Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Xiaodong Ma

15 Real-Time Detection of Space Manipulator Self-Collision

Authors: Zhang Xiaodong, Tang Zixin, Liu Xin


In order to avoid self-collision of space manipulators during operation process, a real-time detection method is proposed in this paper. The manipulator is fitted into a cylinder enveloping surface, and then the detection algorithm of collision between cylinders is analyzed. The collision model of space manipulator self-links can be detected by using this algorithm in real-time detection during the operation process. To ensure security of the operation, a safety threshold is designed. The simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for a 7-DOF space manipulator.

Keywords: space manipulator, collision detection, self-collision, the real-time collision detection

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14 Network Mobility Support in Content-Centric Internet

Authors: Zhiwei Yan, Jong-Hyouk Lee, Yong-Jin Park, Xiaodong Lee


In this paper, we analyze NEtwork MObility (NEMO) supporting problems in Content-Centric Networking (CCN), and propose the CCN-NEMO which can well support the deployment of the content-centric paradigm in large-scale mobile Internet. The CCN-NEMO extends the signaling message of the basic CCN protocol, to support the mobility discovery and fast trigger of Interest re-issuing during the network mobility. Besides, the Mobile Router (MR) is extended to optimize the content searching and relaying in the local subnet. These features can be employed by the nested NEMO to maximize the advantages of content retrieving with CCN. Based on the analysis, we compare the performance on handover latency between the basic CCN and our proposed CCN-NEMO. The results show that our scheme can facilitate the content-retrieving in the NEMO scenario with improved performance.

Keywords: NEMO, CCN, mobility, handover latency

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13 Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Based on Critical Fatigue Constraint

Authors: Khodamorad Nabaki, Jianhu Shen, Xiaodong Huang


This paper develops a method for considering the critical fatigue stress as a constraint in the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. Our aim is to reach an optimal design in which high cycle fatigue failure does not occur for a specific life time. The critical fatigue stress is calculated based on modified Goodman criteria and used as a stress constraint in our topology optimization problem. Since fatigue generally does not occur for compressive stresses, we use the p-norm approach of the stress measurement that considers the highest tensile principal stress in each point as stress measure to calculate the sensitivity numbers. The BESO method has been extended to minimize volume an object subjected to the critical fatigue stress constraint. The optimization results are compared with the results from the compliance minimization problem which shows clearly the merits of our newly developed approach.

Keywords: topology optimization, BESO method, p-norm, fatigue constraint

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12 Numerical Study on Self-Confined Plasmoid Transport Phenomena in an Electrodeless Plasma Thruster for Space Propulsion

Authors: Xiaodong Wen, Lijuan Liu, Xinfeng Sun


A high power electrodeless plasma thruster is being developed at Lanzhou Institute of Physics. In this thruster, a rotating magnetic field (RMF) driven by two radio-frequency coils which dephased by 90 degrees are applied both for propellant ionization and plasma acceleration. In the ionization stage, a very high azimuthal current can be driven by RMF and then makes plasma forms a field reversed configuration, namely self-confined plasmoid. Profoundly understanding the transport characteristics of the plasmoid in the following acceleration stage is the key to improve the thruster performances. In this paper, a 3D MHD model is established and the influences of the RMF and an applied magnetic field on the self-confined plasmoid acceleration are investigated. The simulation results show that, by applying a RMF with strength and frequency of 250 G and 370 kHz, the plasmoid can be accelerated to an average velocity of 17 km/s at the exit of the thruster.

Keywords: electric space propulsion, field reversed configuration, rotating magnetic field, transport phenomena

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11 Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility

Authors: Xiaodong Xu, Dan Zhao, Xiujuan Chang, Chunming Li, Huiyun Zhou, Xin Li, Qiang Shi, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin


Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.

Keywords: functionalization, polypropylene, chiral monomer, hemocompatibility

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10 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong


Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

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9 A Deep-Learning Based Prediction of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma with Electronic Health Records from the State of Maine

Authors: Xiaodong Li, Peng Gao, Chao-Jung Huang, Shiying Hao, Xuefeng B. Ling, Yongxia Han, Yaqi Zhang, Le Zheng, Chengyin Ye, Modi Liu, Minjie Xia, Changlin Fu, Bo Jin, Karl G. Sylvester, Eric Widen


Predicting the risk of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PA) in advance can benefit the quality of care and potentially reduce population mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to develop and prospectively validate a risk prediction model to identify patients at risk of new incident PA as early as 3 months before the onset of PA in a statewide, general population in Maine. The PA prediction model was developed using Deep Neural Networks, a deep learning algorithm, with a 2-year electronic-health-record (EHR) cohort. Prospective results showed that our model identified 54.35% of all inpatient episodes of PA, and 91.20% of all PA that required subsequent chemoradiotherapy, with a lead-time of up to 3 months and a true alert of 67.62%. The risk assessment tool has attained an improved discriminative ability. It can be immediately deployed to the health system to provide automatic early warnings to adults at risk of PA. It has potential to identify personalized risk factors to facilitate customized PA interventions.

Keywords: cancer prediction, deep learning, electronic health records, pancreatic adenocarcinoma

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8 Research of Control System for Space Intelligent Robot Based on Vision Servo

Authors: Changchun Liang, Xiaodong Zhang, Xin Liu, Pengfei Sun


Space intelligent robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. The robotic on-orbital service, whose key is the tracking and capturing technology, becomes research hot in recent years. In this paper, the authors propose a vision servo control system for target capturing. Robotic manipulator will be an intelligent robotic system with large-scale movement, functional agility, and autonomous ability, and it can be operated by astronauts in the space station or be controlled by the ground operator in the remote operation mode. To realize the autonomous movement and capture mission of SRM, a kind of autonomous programming strategy based on multi-camera vision fusion is designed and the selection principle of object visual position and orientation measurement information is defined for the better precision. Distributed control system hierarchy is designed and reliability is considering to guarantee the abilities of control system. At last, a ground experiment system is set up based on the concept of robotic control system. With that, the autonomous target capturing experiments are conducted. The experiment results validate the proposed algorithm, and demonstrates that the control system can fulfill the needs of function, real-time and reliability.

Keywords: control system, on-orbital service, space robot, vision servo

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7 A Study on Design for Parallel Test Based on Embedded System

Authors: Zheng Sun, Weiwei Cui, Xiaodong Ma, Hongxin Jin, Dongpao Hong, Jinsong Yang, Jingyi Sun


With the improvement of the performance and complexity of modern equipment, automatic test system (ATS) becomes widely used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the conventional ATS mainly works in a serial mode, and lacks the ability of testing several equipments at the same time. That leads to low test efficiency and ATS redundancy. Especially for a large majority of equipment under test, the conventional ATS cannot meet the requirement of efficient testing. To reduce the support resource and increase test efficiency, we propose a method of design for the parallel test based on the embedded system in this paper. Firstly, we put forward the general framework of the parallel test system, and the system contains a central management system (CMS) and several distributed test subsystems (DTS). Then we give a detailed design of the system. For the hardware of the system, we use embedded architecture to design DTS. For the software of the system, we use test program set to improve the test adaption. By deploying the parallel test system, the time to test five devices is now equal to the time to test one device in the past. Compared with the conventional test system, the proposed test system reduces the size and improves testing efficiency. This is of great significance for equipment to be put into operation swiftly. Finally, we take an industrial control system as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that the method is reasonable, and the efficiency is improved up to 500%.

Keywords: parallel test, embedded system, automatic test system, automatic test system (ATS), central management system, central management system (CMS), distributed test subsystems, distributed test subsystems (DTS)

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6 Cationic Copolymer-Functionalized Nanodiamonds Stabilizes Silver Nanoparticles with Dual Antibacterial Activity and Lower Cytotoxicity

Authors: Weiwei Cao, Xiaodong Xing


In order to effectively resolve the microbial pollution and contamination, synthetic nano-antibacterial materials are widely used in daily life. Among them, nanodiamonds (NDs) have recently been demonstrated to hold promise as useful materials in biomedical applications due to their high specific surface area and biocompatibility. In this work, the copolymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was applied for the surface functionalization of NDs to produce the quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-functionalized NDs (QNDs). Then, QNDs were used as a substrate for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to produce a [email protected] hybrid. The composition and morphology of the resultant nanostructures were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mass fraction of AgNPs in the nanocomposites was about 35.7%. The antibacterial performances of the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated with Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), inhibition zone testing and time-kill study. As a result, due to the synergistic antibacterial activity of QND and AgNPs, this hybrid showed substantially higher antibacterial activity than QND and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNPs, and the AgNPs on [email protected] were more stable than the Ag NPs on PVP, resulting in long-term antibacterial effects. More importantly, this hybrid showed excellent water solubility and low cytotoxicity, suggesting the great potential application in biomedical applications. The present work provided a simple strategy that successfully turned NDs into nanosized antibiotics with simultaneous superior stability and biocompatibility, which would broaden the applications of NDs and advance the development of novel antibacterial agents.

Keywords: cationic copolymer, nanodiamonds, silver nanoparticles, dual antibacterial activity, lower cytotoxicity

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5 Simulation of the Asphaltene Deposition Rate in a Wellbore Blockage via Computational Fluid Dynamic

Authors: Xiaodong Gao, Pingchuan Dong, Qichao Gao


Asphaltene deposition caused by changes in pressure, temperature, or composition, is a crucial challenging flow assurance phenomenon in all stages of oil production and processing. A better understanding of asphaltene deposition characteristics is of significance for crude oil production and engineering application. While most of the previously published work focused on asphaltene deposited on the smooth pipe under steady conditions and less particle deposition on the blockage wellbores under transient conditions. This work is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the deposition rate of asphaltene particles through the wellbores under blockage conditions. The Euler-Lagrange equation has been applied during the flow of crude oil and asphaltene particles.3-dimensional CFD models of a vertical pipe were generated, and mesh independent tests were carried out. It considers the net gravitational force, virtual mass, pressure gradient, saffman lift, and drag forces in the simulations process. In addition, the effect of blockage position, blockage length, and blockage thickness on deposition rate were also analyzed. Validation of CFD simulation results is compared to the benchmark experiments from the previous literature. Comparisons of asphaltene deposition rate are also provided for two conditions, including blockage and smooth tube under the same production condition. The simulation results indicate that thedeposition rate in the blocked pipe is three times that in the smooth pipe. Moreover, the asphaltene deposition rate in the blockage part of the wall is much higher than it is in the bottom and top. Sensitivity results show that the larger the blockage diameter, the longer the blockage length or the closer the pipe inlet, the larger the pressure drop through the wellbores is, leading to the larger deposition rate of asphaltene particles. This concludes that pressure drop is an important factor in theasphaltene deposition mechanism. Besides, an increase in injection time results in an increase in the deposition rate and deposition amount. Results of this study arein the ability to better understand the deposition of asphaltene particles in production and help achieve to deal with the asphaltene challenges.

Keywords: asphaltene deposition rate, blockage length, blockage thickness, blockage diameter, transient condition

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4 The Mechanism Study on the Difference between High and Low Voltage Performance of Li3V2(PO4)3

Authors: Enhui Wang, Qingzhu Ou, Yan Tang, Xiaodong Guo


As one of most popular polyanionic compounds in lithium-ion cathode materials, Li3V2(PO4)3 has always suffered from the low rate capability especially during 3~4.8V, which is considered to be related with the ion diffusion resistance and structural transformation during the Li+ de/intercalation. Here, as the change of cut-off voltages, cycling numbers and current densities, the process of SEI interfacial film’s formation-growing- destruction-repair on the surface of the cathode, the structural transformation during the charge and discharge, the de/intercalation kinetics reflected by the electrochemical impedance and the diffusion coefficient, have been investigated in detail. Current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage impacting on interfacial film and structure was studied specifically. Firstly, the matching between electrolyte and material was investigated, it turned out that the batteries with high voltage electrolyte showed the best electrochemical performance and high voltage electrolyte would be the best electrolyte. Secondly, AC impedance technology was used to study the changes of interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient, the results showed that current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage influenced the interfacial film together and the one who changed the interfacial properties most was the key factor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that the attenuation of discharge specific capacity was associated with the destruction and repair process of the SEI film. Thirdly, the X-ray diffraction was used to study the changes of structure, which was also impacted by current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage. The results indicated that the cell volume of Li3V2 (PO4 )3 increased as the current density increased; cycle numbers merely influenced the structure of material; the cell volume decreased first and moved back gradually after two Li-ion had been deintercalated as the charging cut-off voltage increased, and increased as the intercalation number of Li-ion increased during the discharging process. Then, the results which studied the changes of interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient turned out that the interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient increased when the cut-off voltage passed the voltage platforms and decreased when the cut-off voltage was between voltage platforms. Finally, three-electrode system was first adopted to test the activation energy of the system, the results indicated that the activation energy of the three-electrode system (22.385 KJ /mol) was much smaller than that of two-electrode system (40.064 KJ /mol).

Keywords: cut-off voltage, de/intercalation kinetics, solid electrolyte interphase film, structural transformation

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3 Effect of Packing Ratio on Fire Spread across Discrete Fuel Beds: An Experimental Analysis

Authors: Qianqian He, Naian Liu, Xiaodong Xie, Linhe Zhang, Yang Zhang, Weidong Yan


In the wild, the vegetation layer with exceptionally complex fuel composition and heterogeneous spatial distribution strongly affects the rate of fire spread (ROS) and fire intensity. Clarifying the influence of fuel bed structure on fire spread behavior is of great significance to wildland fire management and prediction. The packing ratio is one of the key physical parameters describing the property of the fuel bed. There is a threshold value of the packing ratio for ROS, but little is known about the controlling mechanism. In this study, to address this deficiency, a series of fire spread experiments were performed across a discrete fuel bed composed of some regularly arranged laser-cut cardboards, with constant wind speed and different packing ratios (0.0125-0.0375). The experiment aims to explore the relative importance of the internal and surface heat transfer with packing ratio. The dependence of the measured ROS on the packing ratio was almost consistent with the previous researches. The data of the radiative and total heat fluxes show that the internal heat transfer and surface heat transfer are both enhanced with increasing packing ratio (referred to as ‘Stage 1’). The trend agrees well with the variation of the flame length. The results extracted from the video show that the flame length markedly increases with increasing packing ratio in Stage 1. Combustion intensity is suggested to be increased, which, in turn, enhances the heat radiation. The heat flux data shows that the surface heat transfer appears to be more important than the internal heat transfer (fuel preheating inside the fuel bed) in Stage 1. On the contrary, the internal heat transfer dominates the fuel preheating mechanism when the packing ratio further increases (referred to as ‘Stage 2’) because the surface heat flux keeps almost stable with the packing ratio in Stage 2. As for the heat convection, the flow velocity was measured using Pitot tubes both inside and on the upper surface of the fuel bed during the fire spread. Based on the gas velocity distribution ahead of the flame front, it is found that the airflow inside the fuel bed is restricted in Stage 2, which can reduce the internal heat convection in theory. However, the analysis indicates not the influence of inside flow on convection and combustion, but the decreased internal radiation of per unit fuel is responsible for the decrease of ROS.

Keywords: discrete fuel bed, fire spread, packing ratio, wildfire

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2 Visualization of Chinese Genealogies with Digital Technology: A Case of Genealogy of Wu Clan in the Village of Gaoqian

Authors: Huiling Feng, Jihong Liang, Xiaodong Gong, Yongjun Xu


Recording history is a tradition in ancient China. A record of a dynasty makes a dynastic history; a record of a locality makes a chorography, and a record of a clan makes a genealogy – the three combined together depicts a complete national history of China both macroscopically and microscopically, with genealogy serving as the foundation. Genealogy in ancient China traces back to a family tree or pedigrees in the early and medieval historical times. After Song Dynasty, the civilian society gradually emerged, and the Emperor had to allow people from the same clan to live together and hold the ancestor worship activities, thence compilation of genealogy became popular in the society. Since then, genealogies, regarded as important as ancestor and religious temples in a traditional villages even today, have played a primary role in identification of a clan and maintain local social order. Chinese genealogies are rich in their documentary materials. Take the Genealogy of Wu Clan in Gaoqian as an example. Gaoqian is a small village in Xianju County of Zhejiang Province. The Genealogy of Wu Clan in Gaoqian is composed of a whole set of materials from Foreword to Family Trees, Family Rules, Family Rituals, Family Graces and Glories, Ode to An ancestor’s Portrait, Manual for the Ancestor Temple, documents for great men in the clan, works written by learned men in the clan, the contracts concerning landed property, even notes on tombs and so on. Literally speaking, the genealogy, with detailed information from every aspect recorded in stylistic rules, is indeed the carrier of the entire culture of a clan. However, due to their scarcity in number and difficulties in reading, genealogies seldom fall into the horizons of common people. This paper, focusing on the case of the Genealogy of Wu Clan in the Village of Gaoqian, intends to reproduce a digital Genealogy by use of ICTs, through an in-depth interpretation of the literature and field investigation in Gaoqian Village. Based on this, the paper goes further to explore the general methods in transferring physical genealogies to digital ones and ways in visualizing the clanism culture embedded in the genealogies with a combination of digital technologies such as software in family trees, multimedia narratives, animation design, GIS application and e-book creators.

Keywords: clanism culture, multimedia narratives, genealogy of Wu Clan, GIS

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1 Fracture Behaviour of Functionally Graded Materials Using Graded Finite Elements

Authors: Mohamad Molavi Nojumi, Xiaodong Wang


In this research fracture behaviour of linear elastic isotropic functionally graded materials (FGMs) are investigated using modified finite element method (FEM). FGMs are advantageous because they enhance the bonding strength of two incompatible materials, and reduce the residual stress and thermal stress. Ceramic/metals are a main type of FGMs. Ceramic materials are brittle. So, there is high possibility of crack existence during fabrication or in-service loading. In addition, damage analysis is necessary for a safe and efficient design. FEM is a strong numerical tool for analyzing complicated problems. Thus, FEM is used to investigate the fracture behaviour of FGMs. Here an accurate 9-node biquadratic quadrilateral graded element is proposed in which the influence of the variation of material properties is considered at the element level. The stiffness matrix of graded elements is obtained using the principle of minimum potential energy. The implementation of graded elements prevents the forced sudden jump of material properties in traditional finite elements for modelling FGMs. Numerical results are verified with existing solutions. Different numerical simulations are carried out to model stationary crack problems in nonhomogeneous plates. In these simulations, material variation is supposed to happen in directions perpendicular and parallel to the crack line. Two special linear and exponential functions have been utilized to model the material gradient as they are mostly discussed in literature. Also, various sizes of the crack length are considered. A major difference in the fracture behaviour of FGMs and homogeneous materials is related to the break of material symmetry. For example, when the material gradation direction is normal to the crack line, even under applying the mode I loading there exists coupled modes I and II of fracture which originates from the induced shear in the model. Therefore, the necessity of the proper modelling of the material variation should be considered in capturing the fracture behaviour of FGMs specially, when the material gradient index is high. Fracture properties such as mode I and mode II stress intensity factors (SIFs), energy release rates, and field variables near the crack tip are investigated and compared with results obtained using conventional homogeneous elements. It is revealed that graded elements provide higher accuracy with less effort in comparison with conventional homogeneous elements.

Keywords: finite element, fracture mechanics, functionally graded materials, graded element

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