Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2921

Search results for: head rice yield

2921 Agronomic Manipulation in Cultivation Practices of Scented Rice: For Sustainable Crop Production

Authors: Damini Thawait, S. K. Dwivedi, Amit K. Patel, Samaptika Kar


The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the optimum planting patterns for scented rice cultivation. The treatment (T2) planting of two to three seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm from plant to plant and 25 cm from row to row recorded significantly good grain quality i.e. higher head rice recovery (41.41) along with higher gain length (8.05).

Keywords: rice, scented, quality, yield

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2920 Potassium Fertilization Improves Rice Yield in Aerobic Production System by Decreasing Panicle Sterility

Authors: Abdul Wakeel, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair Mubarak


Rice is the second most important staple food in Pakistan after wheat. It is not only a healthy food for the people of all age groups but also a source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. Instead of bright history for Basmati rice production, we are suffering from multiple problems reducing yield and quality as well. Rice lodging and water shortage for an-aerobic rice production system is among major glitches of it. Due to water shortage an-aerobic rice production system has to be supplemented or replaced by aerobic rice system. Aerobic rice system has been adopted for production of non-basmati rice in many parts of the world. Also for basmati rice, significant efforts have been made for aerobic rice production, however still has to be improved for effective recommendations. Among two major issues for aerobic rice, weed elimination has been solved to great extent by introducing suitable herbicides, however, low yield production due weak grains and panicle sterility is still elusive. It has been reported that potassium (K) has significant role to decrease panicle sterility in cereals. Potassium deficiency is obvious for rice under aerobic rice production system due to lack of K gradient coming with irrigation water and lowered indigenous K release from soils. Therefore it was hypothesized that K application under aerobic rice production system may improve the rice yield by decreasing panicle sterility. Results from pot and field experiments confirm that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the rice grain yield due to decreased panicle sterility and improving grain health. The quality of rice was also improved by K fertilization.

Keywords: DSR, Basmati rice, aerobic, potassium

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2919 Cyanobacterial Biofertilizer Technology for Rice Producing Farmers at Nashik District

Authors: Krishna N. Gaikwad, V. R. Kakulte


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main cereal crop of tribal people of western part of Nasik district. There is a wide fluctuation in yield due to the factors like uncertain rains, pest diseases, socio-economic status of farmers, lack of awareness and traditional knowledge of farmers about agro-practices. In order to achieve more yield, it is a need to adopt low cost, eco-friendly blue green algal biofertilizer technology. Communication of useful information to needy people is basic need in present situation. The paper reports different communication modes of paddy technologies, adoption about BGA technology, attitudinal changes of farmers and yield of rice production during year 2011 and 2012. The results indicate that there is significant effect of communication modes of improved BGA technology on rice yield.

Keywords: rice, BGA, biofertilizer, Oryza sativa L.

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2918 Effect of Roasting Treatment on Milling Quality, Physicochemical, and Bioactive Compounds of Dough Stage Rice Grains

Authors: Chularat Leewuttanakul, Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol, Sasivimon Chittrakorn


Rice during grain development stage is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. Dough stage rice contains high amounts of photochemical and can be used for rice milling industries. However, rice grain at dough stage had low milling quality due to high moisture content. Thermal processing can be applied to rice grain for improving milled rice yield. This experiment was conducted to study the chemical and physic properties of dough stage rice grain after roasting treatment. Rice were roasted with two different methods including traditional pan roasting at 140 °C for 60 minutes and using the electrical roasting machine at 140 °C for 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The chemical, physical properties, and bioactive compounds of brown rice and milled rice were evaluated. The result of this experiment showed that moisture content of brown and milled rice was less than 10 % and amylose contents were in the range of 26-28 %. Rice grains roasting for 30 min using electrical roasting machine had high head rice yield and length and breadth of grain after milling were close to traditional pan roasting (p > 0.05). The lightness (L*) of rice did not affect by roasting treatment (p > 0.05) and the a* indicated the yellowness of milled rice was lower than brown rice. The bioactive compounds of brown and milled rice significantly decreased with increasing of drying time. Brown rice roasted for 30 minutes had the highest of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, α-tocopherol, and ɤ-oryzanol content. Volume expansion and elongation of cooked rice decreased as roasting time increased and quality of cooked rice roasted for 30 min was comparable to traditional pan roasting. Hardness of cooked rice as measured by texture analyzer increased with increasing roasting time. The results indicated that rice grains at dough stage, containing a high amount of bioactive compounds, have a great potential for rice milling industries and the electrical roasting machine can be used as an alternative to pan roasting which decreases processing time and labor costs.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, cooked rice, dough stage rice grain, grain development, roasting

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2917 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

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2916 Improvement of Monacolin K. and Decreasing of Citrinin Content in Korkor 6 (RD 6) Red Yeast Rice

Authors: Emon Chairote, Panatda Jannoey, Griangsak Chairote


A strain of Monascus purpureus CMU001 was used to prepared red yeast rice from Thai glutinous rice Korkor 6 (RD 6). Adding of different amounts of histidine (156, 312, 625, and 1250 mg in 100 g of rice grains)) under aerobic and air limitation (air-lock) condition were used in solid fermentation. Determination of the yield as well as monacolin K content was done. Citrinin content was also determined in order to confirm the safety use of prepared red yeast rice. It was found that under air-lock condition with 1250 mg of histidine addition gave the highest yield of 37.40 g of dried red yeast rice prepared from 100 g of rice. Highest 5.72 mg content of monacolin K was obtained under air-lock condition with 312 mg histidine addition. In the other hand, citrinin content was found to be less than 24462 ng/g of all dried red yeast rice samples under the experimental methods used in this work.

Keywords: red yeast rice, Thai glutinous rice, monacolin K., citrinin

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2915 Assessment the Correlation of Rice Yield Traits by Simulation and Modelling Methods

Authors: Davood Barari Tari


In order to investigate the correlation of rice traits in different nitrogen management methods by modeling programming, an experiment was laid out in rice paddy field in an experimental field at Caspian Coastal Sea region from 2013 to 2014. Variety used was Shiroudi as a high yielding variety. Nitrogen management was in two methods. Amount of nitrogen at four levels (30, 60, 90, and 120 Kg N ha-1 and control) and nitrogen-splitting at four levels (T1: 50% in base + 50% in maximum tillering stage, T2= 33.33% basal +33.33% in maximum tillering stage +33.33% in panicle initiation stage, T3=25% basal+37.5% in maximum tillering stage +37.5% in panicle initiation stage, T4: 25% in basal + 25% in maximum tillering stage + 50% in panicle initiation stage). Results showed that nitrogen traits, total grain number, filled spikelets, panicle number per m2 had a significant correlation with grain yield. Results related to calibrated and validation of rice model methods indicated that correlation between rice yield and yield components was accurate. The correlation between panicle length and grain yield was minimum. Physiological indices was simulated with low accuracy. According to results, investigation of the correlation between rice traits in physiological, morphological and phenological characters and yield by modeling and simulation methods are very useful.

Keywords: rice, physiology, modelling, simulation, yield traits

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2914 Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizer on, Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Harvest Index of Rice

Authors: Azin Nasrollah Zadeh


A factorial experiment was applied to evaluate the effect of chemical and biological fertilizer on yield, total nitrogen uptake and NHI of rice. Four biological treatments including:(M1:no fertilizer),( M2:10 ton/ha cow dung ),(M3:20 ton/ha cow dung) and (M4:5 ton/ha azolla compost) and four chemical fertilizer treatments including: (S1: no fertilizer),(S2:40 kg N /ha),(S3:60 kg N /ha) and ( S4:80 kg N /ha ) were compared. Results showed that highest rate of yield (3387 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (81.4 kg/ha) were reached the highest value at M4. Among the chemical fertilizers the highest grain yield (3373 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (87.7) belonged to highest nitrogen level (S4).Also biological and chemical fertilizers were no significant on Harvest index (NHI). Interaction effect of chemical × biological fertilizers didn't show significant difference between all parameters except of yield, as the most grain yield were obtained in M4S4. So it can be concluded that using of bioilogical fertilizers at appropriate rate and type, considering plant requirement, may improve grain yield, nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice.

Keywords: azolla, fertilizer, nitrogen uptake, rice, yield

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2913 Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Properties of Lowland Rice

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A. Basnayake, W.A.J.M. De Costa


Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burden to the country. The excessive application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can potentially lead to deterioration of the quality of water. In mixing both urea and rice husk charcoal and rice straw compost in soils causes a slow release of nitrogen fertilizer, thus reducing the cost of importations of nitrogen based fertilizers per unit area of cultivation. Objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N,P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production. Five treatments were used for twenty pots (pot size 30 cm diameter and 45 cm height) each replicated four times as: inorganic fertilizer only (Urea, TSP and MOP) (Treatment 1); rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP (Treatment 2); inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP and MOP) with rice straw compost only (Treatment 3); rice husk charcoal urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost (Treatment 4); and no fertilizer as the control (Treatment 5). Rice grain yield was significantly higher in treatment 4 where rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost. The lowest yield was observed in control (treatment 5). The lower the value of the nitrogen to phosphorous ratio in soil, it indicates higher uptake of phosphorous. Charcoal can be used as a soil amendment and organic fertilizer, but adjustment of pH was required at high application rates. K content of soil of treatment 3 and 4 were the highest with compared to the treatment 1. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer.

Keywords: charcoal, rice husk, nitrogen to phosphorous ratio, soil amendment

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2912 Effect of Slag Application to Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield on Acid Sulphate Soils with Different Pyrite Depth

Authors: Richardo Y. E. Sihotang, Atang Sutandi, Joshua Ginting


The expansion of marginal soil such as acid sulphate soils for the development of staple crops, including rice was unavoidable. However, acid sulphate soils were less suitable for rice field due to the low fertility and the threats of pyrite oxidation. An experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design was designed to investigate the effect of slag in stabilizing soil reaction (pH), improving soil fertility and rice yield. Experiments were conducted in two locations with different pyrite depth. The results showed that slag application was able to decrease the exchangeable Al and available iron (Fe) as well as increase the soil pH, available-P, soil exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Furthermore, the slag application increased the plant nutrient uptakes, particularly N, P, K, followed by the increasing of rice yield significantly. Nutrients availability, nutrient uptake, and rice yield were higher in the shallow pyrite soil instead of the deep pyrite soil. In addition, slag application was economically feasible due to the ability to reduce standard fertilizer requirements.

Keywords: acid sulphate soils, available nutrients, pyrite, slag

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2911 System Productivity Enhancement by Inclusion of Mungbean in Potato-Jute -T. Aman Rice Cropping Pattern

Authors: Apurba Kanti Chowdhury, Taslima Zahan


The inclusion of mungbean in a cropping pattern not only increases the cropping intensity but also enriches soil health as well as ensures nutrition for the fast-growing population of Bangladesh. A study was conducted in the farmers’ field during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to observe the performance of four-crop based improve cropping pattern Potato-Mungbean-Jute -t.aman rice against the existing cropping pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice at Domar, Nilphamari followed by randomized complete block design with three replications. Two years study revealed that inclusion of mungbean and better management practices in improved cropping pattern provided higher economic benefit over the existing pattern by 73.1%. Moreover, the average yield of potato increased in the improved pattern by 64.3% compared to the existing pattern; however yield of jute and t.aman rice in improved pattern declined by 5.6% and 10.7% than the existing pattern, respectively. Nevertheless, the additional yield of mungbean in the improved pattern helped to increase rice equivalent yield of the whole pattern by 38.7% over the existing pattern. Thus, the addition of mungbean in the existing pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice seems to be profitable for the farmers and also might be sustainable if the market channel of mungbean developed.

Keywords: crop diversity, food nutrition, production efficiency, yield improvement

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2910 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy


In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

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2909 Evaluation of Ceres Wheat and Rice Model for Climatic Conditions in Haryana, India

Authors: Mamta Rana, K. K. Singh, Nisha Kumari


The simulation models with its soil-weather-plant atmosphere interacting system are important tools for assessing the crops in changing climate conditions. The CERES-Wheat & Rice vs. 4.6 DSSAT was calibrated and evaluated for one of the major producers of wheat and rice state- Haryana, India. The simulation runs were made under irrigated conditions and three fertilizer applications dose of N-P-K to estimate crop yield and other growth parameters along with the phenological development of the crop. The genetic coefficients derived by iteratively manipulating the relevant coefficients that characterize the phenological process of wheat and rice crop to the best fit match between the simulated and observed anthesis, physological maturity and final grain yield. The model validated by plotting the simulated and remote sensing derived LAI. LAI product from remote sensing provides the edge of spatial, timely and accurate assessment of crop. For validating the yield and yield components, the error percentage between the observed and simulated data was calculated. The analysis shows that the model can be used to simulate crop yield and yield components for wheat and rice cultivar under different management practices. During the validation, the error percentage was less than 10%, indicating the utility of the calibrated model for climate risk assessment in the selected region.

Keywords: simulation model, CERES-wheat and rice model, crop yield, genetic coefficient

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2908 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar


Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

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2907 Evaluation of Commercial Herbicides for Weed Control and Yield under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Cultivation System in Pakistan

Authors: Sanaullah Jalil, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas


Direct dry seeded rice cultivation system is an emerging production technology in Pakistan. Weeds are a major constraint to the success of direct dry seeded rice (DDSR). Studies were carried out for two years during 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the performance of applications of pre-emergence herbicides (Top Max @ 2.25 lit/ha, Click @1.5 lit/ha and Pendimethaline @ 1.25 lit/ha) and post-emergence herbicides (Clover @ 200 g/ha, Pyranex Gold @ 250 g/ha, Basagran @ 2.50 lit/ha, Sunstar Gold @ 50 g/ha and Wardan @ 1.25 lit/ha) at rice research field area of National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. The net plot size was 2.5 x 5 m with 10 rows. Basmati-385 was used as test variety of rice. Data indicated that Top Max and Click provided best weed control efficiency but suppressed the germination of rice seed which causes the lowest grain yield production (680.6 kg/ha and 314.5 kg/ha respectively). A weedy check plot contributed 524.7 kg/ha paddy yield with highest weed density. Pyranex Gold provided better weed control efficiency and contributed to significantly higher paddy yield 5116.6 kg/ha than that of all other herbicide applications followed by the Clover which give paddy yield 4241.7 kg/ha. The results of our study suggest that pre-emergence herbicides provided best weed control but not fit for direct dry seeded rice (DDSR) cultivation system, and therefore post-emergence herbicides (Pyranex Gold and Clover) can be suggested for weed control and higher yield.

Keywords: pyranex gold, clover, direct dry seeded rice (DDSR), yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2906 Responses of Grain Yield, Anthocyanin and Antioxidant Capacity to Water Condition in Wetland and Upland Purple Rice Genotypes

Authors: Supaporn Yamuangmorn, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai


Wetland and upland purple rice are the two major types classified by its original ecotypes in Northern Thailand. Wetland rice is grown under flooded condition from transplanting until the mutuality, while upland rice is naturally grown under well-drained soil known as aerobic cultivations. Both ecotypes can be grown and adapted to the reverse systems but little is known on its responses of grain yield and qualities between the 2 ecotypes. This study evaluated responses of grain yield as well as anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity between the wetland and upland purple rice genotypes grown in the submerged and aerobic conditions. A factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors of rice genotype and water condition were carried out in three replications. The two wetland genotypes (Kum Doi Saket: KDK and Kum Phayao: KPY) and two upland genotypes (Kum Hom CMU: KHCMU and Pieisu1: PES1) were used in this study by growing under submerged and aerobic conditions. Grain yield was affected by the interaction between water condition and rice genotype. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY grown in the submerged condition produced about 2.7 and 0.8 times higher yield than in the aerobic condition, respectively. The 0.4 times higher grain yield of upland genotype (PES1) was found in the submerged condition than in the aerobic condition, but no significant differences in KHCMU. In the submerged condition, all genotypes produced higher yield components of tiller number, panicle number and percent filled grain than in the aerobic condition by 24% and 32% and 11%, respectively. The thousand grain weight and spikelet number were affected by water condition differently among genotypes. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and upland genotype, PES1, grown in the submerged condition produced about 19-22% higher grain weight than in the aerobic condition. The similar effect was found in spikelet number which the submerged condition of wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and the upland genotype, KHCMU, had about 28-30% higher than the aerobic condition. In contrast, the anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity were affected by both the water condition and genotype. Rice grain grown in the aerobic condition had about 0.9 and 2.6 times higher anthocyanin concentration than in the submerged condition was found in the wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU, respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU were 0.5 and 0.6 times higher in aerobic condition than in the submerged condition. There was a negative correlation between grain yield and anthocyanin concentration in wetland genotype KDK and upland genotype KHCMU, but it was not found in the other genotypes. This study indicating that some rice genotype can be adapted in the reverse ecosystem in both grain yield and quality, especially in the wetland genotype KPY and upland genotype PES1. To maximize grain yield and quality of purple rice, proper water management condition is require with a key consideration on difference responses among genotypes. Increasing number of rice genotypes in both ecotypes is needed to confirm their responses on water management.

Keywords: purple rice, water condition, anthocyanin, grain yield

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2905 Effect of Tillage Techniques on the Performance of Kharif Rice Varieties

Authors: Mahua Banerjee, Debtanu Maiti


Zero-tillage cultivation is a farming practice that reduces costs while maintaining harvests and protecting the environment. Innovative partnerships among researchers, farmers, and other actors in the agricultural value chain have enabled the adoption of zero-tillage to sow rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, increasing farmers' incomes, fostering more sustainable use of soil and water, and providing a platform for cropping diversification and the introduction of other resource-conserving practices. A field experiment was conducted in the farmer’s field of Ausgram I Block, Burdwan, West Bengal, India under sandy loam soil with soil pH of 5.2, which is low in Nitrogen, medium in Phosphorus and Potassium. There were three techniques of tillage-T1: Zero tillage in Rice, T2: conventional tillage in Rice, T3: Rice grown with Drum seeder and three varieties namely V1: MTU 7029 V2-MTU 1010, V3: Pratikha thus making nine treatment combinations which were replicated thrice and the experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomised Block Design. Among the three varieties, rice variety MTU 7029 gave higher yield in all the tillage techniques. The highest yield was obtained under Zero tillage followed by conventional tillage. From economic analysis it was revealed that the benefit:cost ratio was higher in Zero tillage and rice cultivation by drum seeder. Zero-till is increasingly being adopted because it gives more yield at less cost, saves labour and farmer time. Farmers will be interested in this technology once they overcome their tillage biases.

Keywords: economics, Indo-Gangetic plain, rice, zero tillage, yield

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2904 Effect of Temperature and Time on the Yield of Silica from Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Mohammed Adamu Musa, Shehu Saminu Babba


The technological trend towards waste utilization and cost reduction in industrial processing has attracted use of Rice Husk as a value added material. Both rice husk (RH) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) has been found suitable for wide range of domestic as well as industrial applications. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to produce high grade sodium silicate from rice husk ash by considering the effect of temperature and time of heating as the process variables. The experiment was performed by heating the rice husk at temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C and time 60min, 90min, 120min and 150min were used to obtain the ash. 1.0M of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was used to dissolve the silicate from the ash, which contained crude sodium silicate. In addition, the ash was neutralized by adding 5M of HCL until the pH reached 3.5 to give silica gel. At 6000C and 120mins, 94.23% silica was obtained from the RHA. At higher temperatures (700 °C and 800 °C) the percentage yield of silica reduced due to surface melting and carbon fixation in the lattice caused by presence of potassium. For this research, 600 °C is considered to be the optimum temperature for silica production from RHA. Silica produced from RHA can generate aggregate value and can be used in areas such as pulp and paper, plastic and rubber reinforcement industries.

Keywords: burning, rice husk, rice husk ash, silica, silica gel, temperature

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2903 Climate Variability and Its Impacts on Rice (Oryza sativa) Productivity in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Auwal Garba, Rabiu Maijama’a, Abdullahi Muhammad Jalam


Variability in climate has affected the agricultural production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate variability is believed to have declining effects towards rice production in Nigeria. This study examined climate variability and its impact on rice productivity in Dass Local Government Area, Bauchi State, by employing Linear Trend Model (LTM), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables for temperature (min. and max), rainfall, and solar radiation from 1990 to 2015 were used. Results confirmed that 74.4% of the total variation in rice yield in the study area was explained by the changes in the independent variables. That is to say, temperature (minimum and maximum), rainfall, and solar radiation explained rice yield with 74.4% in the study area. Rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while moderate increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production, and the persistent rise in the mean maximum temperature, in the long run, will have more negatively affect rice production in the future. It is, therefore, important to promote agro-meteorological advisory services, which will be useful in farm planning and yield sustainability. Closer collaboration among the meteorologist and agricultural scientist is needed to increase the awareness about the existing database, crop weather models among others, with a view to reaping the full benefits of research on specific problems and sustainable yield management and also there should be a special initiative by the ADPs (State Agricultural Development Programme) towards promoting best agricultural practices that are resilient to climate variability in rice production and yield sustainability.

Keywords: climate variability, impact, productivity, rice

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2902 Feeding Value Improvement of Rice Straw Fermented by Spent Mushroom Substrate on Growth and Lactating Performance of Dairy Goat

Authors: G. J. Fan, T. T. Lee, M. H. Chen, T. F. Shiao, B. Yu, C. F. Lee


Rice straw with poor feed quality and spent mushroom substrate are both the most abundant agricultural residues in Taiwan. Edible mushrooms from white rot fungi possess lignocellulase activity. It was expected to improve the feeding value of rice straw for ruminant by solid-state fermentation pretreatment using spent mushroom substrate. Six varieties or subspecies of spent edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus (blue or white color), P. sajor-caju, P. citrinopileatus, P. eryngii and Ganoderma lucidium) substrate were evaluated in solid-state fermentation process with rice straw for 8 wks. Quality improvement of fermented rice straw was determined by its in vitro digestibility, lignocellulose degradability, and cell wall breakdown checked by scanning electron microscope. Results turned out that Pleurotus ostreatus (white color) and P. sajor-caju had the better lignocellulose degradation effect than the others and was chosen for advance in vivo study. Rice straw fermented with spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate 8 wks was prepared for growing and lactating feeding trials of dairy goat, respectively. Pangolagrass hay at 15% diet dry matter was the control diet. Fermented or original rice straw was added to substitute pangolagrass hay in both feeding trials. A total of 30 head of Alpine castrated ram were assigned into three groups for 11 weeks, 5 pens (2 head/pen) each group. A total of 21 head of Saanen and Alpine goats were assigned into three treatments and individually fed in two repeat lactating trials with 28-d each. In castrated ram study, results showed that fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom substrate attributed the higher daily dry matter intakes (DMI, 1.53 vs. 1.20 kg) and body weight gain (138 vs. 101 g) than goats fed original rice straw. DMI (2.25 vs. 1.81 kg) and milk yield (3.31 vs. 3.02 kg) of lactating goats fed control pangolagrass diet and fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate were also higher than those fed original rice straw diet (P < 0.05). Milk compositions, milk fat, protein, total solid and lactose, were similar among treatments. In conclusion, solid-state fermentation by spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate could effectively improve the feeding value of rice straw. Fermented rice straw is a good alternative fiber feed resource for growing and lactating dairy goats and 15% in diet dry matter is recommended.

Keywords: feeding value, fermented rice straw, growing and lactating dairy goat, spent Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate

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2901 Optimization of Biomass Components from Rice Husk Treated with Trichophyton Soudanense and Trichophyton Mentagrophyte and Effect of Yeast on the Bio-Ethanol Yield

Authors: Chukwuma S. Ezeonu, Ikechukwu N. E. Onwurah, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Chibuike S. Ubani, Chigozie M. Ejikeme


Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte were isolated from the rice mill environment, cultured and used singly and as di-culture in the treatment of measure quantities of preheated rice husk. Optimized conditions studied showed that carboxymethylcellulase (CMCellulase) activity of 57.61 µg/ml/min was optimum for Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk crude enzymes at 50oC and 80oC respectively. Duration of 120 hours (5 days) gave the highest CMcellulase activity of 75.84 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk. However, 96 hours (4 days) duration gave maximum activity of 58.21 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton soudanense heat pretreated rice husk. Highest CMCellulase activities of 67.02 µg/ml/min and 69.02 µg/ml/min at pH of 5 were recorded for crude enzymes of monocultures of Trichophyton soudanense (TS) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) heat pretreated rice husk respectively. Biomass components showed that rice husk cooled after heating followed by treatment with Trichophyton mentagrophyte gave 44.50 ± 10.90 (% ± Standard Error of Mean) cellulose as the highest yield. Maximum total lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 (% ± SEM) was obtained from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM). The hemicellulose content of 30.50 ± 2.12 (% ± SEM) from pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton soudanense (TS); lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM); also carbohydrate content of 16.79 ± 9.14 (% ± SEM) , reducing and non-reducing sugar values of 2.66 ± 0.45 and 14.13 ± 8.69 (% ± SEM) were all obtained from for pre- heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM). All the values listed above were the highest values obtained from each rice husk treatment. The pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) fermented with palmwine yeast gave bio-ethanol value of 11.11 ± 0.21 (% ± Standard Deviation) as the highest yield.

Keywords: Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, biomass, bioethanol, rice husk

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2900 Effect of Plant Nutrients on Anthocyanin Content and Yield Component of Black Glutinous Rice Plants

Authors: Chonlada Bennett, Phumon Sookwong, Sakul Moolkam, Sivapong Naruebal Sugunya Mahatheeranont


The cultivation of black glutinous rice rich in anthocyanins can provide great benefits to both farmers and consumers. Total anthocyanins content and yield component data of black glutinous rice cultivar (KHHK) grown with the addition of mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, Fe and Se) under soilless conditions were studied. Ca application increased seed anthocyanins content by three-folds compared to controls. Cu application to rice plants obtained the highest number of grains panicle, panicle length and subsequently high panicle weight. Se application had the largest effect on leaf anthocyanins content, the number of tillers, number of panicles and 100-grain weight. These findings showed that the addition of mineral elements had a positive effect on increasing anthocyanins content in black rice plants and seeds as well as the heightened development of black glutinous rice plant growth.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, Black Glutinous Rice, Mineral Elements, Soilless Culture

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2899 The Effect of Extrusion Processing on Solubility and Molecular Weight of Water-Soluble Arabinoxylan

Authors: Abdulmannan Fadel


Arabinoxylan is a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), which is one of the most important polysaccharides contained within cereal grains. Wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran contain a significant amount of arabinoxylan (7% in rice bran and 10-12% in wheat endosperm pentosan). Several methods have been used for arabinoxylan extraction with varying degrees of success e.g. enzymatic and alkaline treatment. Yet, the use of extrusion alone as a pre-treatment to increase the yield and reduce the molecular weight in wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran has not been investigated. The samples (wheat pentosan and rice bran) were extruded using a Twin-screw extruder at a range of screw speeds (80 and 160 rpm) and barrel temperatures range (80 to 140°C) with a throughput of 30 Kg hr-1 and moisture content of 25%. Arabinoxylans were extracted with water and the extraction yield and molecular weight was determined using size exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography system. It was found that increasing screw speed from 80 rpm to 160 rpm, did not effect the extraction yield (p < 0.05) of arabinoxylan from either the wheat endosperm pentosan or the rice bran. However, the molecular weight of the extracted arabinoxylans from pentosan was found to decrease with increasing screw speed in wheat endosperm pentosan. These low molecular weight arabinoxylans have been suggested as immunomodulators.

Keywords: arabinoxylans, extrusion, wheat endosperm pentosan, rice bran

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2898 Analyzing Irbid’s Food Waste as Feedstock for Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: Assal E. Haddad


Food waste samples from Irbid were collected from 5 different sources for 12 weeks to characterize their composition in terms of four food categories; rice, meat, fruits and vegetables, and bread. Average food type compositions were 39% rice, 6% meat, 34% fruits and vegetables, and 23% bread. Methane yield was also measured for all food types and was found to be 362, 499, 352, and 375 mL/g VS for rice, meat, fruits and vegetables, and bread, respectively. A representative food waste sample was created to test the actual methane yield and compare it to calculated one. Actual methane yield (414 mL/g VS) was greater than the calculated value (377 mL/g VS) based on food type proportions and their specific methane yield. This study emphasizes the effect of the types of food and their proportions in food waste on the final biogas production. Findings in this study provide representative methane emission factors for Irbid’s food waste, which represent as high as 68% of total Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Irbid, and also indicate the energy and economic value within the solid waste stream in Irbid.

Keywords: food waste, solid waste management, anaerobic digestion, methane yield

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2897 Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oil Using Various Heat Treatments

Authors: Supakan Rattanakon, Jakkrapan Boonpimon, Akkaragiat Bhuangsaeng, Aphiwat Ratriphruek


Rice bran oil (RBO) has been found to lower the level of serum cholesterol, has antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic property, and attenuate allergic inflammation. These properties of RBO are due to antioxidant compositions, especially, phenolic compounds. The higher amount of these active compounds in RBO, the greater value of RBO is. Thermal process of rice bran before solvent RBO extraction has been found to have a higher phenolic contents. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to using different heating methods on rice bran before the solvent extraction. Then, % yield of RBO, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant property of two white Thai rice; KDML105 and RD6 were determined. The Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay was used to determine TPC and scavenging of free radicals (DPPH) was used to determine antioxidant property expressed as EC50. The result showed that thermal process did not increase % yield of RBO but increase the TPC with 1.41 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAEmg-1). The highest TPC was found in KDML105 by using sonicator. The highest antioxidant activity was found in RD6 using autoclave. The EC50 of RBO was 0.04 mg/mL. Further study should be performed on different pretreatments to increase the TPC and antioxidant property.

Keywords: antioxidant, rice bran oil, total phenol content, white rice

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2896 Beyond Adoption: Econometric Analysis of Impacts of Farmer Innovation Systems and Improved Agricultural Technologies on Rice Yield in Ghana

Authors: Franklin N. Mabe, Samuel A. Donkoh, Seidu Al-Hassan


In order to increase and bridge the differences in rice yield, many farmers have resorted to adopting Farmer Innovation Systems (FISs) and Improved Agricultural Technologies (IATs). This study econometrically analysed the impacts of adoption of FISs and IATs on rice yield using multinomial endogenous switching regression (MESR). Nine-hundred and seven (907) rice farmers from Guinea Savannah Zone (GSZ), Forest Savannah Transition Zone (FSTZ) and Coastal Savannah Zone (CSZ) were used for the study. The study used both primary and secondary data. FBO advice, rice farming experience and distance from farming communities to input markets increase farmers’ adoption of only FISs. Factors that increase farmers’ probability of adopting only IATs are access to extension advice, credit, improved seeds and contract farming. Farmers located in CSZ have higher probability of adopting only IATs than their counterparts living in other agro-ecological zones. Age and access to input subsidy increase the probability of jointly adopting FISs and IATs. FISs and IATs have heterogeneous impact on rice yield with adoption of only IATs having the highest impact followed by joint adoption of FISs and IATs. It is important for stakeholders in rice subsector to champion the provision of improved rice seeds, the intensification of agricultural extension services and contract farming concept. Researchers should endeavour to researched into FISs.

Keywords: farmer innovation systems, improved agricultural technologies, multinomial endogenous switching regression, treatment effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
2895 Response of Wheat and Lentil to Herbicides Applied in the Preceding Non-Puddled Transplanted Rainy Season Rice

Authors: Taslima Zahan


A field study was done in 2013-14 and 2014-15 by following bio-assay technique to determine the carryover effect of herbicides applied in rainy season rice on growth and yield of two probable succeeding crops of rice viz., wheat and lentil. Rice seedlings were transplanted on strip-tilled non-puddled field, and five herbicides named pyrazosufuron-ethyl, butachlor, orthosulfamuron, butachlor + propanil and 2,4-D amine were applied in rice at their recommended rate and time as eight treatment combinations and compared with one untreated control. Residual effects of those rice herbicides on the succeeding wheat and lentil were examined by following micro-plot bioassay technique. The study revealed that germination of wheat and lentil seeds were not affected by the residue of herbicides applied in the preceding rainy season rice. Shoot length of wheat and lentil seedlings of herbicide treated plots were also non-significantly varied with untreated control plots. Herbicide treated plots of wheat had higher leaf chlorophyll contents over the control plots by 1.8-14.0% on an average while in case of lentil herbicide treated plots had negligible amount of reduction in leaf chlorophyll contents than control plots. Grain yields of wheat and lentil in herbicide treated plots were higher than control plots by 2.8-6.6% and 0.2-10.9%, respectively. Therefore, two-year bioassay study claimed that tested herbicides applied in rainy season rice under strip-tilled non-puddled field had no adverse residual effect on growth and yield of the succeeding wheat and lentil.

Keywords: crop sensitivity, herbicide persistence, minimum tillage rice, yield improvement

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2894 Some Agricultural Characteristics of Cephalaria syriaca Lines Selected from a Population and Developed as Winter Type

Authors: Rahim Ada, Ahmet Tamkoç


The research was conducted in the “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications in research field of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. In study, a total of 9 Cephalaria syriaca promised lines (9, 37, 38, 42, Beyaz 4, 5 Beyaz, 13 Beyaz, 27 Beyaz, Başaklar 2), which were taken from Sivas population, and 1 population were evaluated in two growing seasons (2012-13 and 2013-14). According to the results, the highest plant height, first branch height, first head height, number of branches per plant, number of head per plant, head diameter,1000 seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were obtained respectively from Başaklar 2 (68.37 cm), Başaklar 2 (37.80 cm), Başaklar 2 (54.83 cm), 37 (7.73 number/plant), 42 (18.03 number/plant), 9 (10.30 mm), Başaklar 2 (19.33 g), 27 Beyaz (1254.2 kg ha-1), Başaklar 2 (28.77%), and 27 Beyaz (357.9 kg ha-1).

Keywords: Cephalaria syriaca, yield, oil, population

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
2893 Utilization of Silicon for Sustainable Rice Yield Improvement in Acid Sulfate Soil

Authors: Bunjirtluk Jintaridth


Utilization of silicon for sustainable rice cultivation in acid sulfate soils was studied for 2 years. The study was conducted on Rungsit soils in Amphoe Tanyaburi, Pathumtani Province. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of high quality organic fertilizer in combination with silicon and chemical fertilizer on rice yield, chemical soil properties after using soil amendments, and also to assess the economic return. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 10 treatments and 3 replications were employed. The treatments were as follows: 1) control 2) chemical fertilizer (recommended by Land Development Department, LDD 3) silicon 312 kg/ha 4) high quality organic fertilizer at 1875 kg/ha (the recommendation rate by LDD) 5) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 6) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 7) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 8) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 9) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate, and 10) silicon 312 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate. The results of 2 years indicated the treatment tended to increase soil pH (from 5.1 to 4.7-5.5), percentage of organic matter (from 2.43 to 2.54 - 2.94%); avail. P (from 7.5 to 7-21 mg kg-1 P; ext. K (from 616 to 451-572 mg kg-1 K), ext Ca (from 1962 to 2042.3-4339.7 mg kg-1 Ca); ext Mg (from 1586 to 808.7-900 mg kg-1 Mg); but decrease the ext. Al (from 2.56 to 0.89-2.54 cmol kg-1 Al. Two years average of rice yield, the highest yield was obtained from silicon 156 kg/ha application in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai (3770 kg/ha), or using silicon at the 312 kg/ha combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai. (3,750 kg/ha). It was noted that chemical fertilizer application with 156 and 312 kg/ha silicon gave only 3,260 และ 3,133 kg/ha, respectively. On the other hand, half rate of chemical fertilizer with 156 and 312 kg/ha with silicon gave the yield of 2,934 และ 3,218 kg/ha, respectively. While high quality organic fertilizer only can produce 3,318 kg/ha as compare to rice yield of 2,812 kg/ha from control. It was noted that the highest economic return was obtained from chemical fertilizer treated plots (886 dollars/ha). Silicon application at the rate of 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha gave the economic return of 846 dollars/ha, while 312 kg/ha of silicon with chemical fertilizer gave the lowest economic return (697 dollars/ha).

Keywords: rice, high quality organic fertilizer, acid sulfate soil, silicon

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2892 Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Paddy Husker by Medium Brown Rice Peeling Machine 6 Rubber Type

Authors: S. Bangphan, P. Bangphan, C. Ketsombun, T. Sammana


Optimization of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effects of three factor (rubber of clearance, spindle of speed, and rice of moisture) in brown rice peeling machine of the optimal good rice yield (99.67, average of three repeats). The optimized composition derived from RSM regression was analyzed using Regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). At a significant level α=0.05, the values of Regression coefficient, R2 adjust were 96.55% and standard deviation were 1.05056. The independent variables are initial rubber of clearance, spindle of speed and rice of moisture parameters namely. The investigating responses are final rubber clearance, spindle of speed and moisture of rice.

Keywords: brown rice, response surface methodology (RSM), peeling machine, optimization, paddy husker

Procedia PDF Downloads 462