hamstrings Flexibility and Muscle Strength

Authors: Yi Tse Wang, Che Hsiu Chen, Zih Jian Huang, Hon Wen Cheng


Stretching treatments enhanced flexibility. On the other hand, decreases in hamstrings strength have been reported after stretching, especially with static stretching or passive stretching. Stretching has been shown to be more effective than static stretching to improve muscle performance, but a clear consensus for the effect of dynamic stretching on muscle performance has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a dynamic stretching, static stretching and eccentric exercise protocol on hamstrings stiffness, flexibility and muscle strength. Forty-five healthy active men (height 179.9 cm; weight 71.5 kg; age 22.5 years) were participated in 3 randomly ordered testing sessions: dynamic stretching (DS), active static stretching (ASS), and passive static stretching (PSS). All the stretch were performed 30 seconds and repeated 6 times. There was a 30-second interval between repetitions. The outcome measures were isokinetic concentric contraction (60°/s), eccentric contraction (30°/s) peak torque, muscle flexibility after stretching. The results showed that the muscle flexibility (3.6%, 3.9% and 1.59%, respectively) increased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hamstring isokinetic concentric peak torque (-6.4%, -8.0% and -5.8%, respectively) and eccentric peak torque (-5.8%, -4.5% and -5.4%, respectively) decreased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hence, although the stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, reduced hamstring muscle eccentric and concentric peak torque.

Keywords: hamstrings injury, warm-up, muscle performance, muscle stretching

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
691 Numerical Approach to a Mathematical Modeling of Bioconvection Due to Gyrotactic Micro-Organisms over a Nonlinear Inclined Stretching Sheet

Authors: Madhu Aneja, Sapna Sharma


The water-based bioconvection of a nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms over nonlinear inclined stretching sheet has been investigated. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations of the model are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations via Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation and similarity transformations. Further, the modified set of equations with associated boundary conditions are solved using Finite Element Method. The impact of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration, density of motile micro-organisms profiles are obtained and analyzed in details. The results show that with the increase in angle of inclination δ, velocity decreases while temperature, nanoparticles concentration, a density of motile micro-organisms increases. Additionally, the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, density number are computed for various thermophysical parameters. It is noticed that increasing Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter leads to an increase in temperature of fluid which results in a reduction in Nusselt number. On the contrary, Sherwood number rises with an increase in Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter. The findings have been validated by comparing the results of special cases with existing studies.

Keywords: bioconvection, finite element method, gyrotactic micro-organisms, inclined stretching sheet, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
690 Chemical Reaction, Heat and Mass Transfer on Unsteady MHD Flow along a Vertical Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation/Absorption and Variable Viscosity

Authors: Jatindra Lahkar


The effect of chemical reaction on laminar mixed convection flow and heat and mass transfer along a vertical unsteady stretching sheet is investigated, in the presence of heat generation/absorption with variable viscosity and viscous dissipation. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation and solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. The effects of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are analyzed and presented graphically. Skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are derived at the sheet. It is observed that the influence of chemical reaction, the fluid flow along the sheet accelerate with the increase of chemical reaction parameter, on the other hand, temperature of the fluid increases with increase of chemical reaction parameter but concentration of the fluid reduces with it. The boundary layer decreases on the surface of the sheet for all values of unsteadiness parameter, increasing values of the chemical reaction parameter. The increases in the values of Sc cause the species concentration and its boundary layer thickness to decrease resulting in less induced flow and higher fluid temperatures. This is depicted in the decreases in the velocity and species concentration and increases in the fluid temperature as Sc increases.

Keywords: chemical reaction, heat generation/absorption, magnetic number, unsteadiness, variable viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
689 FEM Simulation of Triple Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamics Effect of Nanofluid Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

Authors: Rangoli Goyal, Rama Bhargava


The triple diffusive boundary layer flow of nanofluid under the action of constant magnetic field over a non-linear stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The model includes the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and cross-diffusion; slip mechanisms which are primarily responsible for the enhancement of the convective features of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (by using group theory transformations) and solved numerically by using variational finite element method. The effects of various controlling parameters, such as the magnetic influence number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, modified Dufour parameter, and Dufour solutal Lewis number, on the fluid flow as well as on heat and mass transfer coefficients (both of solute and nanofluid) are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. The present study has industrial applications in aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, coating and suspensions, melt spinning, hot rolling, wire drawing, glass-fibre production, and manufacture of polymer and rubber sheets, where the quality of the desired product depends on the stretching rate as well as external field including magnetic effects.

Keywords: FEM, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
688 Effects of Static Stretching Exercises on Flexibility and Sprint Performance in Inactive Healthy Girls

Authors: Gulsun Guven


The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching exercises on the flexibility and sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls. A total of 27 girls were randomly divided into control group (n=15) and stretching group (n=12) who performed static stretching. Sit and reach flexibility and 30-meter sprint pre-tests were performed for both groups. Static stretching exercises were performed three times, 30 sec. practice and 15 sec. rest for each leg only on five muscle by stretching group. The post-tests were performed in five minutes after static stretching exercise. Paired t-test was used to analyze differentiations among the group parameters. According to research results, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test flexibility (p < 0.05) and sprint test results (p < 0.01). As a conclusion of the study, static stretching exercises improve flexibility but decrease sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls.

Keywords: flexibility, inactive girl, sprint, static stretching

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
687 Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method

Authors: Nageeb A. H. Haroun, Sabyasachi Mondal, Precious Sibanda


The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity, nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters. A comparison of current findings with previously published results for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.

Keywords: non-isothermal wedge, thermal radiation, nanofluid, magnetic field, soret and dufour effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
686 Soret and Dufour's Effects on Mixed Convection Unsteady MHD Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemically Reactive Spices

Authors: Deva Kanta Phukan


An investigation is made to carry out to study the thermal-diffusion and diffusion thermo-effects in hydro-magnetic unsteady flow by a mixed convection boundary layer past an impermeable vertical stretching sheet embedded in a conducting fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of a chemical reaction effect. The velocity of stretching surface, the surface temperature and the concentration are assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the surface. The governing partial differential equations are transformed in to self similar unsteady equations using similarity transformations and solved numerically by the Runge kutta fourth order scheme in association with the shooting method for the whole transient domain from the initial state to the final steady state flow. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, the concentration, the skin friction , and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are shown graphically for various flow parameters. The results reveal that there is a smooth transition of flow from unsteady state to the final steady state. A special case of our results is in good agreement with an earlier published work.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, boundary layer flow, porous media, magnetic field, Soret number, Dufour’s number

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
685 Graded Orientation of the Linear Polymers

Authors: Levan Nadareishvili, Roland Bakuradze, Barbara Kilosanidze, Nona Topuridze, Liana Sharashidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili


Some regularities of formation of a new structural state of the thermoplastic polymers-gradually oriented (stretched) state (GOS) are discussed. Transition into GOS is realized by the graded oriented stretching-by action of inhomogeneous mechanical field on the isotropic linear polymers or by zonal stretching that is implemented on a standard tensile-testing machine with using a specially designed zone stretching device (ZSD). Both technical approaches (especially zonal stretching method) allows to manage the such quantitative parameters of gradually oriented polymers as a range of change in relative elongation/orientation degree, length of this change and profile (linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, logarithmic, etc.). Uniaxial graded stretching method should be considered as an effective technological solution to create polymer materials with a predetermined gradient of physical properties.

Keywords: controlled graded stretching, gradually oriented state, linear polymers, zone stretching device

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
684 MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

Authors: K. Jafar, R. Nazar, A. Ishak, I. Pop


The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow, and a local heat generation within the boundary layer with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T_inf)^p. Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the shrinking/stretching parameter lambda, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value lambda_c whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorbtion (Q<0), the surface heat transfer rate decreases with increasing p but increases with parameter Q and s, when the sheet is either stretched or shrunk.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), boundary layer flow, UCM fluid, stagnation point, shrinking sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
683 Simulation of Stretching and Fragmenting DNA by Microfluidic for Optimizing Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Shuyi Wu, Chuang Li, Quanshui Zheng, Luping Xu


Stretching and snipping DNA molecule by microfluidic has important application value in gene analysis by lab on a chip. Movement, deformation and fragmenting of DNA in microfluidic are typical fluid-solid coupling problems. An efficient and common simulation system for researching the movement, deformation and fragmenting of DNA by microfluidic has not been well developed. In our study, Brownian dynamics-finite element method (BD-FEM) is used to simulate the dynamic process of stretching and fragmenting DNA by contraction flow. The shape and parameters of micro-channels are changed to optimize the stretching and fragmenting properties of DNA. Our results indicate that strain rate, resulting from contraction microchannel, is the main control parameter for stretching and fragmenting DNA. There is good consistency between the simulation data and previous experimental result about the single DNA molecule behavior and averaged fragmenting properties in this study. BD-FEM method is an efficient calculating tool to research stretching and fragmenting behavior of single DNA molecule and optimize microfluidic devices for manipulating, stretching and fragmenting DNA.

Keywords: fragmenting, DNA, microfluidic, optimize.

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
682 Experimental and FEA Study for Reduction of Damage in Sheet Metal Forming

Authors: Amitkumar R. Shelar, B. P. Ronge, Sridevi Seshabhattar, R. M. Wabale


This paper gives knowledge about the behavior of cold rolled steel IS 513_2008 CR2_D having grade D for the reduction of ductile damage. CR specifies Cold Rolled and D for Drawing grade. Problems encountered during sheet metal forming operations are dent, wrinkles, thinning, spring back, insufficient stretching etc. In this paper, wrinkle defect was studied experimentally and by using FE software on one of the auto components due to which its functionality was decreased. Experimental result and simulation result were found to be in agreement.

Keywords: deep drawing, FE software-LS DYNA, friction, wrinkling

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
681 Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Stretched Biomagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer with Signum Function and Temperature Power Law Geometries

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows


Biomagnetic fluid dynamics is an interdisciplinary field comprising engineering, medicine, and biology. Bio fluid dynamics is directed towards finding and developing the solutions to some of the human body related diseases and disorders. This article describes the flow and heat transfer of two dimensional, steady, laminar, viscous and incompressible biomagnetic fluid over a non-linear stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic dipole. Our model is consistent with blood fluid namely biomagnetic fluid dynamics (BFD). This model based on the principles of ferrohydrodynamic (FHD). The temperature at the stretching surface is assumed to follow a power law variation, and stretching velocity is assumed to have a nonlinear form with signum function or sign function. The governing boundary layer equations with boundary conditions are simplified to couple higher order equations using usual transformations. Numerical solutions for the governing momentum and energy equations are obtained by efficient numerical techniques based on the common finite difference method with central differencing, on a tridiagonal matrix manipulation and on an iterative procedure. Computations are performed for a wide range of the governing parameters such as magnetic field parameter, power law exponent temperature parameter, and other involved parameters and the effect of these parameters on the velocity and temperature field is presented. It is observed that for different values of the magnetic parameter, the velocity distribution decreases while temperature distribution increases. Besides, the finite difference solutions results for skin-friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer are discussed. This study will have an important bearing on a high targeting efficiency, a high magnetic field is required in the targeted body compartment.

Keywords: biomagnetic fluid, FHD, MHD, nonlinear stretching sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
680 Effects of the Amount of Static Stretching on the Knee Isokinetic Muscle Strength

Authors: Chungyu Chen, Hui-Ju Chang, Pei-Shan Guo, Huei-Ling Jhan, Yi-Ping Lin


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of acutely static stretching on muscular strength and power. There were 15 males, and 7 females recruited voluntarily as the participants in the study. The mean age, body height, and weight of participants were 23.4 ± 2.8 years old, 171.0 ± 7.2 cm, and 65.7 ± 8.7 kg, respectively. Participants were repeated to stretch hamstring muscles 2 or 6 30-s bouts randomly on a separate day spaced 5-7 days apart in a passive, static, sit-and-reach stretching exercise. Before and after acutely static stretching, the Biodex System 4 Pro was used to acquire the peak torque, power, total work, and range of motion for right knee under the loading of 180 deg/s. The 2 (test-retest) × 2 (number of stretches) repeated measures two-way analysis of variance were used to compare the parameters of muscular strength/power (α = .05). The results showed that the peak torque, power, and total work increased significantly after acutely passive static stretching (ps < .05) in flexor and extensor of knee. But there were no significant differences found between the 2 and 6 30-s bouts hamstring muscles stretching (ps > .05). It indicated that the performance of muscular strength and power in knee flexion and extension do not inhibit following the increase of amount of stretching.

Keywords: knee, power, flexibility, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
679 The Acute Effects of a Warm-Up Including Different Dynamic Stretching on Hamstring Stiffness, Flexibility, and Strength

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Kuo Wei Tseng, Zih Jian Huang, Hon Wen Cheng


A typical warm-up contains both stretching exercises and jogging. The static stretching prior to training or competition may cause detrimental effects to athletic performance. However, it is unclear whether different types of dynamic stretching exercises had different acute effects on knee flexors stiffness, flexibility, and strength. The purpose of this study was to analyze the knee flexors stiffness, flexibility, and strength gains after dynamic straight leg raise (DSLR) and dynamic modified toe-touch (MTT) stretching. Sixteen healthy university active men (height 176.27 ± 4.03 cm; weight 72.27 ± 8.90 kg; age 22.09 ± 2.31 years). After 5 minutes (8km/h) of running subjects performed 2 randomly ordered stretching protocols: DSLR and MTT stretching protocols. There were a total of six, 30 seconds bouts of dynamic stretching (15 repetitions) with 30seconds rest between bouts. The outcome measures were maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric hamstring strength (60°/s), muscle flexibility test by passive straight leg raise (PSLR), active straight leg raise (ASLR), and muscle stiffness using ultrasound Acoustic Radiation Forced Impulse (ARFI) elastography before and immediately after stretching. The muscle stiffness and concentric strength decreased significantly (p < .05), the flexibility no significant change after DSLR protocol (p > .05). The concentric strength decreased significantly (p < .05), the flexibility and muscle stiffness no significant change after MTT protocol (p > .05), whereas no significant differences were found for the DSLR and MTT. Our findings suggest that dynamic stretching (30s x 6 bouts) resulted in change in muscle stiffness or may be induced slack in the musculotendinous unit thereby, reducing force production. Therefore, 30s x 6 bouts of dynamic stretching adversely affects efforts of hamstring muscle maximal concentric strength.

Keywords: sport injury, ultrasound, eccentric exercise, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
678 Simulation of the Effect of Sea Water using Ground Tank to the Flexural Capacity of GFRP Sheet Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Arbain Tata, Rita Irmawaty


The study conducted a simulation of the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the concrete beams using a simulation tank. As it well known that, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been applied to many purposes for civil engineering structures not only for new structures but also for strengthening of the deteriorated structures. The FRP has advantages such as its corrosion resistance, as well as high tensile strength, to weight ratio. Glass composed FRP (GFRP) sheet is most commonly used due to its relatively lower cost compared to the other FRP materials. GFRP sheet is applied externally by bonding it on the concrete surface. Many studies have been done to investigate the bonding of GFRP sheet. However, it is still very rarely studies on the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the strengthened beams due to flexural loadings. This is important to be clarified for the wider application of GFRP sheet especially on the flexural structure that directly contact to the sea environment. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of concrete beams strengthened with GFRP sheet on extreme tension surface were prepared. The beams then were stored on the sea water tank for six months. Results indicated the bonding capacity decreased after six months exposed to the sea water.

Keywords: GFRP sheet, sea water, concrete beams, bonding

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677 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing

Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä


Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.

Keywords: feature recognition, automation, sheet metal manufacturing, CAD, CAM

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