Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Gu Pang

28 Stability of Essential Oils in Pang-Rum by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai, S. Techaeoi


Ancient Thai perfumed powder was used as a fragrance for clothing, food, and the body. Plant-based natural Thai perfume products are known as Pang-Rum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of essential oils after six months of incubation. The chemical compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in terms of the qualitative composition of the isolated essential oil. The isolation of the essential oil of natural products by incubate sample for 5 min at 40 ºC is described. The volatile components were identified by percentage of total peak areas comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with NIST mass spectral library. The results show no significant difference in the seven chromatograms of perfumed powder (Pang-Rum) both with binder and without binder. Further identification was done by GC-MS. Some components of Pang-Rum with/without binder were changed by temperature and time.

Keywords: GC-MS analysis, essential oils, stability, Pang-Rum

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27 Effect of Natural Binder on Pang-Rum Hardness

Authors: Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Khemjira Jarmkom, Warachate Khobjai, Surachai Techaoei


The aim of this study is to improve Pang-Rum (PR) hardness by adding natural binders. PR is one of Thai tradition aroma products. In the past, it was used for aesthetic propose on face and body with good odor. Nowadays, PR is not popular and going to be disappeared. Five natural materials, i.e. agar, rice flour, glutinous flour, corn starch, and tapioca starch were selected to use as binders. Binders were dissolved with boiled water into concentration 5% and 10% w/w except agar that was prepared 0.5% and 1% w/w. PR with and without binder were formulated. Physical properties, i.e. weight, shape, color, and hardness were evaluated. PR with 10% of corn starch solution had suitable hardness (14.2±0.9 kg) and the best appearance. In the future, it would be planned to study about odor and physical stability for decorated product development.

Keywords: aromatic water, hardness, natural binder, pang-rum

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26 Preparedness of the Mae Hong Son Province for the Aging Society

Authors: Siwaporn Mahathamnuchock, Krit Phanpanya


This survey study aims 1) to investigate the preparation of Mae Hong Son people for entering into the aging society 2) to study awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. The samples used in this study were people aged 55-60 years in Mae Hong Province. Located at Khun Yuam Sub district, Khun Yuam District, Pang Ma Pha Sub district, Pang Ma Pha District, Thung Yao Sub district, Pai District, Mae ka Tuan Sub district, Sob Moei District, Mae Sariang Sub district, Mae Sariang District, Mae Tho Sub district, Mae La Noi District. And Huai Pha Sub district, Muang Mae Hong District. The data were collected from 1,088 people by Stratified sampling Method. The instrument used in this study were 36 items of questionnaire that contains three parts: 1) Sample’s general information 2) The Interview of Mae Hong Son people’s preparation before entering aging society. 3) The Interview about preparedness of health for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. Then analyzed the data by using percentage and standard deviation. The research found that Mae Hong Son people are preparing for an aging society as followed; psychological, residence, physical health, careers and leisure time on a large scale with an average of 3.81 (SD=0.88), 3.66 (SD=0.99), 3.53(SD=1.04) and 3.51(SD=0.89), respectively. However finances and saving were prepared on moderate scale with an average of 2.84(SD=0.89) and in the awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization were moderate with an average of 2.99 (SD=1.07).

Keywords: aging society, preparedness, perception, Mae Hong Son province

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25 Users’ Preferences for Map Navigation Gestures

Authors: Y. Y. Pang, N. A. Ismail


The map is a powerful and convenient tool in helping us to navigate to different places, but the use of indirect devices often makes its usage cumbersome. This study intends to propose a new map navigation dialogue that uses hand gesture. A set of dialogue was developed from users’ perspective to provide users complete freedom for panning, zooming, rotate, and find direction operations. A participatory design experiment was involved here where one hand gesture and two hand gesture dialogues had been analysed in the forms of hand gestures to develop a set of usable dialogues. The major finding was that users prefer one-hand gesture compared to two-hand gesture in map navigation.

Keywords: hand gesture, map navigation, participatory design, intuitive interaction

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24 An Efficient Digital Baseband ASIC for Wireless Biomedical Signals Monitoring

Authors: Kah-Hyong Chang, Xin Liu, Jia Hao Cheong, Saisundar Sankaranarayanan, Dexing Pang, Hongzhao Zheng


A digital baseband Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is developed for a microchip transponder to transmit signals and temperature levels from biomedical monitoring devices. The transmission protocol is adapted from the ISO/IEC 11784/85 standard. The module has a decimation filter that employs only a single adder-subtractor in its datapath. The filtered output is coded with cyclic redundancy check and transmitted through backscattering Load Shift Keying (LSK) modulation to a reader. Fabricated using the 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the module occupies 0.116 mm² in chip area (digital baseband: 0.060 mm², decimation filter: 0.056 mm²), and consumes a total of less than 0.9 μW of power (digital baseband: 0.75 μW, decimation filter: 0.14 μW).

Keywords: biomedical sensor, decimation filter, radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) baseband, temperature sensor

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23 Cryptographic Attack on Lucas Based Cryptosystems Using Chinese Remainder Theorem

Authors: Tze Jin Wong, Lee Feng Koo, Pang Hung Yiu


Lenstra’s attack uses Chinese remainder theorem as a tool and requires a faulty signature to be successful. This paper reports on the security responses of fourth and sixth order Lucas based (LUC4,6) cryptosystem under the Lenstra’s attack as compared to the other two Lucas based cryptosystems such as LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. All the Lucas based cryptosystems were exposed mathematically to the Lenstra’s attack using Chinese Remainder Theorem and Dickson polynomial. Result shows that the possibility for successful Lenstra’s attack is less against LUC4,6 cryptosystem than LUC3 and LUC cryptosystems. Current study concludes that LUC4,6 cryptosystem is more secure than LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems in sustaining against Lenstra’s attack.

Keywords: Lucas sequence, Dickson polynomial, faulty signature, corresponding signature, congruence

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22 Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process

Authors: Ilsun Pang, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik


Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.

Keywords: Czochralski, ingot, silicon crystal, wafer

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21 Studies of Reduction Metal Impurity in Residual Melt by Czochralski Method

Authors: Jaemin Kim, Ilsun Pang, Yongrae Cho, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik


Manufacturing cost reduction is becoming more important due to excessive oversupply of Single crystalline ingot in recent solar market. Many companies are carrying out extensive research to grow more than one Single crystalline ingot in one batch to reduce manufacturing cost. However what most companies are finding difficult in this process is the effect on ingot due to increasing levels of impurities. Every ingot leaves a certain amount of melt after it is fully grown. This is the impurity that lowers the ingot quality. This impurity increase in the batch after second, third and more are grown subsequently in one batch. In order to solve this problem, the experiment to remove the residual melt in high temperature of hot zone was performed and succeeded. Theoretical average metal concentration of second ingot by new method was calculated and compared to it by conventional method.

Keywords: single crystal, solar cell, metal impurity, Ingot

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20 Combined Effect of High Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Migration in Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Elkedrouci Lotfi, Diao Bo, Pang Sen, Li Yi


Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0mm).

Keywords: crack width, high curing temperature, rapid chloride migration, reinforced concrete beam

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19 Development of a Three-Dimensional-Flywheel Robotic System

Authors: Chung-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Kai, Ting, Kai-Yuan Liu, Pang-Wei Yen, Jia-Ying Tu


In this paper, a new design of spherical robotic system based on the concepts of gimbal structure and gyro dynamics is presented. Robots equipped with multiple wheels and complex steering mechanics may increase the weight and degrade the energy transmission efficiency. In addition, the wheeled and legged robots are relatively vulnerable to lateral impact and lack of lateral mobility. Therefore, the proposed robotic design uses a spherical shell as the main body for ground locomotion, instead of using wheel devices. Three spherical shells are structured in a similar way to a gimbal device and rotate like a gyro system. The design and mechanism of the proposed robotic system is introduced. In addition, preliminary results of the dynamic model based on the principles of planar rigid body kinematics and Lagrangian equation are included. Simulation results and rig construction are presented to verify the concepts.

Keywords: gyro, gimbal, lagrange equation, spherical robots

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18 An Attack on the Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve Group Over Finite Field Using Greater Common Divisor

Authors: Lee Feng Koo, Tze Jin Wong, Pang Hung Yiu, Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long


Greater common divisor (GCD) attack is an attack that relies on the polynomial structure of the cryptosystem. This attack required two plaintexts differ from a fixed number and encrypted under same modulus. This paper reports a security reaction of Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field under GCD attack. Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field was exposed mathematically to the GCD attack using GCD and Dickson polynomial. The result shows that the cryptanalyst is able to get the plaintext without decryption by using GCD attack. Thus, the study concluded that it is highly perilous when two plaintexts have a slight difference from a fixed number in the same Elliptic curve group over finite field.

Keywords: decryption, encryption, elliptic curve, greater common divisor

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17 A Multi-Population DE with Adaptive Mutation and Local Search for Global Optimization

Authors: Zhoucheng Bao, Haiyan Zhu, Tingting Pang, Zuling Wang


This paper proposes a multi-population DE with adaptive mutation and local search for global optimization, named AMMADE. In order to better coordinate the cooperation between the populations and the rational use of resources. In AMMADE, the population is divided based on the Euclidean distance sorting method at each generation to appropriately coordinate the cooperation between subpopulations and the usage of resources, such that the best-performed subpopulation will get more computing resources in the next generation. Further, an adaptive local search strategy is employed on the best-performed subpopulation to achieve a balanced search. The proposed algorithm has been tested by solving optimization problems taken from CEC2014 benchmark problems. Experimental results show that our algorithm can achieve a competitive or better than related methods. The results also confirm the significance of devised strategies in the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: differential evolution, multi-mutation strategies, memetic algorithm, adaptive local search

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16 Belt Conveyor Dynamics in Transient Operation for Speed Control

Authors: D. He, Y. Pang, G. Lodewijks


Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are significantly important since the poor dynamics might result in risks. In this paper, the potential risks in transient operation will be analyzed. An existing finite element model will be applied to build a conveyor model, and simulations will be carried out to analyze the conveyor dynamics. In order to realize the soft speed regulation, Harrison’s sinusoid acceleration profile will be applied, and Lodewijks estimator will be built to approximate the required acceleration time. A long inclined belt conveyor will be studied with two major simulations. The conveyor dynamics will be given.

Keywords: belt conveyor , speed control, transient operation, dynamics

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15 Product Form Bionic Design Based on Eye Tracking Data: A Case Study of Desk Lamp

Authors: Huan Lin, Liwen Pang


In order to reduce the ambiguity and uncertainty of product form bionic design, a product form bionic design method based on eye tracking is proposed. The eye-tracking experiment is designed to calculate the average time ranking of the specific parts of the bionic shape that the subjects are looking at. Key bionic shape is explored through the experiment and then applied to a desk lamp bionic design. During the design case, FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierachy Process) and SD (Semantic Differential) method are firstly used to identify consumer emotional perception model toward desk lamp before product design. Through investigating different desk lamp design elements and consumer views, the form design factors on the desk lamp product are reflected and all design schemes are sequenced after caculation. Desk lamp form bionic design method is combined the key bionic shape extracted from eye-tracking experiment and priority of desk lamp design schemes. This study provides an objective and rational method to product form bionic design.

Keywords: Bionic design; Form; Eye tracking; FAHP; Desk lamp

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14 Dynamic Reroute Modeling for Emergency Evacuation: Case Study of Brunswick City, Germany

Authors: Yun-Pang Flötteröd, Jakob Erdmann


The human behaviors during evacuations are quite complex. One of the critical behaviors which affect the efficiency of evacuation is route choice. Therefore, the respective simulation modeling work needs to function properly. In this paper, Simulation of Urban Mobility’s (SUMO) current dynamic route modeling during evacuation, i.e. the rerouting functions, is examined with a real case study. The result consistency of the simulation and the reality is checked as well. Four influence factors (1) time to get information, (2) probability to cancel a trip, (3) probability to use navigation equipment, and (4) rerouting and information updating period are considered to analyze possible traffic impacts during the evacuation and to examine the rerouting functions in SUMO. Furthermore, some behavioral characters of the case study are analyzed with use of the corresponding detector data and applied in the simulation. The experiment results show that the dynamic route modeling in SUMO can deal with the proposed scenarios properly. Some issues and function needs related to route choice are discussed and further improvements are suggested.

Keywords: evacuation, microscopic traffic simulation, rerouting, SUMO

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13 The Droplet Generation and Flow in the T-Shape Microchannel with the Side Wall Fluctuation

Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu


Droplet microfluidics, in which nanoliter to picoliter droplets acted as individual compartments, are common to a diverse array of applications such as analytical chemistry, tissue engineering, microbiology and drug discovery. The droplet generation in a simplified two dimension T-shape microchannel with the main channel width of 50 μm and the side channel width of 25 μm, is simulated to investigate effects of the forced fluctuation of the side wall on the droplet generation and flow. The periodic fluctuations are applied on a length of the side wall in the main channel of the T-junction with the deformation shape of the double-clamped beam acted by the uniform force, which varies with the flow time and fluctuation periods, forms and positions. The fluctuations under most of the conditions expand the distribution range of the droplet size but have a little effect on the average size, while the shape of the fixed side wall changes the average droplet size chiefly. Droplet sizes show a periodic pattern along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the side wall near the T-junction. The droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation of the side wall under the same flow rate and geometry conditions. When the fluctuation period is similar with the droplet emerging period, the droplet size shows a nice stability as the no fluctuation case.

Keywords: droplet generation, droplet size, flow flied, forced fluctuation

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12 The Coalescence Process of Droplet Pairs in Different Junctions

Authors: Xiang Wang, Yan Pang, Zhaomiao Liu


Droplet-based microfluidics have been studied extensively with the development of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) which bears the advantages of high throughput, high efficiency, low cost and low polydispersity. Droplets, worked as versatile carriers, could provide isolated chambers as the internal dispersed phase is protected from the outside continuous phase. Droplets are used to add reagents to start or end bio-chemical reactions, to generate concentration gradients, to realize hydrate crystallization or protein analyses, while droplets coalescence acts as an important control technology. In this paper, deionized water is used as the dispersed phase, and several kinds of oil are used as the continuous phase to investigate the influence of the viscosity ratio of the two phases on the coalescence process. The microchannels are fabricated by coating a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer onto another PDMS flat plate after corona treatment. All newly made microchannels are rinsed with the continuous oil phase for hours before experiments to ensure the swelling fully developed. High-speed microscope system is used to document the serial videos with a maximum speed of 2000 frames per second. The critical capillary numbers (Ca*) of droplet pairs in various junctions are studied and compared. Ca* varies with different junctions or different liquids within the range of 0.002 to 0.01. However, droplets without extra control would have the problem of synchronism which reduces the coalescence efficiency.

Keywords: coalescence, concentration, critical capillary number, droplet pair, split

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11 An Assessment of Sexual Informational Needs of Breast Cancer Patients in Radiation Oncology

Authors: Li Hoon Lim, Nur Farhanah Said, Katie Simmons, Eric Pei Ping Pang, Sharon Mei Mei Wong


Background and Purpose: Research regarding the sexual impact of breast cancer treatment on Asian women is both sensitive and scarce. This study aims to assess and evaluate the sexual health needs and concerns of breast cancer radiotherapy patients. It is hoped that awareness will be increased and an appropriate intervention can be developed to address the needs of future breast cancer patients. Methods: 110 consecutive unselected breast cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Questionnaires were administered once for patient undergoing radiotherapy to the breast. This study employed an anonymous questionnaire; any breast radiotherapy patient who can read English can voluntarily receive and complete the survey. The questionnaire consisted of items addressing demographics, potential informational needs, and educational preferences. Results: Patients’ interest to address sexual concerns decreases with age (p=0.024). Coherently, sexual concerns of patients are reported to decrease with age (p=0.015) where 70% of all respondents below age 50 [age 20-29 (60%); 30-39 (56.3%); 40-49(55.1%)] have started to have sexual concerns regarding their treatment effects on their sexual health. Patients who underwent breast conservation surgery (42.2%) and reconstruction surgery (83.3%) were more likely to have concerns about sexual health versus patients who underwent mastectomy (36.7%) (p=0.032). 74.2% of patients with sexual concern regardless of age would initiate conversation with their healthcare providers (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed a staggering interest of female patients wanting information on this area which would not only boost their confidence and body image but also address concerns of the effect of breast radiotherapy on sexual health during their treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast radiotherapy, sexual health, sexual impact

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10 The Impact of Prior Cancer History on the Prognosis of Salivary Gland Cancer Patients: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database

Authors: Junhong Li, Danni Cheng, Yaxin Luo, Xiaowei Yi, Ke Qiu, Wendu Pang, Minzi Mao, Yufang Rao, Yao Song, Jianjun Ren, Yu Zhao


Background: The number of multiple cancer patients was increasing, and the impact of prior cancer history on salivary gland cancer patients remains unclear. Methods: Clinical, demographic and pathological information on salivary gland cancer patients were retrospectively collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2017, and the characteristics and prognosis between patients with a prior cancer and those without prior caner were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional regression models were used for the analysis of prognosis. A risk score model was established to exam the impact of treatment on patients with a prior cancer in different risk groups. Results: A total of 9098 salivary gland cancer patients were identified, and 1635 of them had a prior cancer history. Salivary gland cancer patients with prior cancer had worse survival compared with those without a prior cancer (p<0.001). Patients with a different type of first cancer had a distinct prognosis (p<0.001), and longer latent time was associated with better survival (p=0.006) in the univariate model, although both became nonsignificant in the multivariate model. Salivary gland cancer patients with a prior cancer were divided into low-risk (n= 321), intermediate-risk (n=223), and high-risk (n=62) groups and the results showed that patients at high risk could benefit from surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, and those at intermediate risk could benefit from surgery. Conclusion: Prior cancer history had an adverse impact on the survival of salivary gland cancer patients, and individualized treatment should be seriously considered for them.

Keywords: prior cancer history, prognosis, salivary gland cancer, SEER

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9 Forecasting Container Throughput: Using Aggregate or Terminal-Specific Data?

Authors: Gu Pang, Bartosz Gebka


We forecast the demand of total container throughput at the Indonesia’s largest seaport, Tanjung Priok Port. We propose four univariate forecasting models, including SARIMA, the additive Seasonal Holt-Winters, the multiplicative Seasonal Holt-Winters and the Vector Error Correction Model. Our aim is to provide insights into whether forecasting the total container throughput obtained by historical aggregated port throughput time series is superior to the forecasts of the total throughput obtained by summing up the best individual terminal forecasts. We test the monthly port/individual terminal container throughput time series between 2003 and 2013. The performance of forecasting models is evaluated based on Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error. Our results show that the multiplicative Seasonal Holt-Winters model produces the most accurate forecasts of total container throughput, whereas SARIMA generates the worst in-sample model fit. The Vector Error Correction Model provides the best model fits and forecasts for individual terminals. Our results report that the total container throughput forecasts based on modelling the total throughput time series are consistently better than those obtained by combining those forecasts generated by terminal-specific models. The forecasts of total throughput until the end of 2018 provide an essential insight into the strategic decision-making on the expansion of port's capacity and construction of new container terminals at Tanjung Priok Port.

Keywords: SARIMA, Seasonal Holt-Winters, Vector Error Correction Model, container throughput

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8 The Prognostic Prediction Value of Positive Lymph Nodes Numbers for the Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Wendu Pang, Yaxin Luo, Junhong Li, Yu Zhao, Danni Cheng, Yufang Rao, Minzi Mao, Ke Qiu, Yijun Dong, Fei Chen, Jun Liu, Jian Zou, Haiyang Wang, Wei Xu, Jianjun Ren


We aimed to compare the prognostic prediction value of positive lymph node number (PLNN) to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) staging system for patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC). A total of 826 patients with HPSCC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004–2015) were identified and split into two independent cohorts: training (n=461) and validation (n=365). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic effects of PLNN in patients with HPSCC. We further applied six Cox regression models to compare the survival predictive values of the PLNN and AJCC TNM staging system. PLNN showed a significant association with overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (P < 0.001) in both univariate and multivariable analyses, and was divided into three groups (PLNN 0, PLNN 1-5, and PLNN>5). In the training cohort, multivariate analysis revealed that the increased PLNN of HPSCC gave rise to significantly poor OS and CSS after adjusting for age, sex, tumor size, and cancer stage; this trend was also verified by the validation cohort. Additionally, the survival model incorporating a composite of PLNN and TNM classification (C-index, 0.705, 0.734) performed better than the PLNN and AJCC TNM models. PLNN can serve as a powerful survival predictor for patients with HPSCC and is a surrogate supplement for cancer staging systems.

Keywords: hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, positive lymph nodes number, prognosis, prediction models, survival predictive values

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7 Experimental Research on Neck Thinning Dynamics of Droplets in Cross Junction Microchannels

Authors: Yilin Ma, Zhaomiao Liu, Xiang Wang, Yan Pang


Microscale droplets play an increasingly important role in various applications, including medical diagnostics, material synthesis, chemical engineering, and cell research due to features of high surface-to-volume ratio and tiny scale, which can significantly improve reaction rates, enhance heat transfer efficiency, enable high-throughput parallel studies as well as reduce reagent usage. As a mature technique to manipulate small amounts of liquids, droplet microfluidics could achieve the precise control of droplet parameters such as size, uniformity, structure, and thus has been widely adopted in the engineering and scientific research of multiple fields. Necking processes of the droplet in the cross junction microchannels are experimentally and theoretically investigated and dynamic mechanisms of the neck thinning in two different regimes are revealed. According to evolutions of the minimum neck width and the thinning rate, the necking process is further divided into different stages and the main driving force during each stage is confirmed. Effects of the flow rates and the cross-sectional aspect ratio on the necking process as well as the neck profile at different stages are provided in detail. The distinct features of the two regimes in the squeezing stage are well captured by the theoretical estimations of the effective flow rate and the variations of the actual flow rates in different channels are reasonably reflected by the channel width ratio. In the collapsing stage, the quantitative relation between the minimum neck width and the remaining time is constructed to identify the physical mechanism.

Keywords: cross junction, neck thinning, force analysis, inertial mechanism

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6 Genres as Time Machines: Hong Kong Cinema's Ways of Historicizing

Authors: Chin Pang Lei


Colonized by the UK, handed over to China, and now as a global financial city, Hong Kong’s history is never easy to write under the dominant discourses of colonialism, nationalism and globalization. In this plight, cinema, regarded as Hong Kong’s most representative cultural form, is used for writing, exploring and questioning the local history of the city. In their writing of the past, Hong Kong directors such as Wong Kar-wai, Stanley Kwan and Tsui Hark have demonstrated alternative ways of historicizing Hong Kong. Despite their interests in different periods of time (Wong is obsessed with the 1960s; Kwan is attracted to the 1930s; Tsui often goes back to the early 20th century), all these directors use genres as their time machines to revisit the past. As a popular cultural form, genres always come with a series of ideologies which define our lives and explain the society. Hence, in a changing society, genres change and complicate themselves with different packages of meanings. Genres function as open-ended and corrigible schemata which can contain multiple themes and various meanings. In Hong Kong, genres, often seen as highly commercial and overly market-oriented, are opportunities for alternative history writing and the exploration of local identities. This paper examines how these Hong Kong directors use the popular forms of genres, such as melodrama, martial art and gangster films, to present the past, and how the stories of the fictional characters, such as prostitutes, martial artists and jobless hooligans mobilize imagination of history. These texts show that genre is a crucial platform for Hong Kong’s post-colonial self-writing. Via genres, history in these films is against official and canonical history as well as grand narrative. Genres as time machines articulate a voice for Hong Kong.

Keywords: Hong Kong cinema, genre, historicizing, local history, Wong Kar-Wai

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5 MiR-200a/ZEB1 Pathway in Liver Fibrogenesis of Biliary Atresia

Authors: Hai-Ying Liu, Yi-Hao Chen, Shu-Yin Pang, Feng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Li-Yuan Yang, Zheng-Rong Chen, Yi Chen, Bing Zhu


Objective: Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive liver fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. MiR-200a has been shown to repress EMT. We aim to explore the role of miR-200a in the fibrogenesis of BA. Methods: We obtained the plasma samples and liver samples from patients with BA or controls to examine the role of miR-200a. Histological liver fibrosis was assessed using the Ishak fibrosis scores. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-200a in plasma. We also evaluated the expression of miR-200a in liver tissues using tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH). The expression of EMT related proteins zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the liver sections were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that the expression of miR-200a was both elevated in the plasma and liver tissues from BA patients compared with the controls. The hepatic expression of ZEB1 and α-SMA were markedly increased in the liver sections from BA patients compared to the controls, whereas E-cadherin was downregulated in the BA group. Simultaneously, we noted that the hepatic expression of miR-200a, E-cadherin and α-SMA were upregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in the BA group, while ZEB1 was downregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in BA patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest EMT has a critical effect on the fibrotic process of BA, and the interaction between miR-200a and ZEB1 may regulate EMT and eventually influence liver fibrogenesis of BA.

Keywords: biliary atresia, liver fibrosis, MicroRNA, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1

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4 Controlled Digital Lending, Equitable Access to Knowledge and Future Library Services

Authors: Xuan Pang, Alvin L. Lee, Peggy Glatthaar


Libraries across the world have been an innovation engine of creativity and opportunityin many decades. The on-going global epidemiology outbreak and health crisis experience illuminates potential reforms, rethinking beyond traditional library operations and services. Controlled Digital Lending (CDL) is one of the emerging technologies libraries used to deliver information digitally in support of online learning and teachingand make educational materials more affordable and more accessible. CDL became a popular term in the United States of America (USA) as a result of a white paper authored by Kyle K. Courtney (Harvard University) and David Hansen (Duke University). The paper gave the legal groundwork to explore CDL: Fair Use, First Sale Doctrine, and Supreme Court rulings. Library professionals implemented this new technology to fulfill their users’ needs. Three libraries in the state of Florida (University of Florida, Florida Gulf Coast University, and Florida A&M University) started a conversation about how to develop strategies to make CDL work possible at each institution. This paper shares the stories of piloting and initiating a CDL program to ensure students have reliable, affordable access to course materials they need to be successful. Additionally, this paper offers an overview of the emerging trends of Controlled Digital Lending in the USA and demonstrates the development of the CDL platforms, policies, and implementation plans. The paper further discusses challenges and lessons learned and how each institution plans to sustain the program into future library services. The fundamental mission of the library is providing users unrestricted access to library resources regardless of their physical location, disability, health status, or other circumstances. The professional due diligence of librarians, as information professionals, is to makeeducational resources more affordable and accessible.CDL opens a new frontier of library services as a mechanism for library practice to enhance user’s experience of using libraries’ services. Libraries should consider exploring this tool to distribute library resources in an effective and equitable way. This new methodology has potential benefits to libraries and end users.

Keywords: controlled digital lending, emerging technologies, equitable access, collaborations

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3 The Use of Corpora in Improving Modal Verb Treatment in English as Foreign Language Textbooks

Authors: Lexi Li, Vanessa H. K. Pang


This study aims to demonstrate how native and learner corpora can be used to enhance modal verb treatment in EFL textbooks in mainland China. It contributes to a corpus-informed and learner-centered design of grammar presentation in EFL textbooks that enhances the authenticity and appropriateness of textbook language for target learners. The linguistic focus is will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must. The native corpus is the spoken component of BNC2014 (hereafter BNCS2014). The spoken part is chosen because pedagogical purpose of the textbooks is communication-oriented. Using the standard query option of CQPweb, 5% of each of the nine modals was sampled from BNCS2014. The learner corpus is the POS-tagged Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (TECCL). All the essays under the 'secondary school' section were selected. A series of five secondary coursebooks comprise the textbook corpus. All the data in both the learner and the textbook corpora are retrieved through the concordance functions of WordSmith Tools (version, 5.0). Data analysis was divided into two parts. The first part compared the patterns of modal verbs in the textbook corpus and BNC2014 with respect to distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions to examine whether the textbooks reflect the authentic use of English. Secondly, the learner corpus was analyzed in terms of the use (distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions) and the misuse (syntactic errors, e.g., she can sings*.) of the nine modal verbs to uncover potential difficulties that confront learners. The analysis of distribution indicates several discrepancies between the textbook corpus and BNCS2014. The first four most frequent modal verbs in BNCS2014 are can, would, will, could, while can, will, should, could are the top four in the textbooks. Most strikingly, there is an unusually high proportion of can (41.1%) in the textbooks. The results on different meanings shows that will, would and must are the most problematic. For example, for will, the textbooks contain 20% more occurrences of 'volition' and 20% less of 'prediction' than those in BNCS2014. Regarding co-occurring structures, the textbooks over-represented the structure 'modal +do' across the nine modal verbs. Another major finding is that the structure of 'modal +have done' that frequently co-occur with could, would, should, and must is underused in textbooks. Besides, these four modal verbs are the most difficult for learners, as the error analysis shows. This study demonstrates how the synergy of native and learner corpora can be harnessed to improve EFL textbook presentation of modal verbs in a way that textbooks can provide not only authentic language used in natural discourse but also appropriate design tailed for the needs of target learners.

Keywords: English as Foreign Language, EFL textbooks, learner corpus, modal verbs, native corpus

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2 Research on Tight Sandstone Oil Accumulation Process of the Third Member of Shahejie Formation in Dongpu Depression, China

Authors: Hui Li, Xiongqi Pang


In recent years, tight oil has become a hot spot for unconventional oil and gas exploration and development in the world. Dongpu Depression is a typical hydrocarbon-rich basin in the southwest of Bohai Bay Basin, in which tight sandstone oil and gas have been discovered in deep reservoirs, most of which are buried more than 3500m. The distribution and development characteristics of deep tight sandstone reservoirs need to be studied. The main source rocks in study area are dark mudstone and shale of the middle and lower third sub-member of Shahejie Formation. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content of source rock is between 0.08-11.54%, generally higher than 0.6% and the value of S1+S2 is between 0.04–72.93 mg/g, generally higher than 2 mg/g. It can be evaluated as middle to fine level overall. The kerogen type of organic matter is predominantly typeⅡ1 andⅡ2. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) is mostly greater than 0.6% indicating that the source rock entered the hydrocarbon generation threshold. The physical property of reservoir was poor, the most reservoir has a porosity lower than 12% and a permeability of less than 1×10⁻³μm. The rocks in this area showed great heterogeneity, some areas developed desserts with high porosity and permeability. According to SEM, thin section image, inclusion test and so on, the reservoir was affected by compaction and cementation during early diagenesis stage (44-31Ma). The diagenesis caused the tight reservoir in Huzhuangji, Pucheng, Weicheng Area while the porosity in Machang, Qiaokou, Wenliu Area was still over 12%. In the process of middle diagenesis phase stage A (31-17Ma), the reservoir porosity in Machang, Pucheng, Huzhuangji Area increased due to dissolution; after that the oil generation window of source rock was achieved for the first phase hydrocarbon charging (31-23Ma), formed the conventional oil deposition in Machang, Qiaokou, Wenliu, Huzhuangji Area and unconventional tight reservoir in Pucheng, Weicheng Area. Then came to stage B of middle diagenesis phase (17-7Ma), in this stage, the porosity of reservoir continued to decrease after the dissolution and led to a situation that the reservoirs were generally compacted. And since then, the second hydrocarbon filling has been processing since 7Ma. Most of the pools charged and formed in this procedure are tight sandstone oil reservoir. In conclusion, tight sandstone oil was formed in two patterns in Dongpu Depression, which could be concluded as ‘density fist then accumulation’ pattern and ‘accumulation fist next density’ pattern.

Keywords: accumulation process, diagenesis, dongpu depression, tight sandstone oil

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1 Effectiveness of Dry Needling with and without Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Johnson C. Y. Pang, Amy S. N. Fu, Ryan K. L. Lee, Allan C. L. Fu


Dry needling (DN) is one of the puncturing methods that involves the insertion of needles into the tender spots of the human body without the injection of any substance. DN has long been used to treat the patient with knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), but the effectiveness is still inconsistent. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the intervention methods and effects of DN with and without ultrasound guidance for treating pain and dysfunctions in people with KOA and PFPS. Design: This systematic review adhered to the PRISMA reporting guidelines. The registration number of the study protocol published in the PROSPERO database was CRD42021221419. Six electronic databases were searched manually through CINAHL Complete (1976-2020), Cochrane Library (1996-2020), EMBASE (1947-2020), Medline (1946-2020), PubMed (1966-2020), and Psychinfo (1806-2020) in November 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials were included to examine the effects of DN on knee pain, including KOA and PFPS. The key concepts included were: DN, acupuncture, ultrasound guidance, KOA, and PFPS. Risk of bias assessment and qualitative analysis were conducted by two independent reviewers using the PEDro score. Results: Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria, and eight of them were high-quality papers in accordance with the PEDro score. There were variations in the techniques of DN. These included the direction, depth of insertion, number of needles, duration of stay, needle manipulation, and the number of treatment sessions. Meta-analysis was conducted on eight articles. DN group showed positive short-term effects (from immediate after DN to less than 3 months) on pain reduction for both KOA and PFPS with the overall standardized mean difference (SMD) of -1.549 (95% CI=-0.588 to -2.511); with great heterogeneity (P=0.002, I²=96.3%). In subgroup analysis, DN demonstrated significant effects in pain reduction on PFPS (p < 0.001) that could not be found in subjects with KOA (P=0.302). At 3-month post-intervention, DN also induced significant pain reduction in both subjects with KOA and PFPS with an overall SMD of -0.916 (95% CI=-0.133 to -1.699, and great heterogeneity (P=0.022, I²=95.63%). Besides, DN induced significant short-term improvement in function with the overall SMD=6.069; 95% CI=8.595 to 3.544; with great heterogeneity (P<0.001, I²=98.56%) when analyzed was conducted on both KOA and PFPS groups. In subgroup analysis, only PFPS showed a positive result with SMD=6.089, P<0.001; while KOA showed statistically insignificant with P=0.198 in short-term effect. Similarly, at 3-month post-intervention, significant improvement in function after DN was found when the analysis was conducted in both groups with the overall SMD=5.840; 95% CI=9.252 to 2.428; with great heterogeneity (P<0.001, I²=99.1%), but only PFPS showed significant improvement in sub-group analysis (P=0.002, I²=99.1%). Conclusions: The application of DN in KOA and PFPS patients varies among practitioners. DN is effective in reducing pain and dysfunction at short-term and 3-month post-intervention in individuals with PFPS. To our best knowledge, no study has reported the effects of DN with ultrasound guidance on KOA and PFPS. The longer-term effects of DN on KOA and PFPS are waiting for further study.

Keywords: dry needling, knee osteoarthritis, patellofemoral pain syndrome, ultrasound guidance

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