Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Tangle

8 Quantifying Parallelism of Vectors Is the Quantification of Distributed N-Party Entanglement

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Prasanta K. Panigrahi


The three-way distributive entanglement is shown to be related to the parallelism of vectors. Using a measurement-based approach a set of 2−dimensional vectors is formed, representing the post-measurement states of one of the parties. These vectors originate at the same point and have an angular distance between them. The area spanned by a pair of such vectors is a measure of the entanglement of formation. This leads to a geometrical manifestation of the 3−tangle in 2−dimensions, from inequality in the area which generalizes for n− qubits to reveal that the n− tangle also has a planar structure. Quantifying the genuine n−party entanglement in every 1|(n − 1) bi-partition it is shown that the genuine n−way entanglement does not manifest in n− tangle. A new quantity geometrically similar to 3−tangle is then introduced that represents the genuine n− way entanglement. Extending the formalism to 3− qutrits, the nonlocality without entanglement can be seen to arise from a condition under which the post-measurement state vectors of a separable state show parallelism. A connection to nontrivial sum uncertainty relation analogous to Maccone and Pati uncertainty relation is then presented using decomposition of post-measurement state vectors along parallel and perpendicular direction of the pre-measurement state vectors. This study opens a novel way to understand multiparty entanglement in qubit and qudit systems.

Keywords: Geometry of quantum entanglement, Multipartite and distributive entanglement, Parallelism of vectors , Tangle

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7 Effect of Synbiotics on Rats' Intestinal Microbiota

Authors: Da Yoon Yu, Jeong A. Kim, In Sung Kim, Yeon Hee Hong, Jae Young Kim, Sang Suk Lee, Sung Chan Kim, So Hui Choe, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho


The present study was conducted to identify the effects of synbiotics composed of lactic acid (LA) bacteria (LAB) and sea tangle on rat’s intestinal microorganisms and anti-obesity effects. The experiment was conducted for six weeks using an 8-week old male rat as experiment animals and the experimental design was to use six treatments groups of 4 repetitions using three mice per repetition. The treatment groups were organized into a normal fat diet control (NFC), a high fat (HF) diet control (HFC), a prebiotic 0% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 0%, ST0), a prebiotic 5% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 5%, ST5), a prebiotic 10% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 10%, ST10), and a prebiotic 15% treatment group (HF+LA+sea tangle 15%, ST15) to conduct experiments with various levels of prebiotics. According to the results of the experiment, the NFC group showed the highest daily weight gain (22.34g) and the ST0 group showed the lowest daily weight gain (19.41g). However, weight gains during the entire experimental period were the highest in the HFC group (475.73g) and the lowest in the ST0 group (454.23g). Feed efficiency was the highest in the HFC group (0.20). Treatment with synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle suppressed weight increases due to HF diet and reduced feed efficiency. Intestinal microorganisms were identified through pyrosequncing and according to the results, Firmicutes phylum (approximately 60%) and Bacteroidetes phylum (approximately 30%) accounted for approximately 90% or more of intestinal microorganisms in all of the treatment groups indicating these bacteria are dominating in the intestines. Firmicutes that is related to weight increases accounted for 64.96% of microorganisms in the NFC group, 75.32% in the HFC group, 59.51% in the ST0 group, 61.29% in the ST5 group, 49.91% in the ST10 group, and 39.65% in the ST15 group. Therefore, Firmicutes showed the highest share the HFC group that showed high weight gains and the lowest share in the group treated with mixed synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle. Bacteroidetes that is related to weight gain inhibition accounted for 32.12% of microorganisms in the NFC group, and HFC group 21.57%, ST0 group 37.66%, ST5 group 34.92%, ST10 group 44.46%, and ST15 group 53.22%. Therefore, the share of Bacteroidetes was the lowest in the HFC group with no addition of synbiotics and increased along with the level of treatment with synbiotics. Changes in blood components were not significantly different among the groups and SCFA yields were shown to be higher in groups treated with synbiotics than in groups not added with synbiotics. Through the present study, it was shown that the supply of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle increased feed intake but led to weight losses and that the intake of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle had anti-obesity effects due to decreases in Firmicutes which are microorganisms related to weight gains and increases in Bacteroidetes which are microorganisms related to weight losses. Therefore, synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle are considered to have the effect to prevent metabolic disorders in the rat.

Keywords: bacteroidetes, firmicutes, intestinal microbiota, lactic acid, sea tangle, synbiotics

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6 Generating Links That Are Both Quasi-Alternating and Almost Alternating

Authors: Hamid Abchir, Mohammed Sabak2


We construct an infinite family of links which are both almost alternating and quasi-alternating from a given either almost alternating diagram representing a quasi-alternating link, or connected and reduced alternating tangle diagram. To do that we use what we call a dealternator extension which consists in replacing the dealternator by a rational tangle extending it. We note that all non-alternating and quasi-alternating Montesinos links can be obtained in that way. We check that all the obtained quasi-alternating links satisfy Conjecture 3.1 of Qazaqzeh et al. (JKTR 22 (6), 2013), that is the crossing number of a quasi-alternating link is less than or equal to its determinant. We also prove that the converse of Theorem 3.3 of Qazaqzeh et al. (JKTR 24 (1), 2015) is false.

Keywords: quasi-alternating links, almost alternating links, tangles, determinants

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5 A Lightweight Blockchain: Enhancing Internet of Things Driven Smart Buildings Scalability and Access Control Using Intelligent Direct Acyclic Graph Architecture and Smart Contracts

Authors: Syed Irfan Raza Naqvi, Zheng Jiangbin, Ahmad Moshin, Pervez Akhter


Currently, the IoT system depends on a centralized client-servant architecture that causes various scalability and privacy vulnerabilities. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) introduces a set of opportunities for the IoT, which leads to practical ideas for existing components at all levels of existing architectures. Blockchain Technology (BCT) appears to be one approach to solving several IoT problems, like Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum, which offer multiple possibilities. Besides, IoTs are resource-constrained devices with insufficient capacity and computational overhead to process blockchain consensus mechanisms; the traditional BCT existing challenge for IoTs is poor scalability, energy efficiency, and transaction fees. IOTA is a distributed ledger based on Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) that ensures M2M micro-transactions are free of charge. IOTA has the potential to address existing IoT-related difficulties such as infrastructure scalability, privacy and access control mechanisms. We proposed an architecture, SLDBI: A Scalable, lightweight DAG-based Blockchain Design for Intelligent IoT Systems, which adapts the DAG base Tangle and implements a lightweight message data model to address the IoT limitations. It enables the smooth integration of new IoT devices into a variety of apps. SLDBI enables comprehensive access control, energy efficiency, and scalability in IoT ecosystems by utilizing the Masked Authentication Message (MAM) protocol and the IOTA Smart Contract Protocol (ISCP). Furthermore, we suggest proof-of-work (PoW) computation on the full node in an energy-efficient way. Experiments have been carried out to show the capability of a tangle to achieve better scalability while maintaining energy efficiency. The findings show user access control management at granularity levels and ensure scale up to massive networks with thousands of IoT nodes, such as Smart Connected Buildings (SCBDs).

Keywords: blockchain, IOT, direct acyclic graphy, scalability, access control, architecture, smart contract, smart connected buildings

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4 The Consequences of Cyberbullying and School Violence: Risk and Protective Factors

Authors: Ifigenia Stylianou


As more than three-quarters of students going online daily via computers, tablets, and smartphones, the phenomenon of cyberbullying is growing rapidly. Knowing that victims of online bullying are often also victims of traditional bullying and that traditional bullying is considered as an extension of cyberbullying. In this study, we aim to identify (1) whether cyberbullying lead to more intense forms of school bullying, and (2) whether some biological and environmental factors mediate between this relation, and act protectively to bullying and inappropriate behaviour in school. To answer this questions, a sample of X students, aged X, were asked to complete eight questionnaires (Personal Experiences Checklist, Inventory of Peers Attachment, Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction, School Climate Survey for Bullying, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Form, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) in X time periods. Results can provide us important information to improve understanding the factors that are related to bullying. In addition, the results can assist in developing intervention programs to tangle the issue of bullying at schools. All data have been collected and are currently being processed for statistical analyses.

Keywords: cyberbullying, bullying, school climate, psychopathy traits, attachment, mediation factors

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3 Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery and Therapy of Alzeheimer's Disease

Authors: Nirupama Dixit, Anyaa Mittal, Neeru Sood


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive form of dementia, contributing to up to 70% of cases, mostly observed in elderly but is not restricted to old age. The pathophysiology of the disease is characterized by specific pathological changes in brain. The changes (i.e. accumulation of metal ions in brain, formation of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregates and tangle of hyper phosphorylated Tau protein inside neurons) damage the neuronal connections irreversibly. The current issues in improvement of life quality of Alzheimer's patient lies in the fact that the diagnosis is made at a late stage of the disease and the medications do not treat the basic causes of Alzheimer's. The targeted delivery of drug through the blood brain barrier (BBB) poses several limitations via traditional approaches for treatment. To overcome these drug delivery limitation, nanoparticles provide a promising solution. This review focuses on current strategies for efficient targeted drug delivery using nanoparticles and improving the quality of therapy provided to the patient. Nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drug (which is generally hydrophobic) to ensure its passage to brain; they can be conjugated to metal ion chelators to reduce the metal load in neural tissue thus lowering the harmful effects of oxidative damage; can be conjugated with drug and monoclonal antibodies against BBB endogenous receptors. Finally this review covers how the nanoparticles can play a role in diagnosing the disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid plaques, blood brain barrier, metal chelators, nanoparticles

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2 Exploring the Psychosocial Brain: A Retrospective Analysis of Personality, Social Networks, and Dementia Outcomes

Authors: Felicia N. Obialo, Aliza Wingo, Thomas Wingo


Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and social networks influence cognitive aging and dementia outcomes both positively and negatively. The inherent complexity of these factors makes defining the underlying mechanisms of their influence difficult; however, exploring their interactions affords promise in the field of cognitive aging. The objective of this study was to elucidate some of these interactions by determining the relationship between social network size and dementia outcomes and by determining whether personality traits mediate this relationship. The longitudinal Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) database provided by Rush University’s Religious Orders Study/Memory and Aging Project was utilized to perform retrospective regression and mediation analyses on 3,591 participants. Participants who were cognitively impaired at baseline were excluded, and analyses were adjusted for age, sex, common chronic diseases, and vascular risk factors. Dementia outcome measures included cognitive trajectory, clinical dementia diagnosis, and postmortem beta-amyloid plaque (AB), and neurofibrillary tangle (NT) accumulation. Personality traits included agreeableness (A), conscientiousness (C), extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), and openness (O). The results show a positive correlation between social network size and cognitive trajectory (p-value = 0.004) and a negative relationship between social network size and odds of dementia diagnosis (p = 0.024/ Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.974). Only neuroticism mediates the positive relationship between social network size and cognitive trajectory (p < 2e-16). Agreeableness, extraversion, and neuroticism all mediate the negative relationship between social network size and dementia diagnosis (p=0.098, p=0.054, and p < 2e-16, respectively). All personality traits are independently associated with dementia diagnosis (A: p = 0.016/ OR = 0.959; C: p = 0.000007/ OR = 0.945; E: p = 0.028/ OR = 0.961; N: p = 0.000019/ OR = 1.036; O: p = 0.027/ OR = 0.972). Only conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with postmortem AD pathologies; specifically, conscientiousness is negatively associated (AB: p = 0.001, NT: p = 0.025) and neuroticism is positively associated with pathologies (AB: p = 0.002, NT: p = 0.002). These results support the study’s objectives, demonstrating that social network size and personality traits are strongly associated with dementia outcomes, particularly the odds of receiving a clinical diagnosis of dementia. Personality traits interact significantly and beneficially with social network size to influence the cognitive trajectory and future dementia diagnosis. These results reinforce previous literature linking social network size to dementia risk and provide novel insight into the differential roles of individual personality traits in cognitive protection.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive trajectory, personality traits, social network size

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1 Spatial Transformation of Heritage Area as The Impact of Tourism Activity (Case Study: Kauman Village, Surakarta City, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Nafiah Solikhah Thoha


One area that has spatial character as Heritage area is Kauman Villages. Kauman village in The City of Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia was formed in 1757 by Paku Buwono III as the King of Kasunanan kingdom (Mataram Kingdom) for Kasunanan kingdom courtiers and scholars of Madrasa. Spatial character of Kauman village influenced by Islamic planning and socio-cultural rules of Kasunanan Kingdom. As traditional settlements influenced by Islamic planning, the Grand Mosque is a binding part of the whole area. Circulation pattern forming network (labyrinth) with narrow streets that ended at the Grand Mosque. The outdoor space can be used for circulation. Social activity is dominated by step movement from one place to a different place. Stalemate (the fina/cul de sac) generally only passable on foot, bicycles, and motorcycles. While the pass (main and branch) can be traversed by motor, vehicles. Kauman village has an area that can not be used as a public road that penetrates and serves as a liaison between the outside world to the other. Hierarchy of hall in Kauman village shows that the existence of a space is getting into more important. Firstly, woman in Kauman make the handmade batik for themself. In 2005 many people improving batik tradisional into commercial, and developed program named "Batik Tourism village of Kauman". That program affects the spatial transformations. This study aimed to explore the influence of tourism program towards spatial transformations. The factors that studied are the organization of space, circulation patterns, hierarchical space, and orientation through the descriptive-evaluation approach methods. Based on the study, tourism activity engenders transformations on the spatial scale (macro), residential block (mezo), homes (micro). First, the Grand Mosque and madrasa (religious school) as a binding zoning; tangle of roads as forming the structure of the area developed as a liaison with outside Kauman; organization of space in the residential of batik entrepreneurs firstly just a residential, then develop into residential, factory of batik including showroom. Second, the circulation pattern forming network (labyrinth) and ends at the Grand Mosque. Third, the hierarchy in the form of public space (the shari), semi-public, and private (the fina/culdesac) is no longer to provide protection to women, only as hierarchy of circulation path. Fourth, cluster building orientation does not follow the kiblat direction or axis oriented to cosmos, but influence by the new function as the showroom. It was need the direction of the main road. Kauman grow as an appropriate area for the community. During its development, the settlement function changes according to community activities, especially economic activities. The new function areas as tourism area affect spatial pattern of Kauman village. Spatial existence and activity as a local wisdom that has been done for generations have meaning of holistic, encompassing socio-cultural sustainability, economics, and the heritage area. By reviewing the local wisdom and the way of life of that society, we can learn how to apply the culture as education for sustainable of heritage area.

Keywords: impact of tourism, Kauman village, spatial transformation, sustainable of heritage area

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