Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Steve Alfaro

50 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Thin-Layer Drying of Pineapple Slices

Authors: Apolinar Picado, Steve Alfaro, Rafael Gamero

Abstract:

Energy and exergy analyses of thin-layer drying of pineapple slices (Ananas comosus L.) were conducted in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (100, 115 and 130 °C) and an air velocity of 1.45 m/s. The effects of drying variables on energy utilisation, energy utilisation ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The enthalpy difference of the gas increased as the inlet gas temperature increase. It is observed that at the 75 minutes of the drying process the outlet gas enthalpy achieves a maximum value that is very close to the inlet value and remains constant until the end of the drying process. This behaviour is due to the reduction of the total enthalpy within the system, or in other words, the reduction of the effective heat transfer from the hot gas flow to the vegetable being dried. Further, the outlet entropy exhibits a significant increase that is not only due to the temperature variation, but also to the increase of water vapour phase contained in the hot gas flow. The maximum value of the exergy efficiency curve corresponds to the maximum value observed within the drying rate curves. This maximum value represents the stage when the available energy is efficiently used in the removal of the moisture within the solid. As the drying rate decreases, the available energy is started to be less employed. The exergetic efficiency was directly dependent on the evaporation flux and since the convective drying is less efficient that other types of dryer, it is likely that the exergetic efficiency has relatively low values.

Keywords: efficiency, energy, exergy, thin-layer drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
49 Preparation of Carbon Monoliths from PET Waste and Their Use in Solar Interfacial Water Evaporation

Authors: Andrea Alfaro Barajas, Arturo I. Martinez

Abstract:

3D photothermal structure of carbon was synthesized using PET bottles waste and sodium chloride through controlled carbonization. Characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, and mechanical compression were carried out. The carbon showed physical integrity > 90%, an absorbance > 90% between 300-1000nm of the solar spectrum, and a high specific surface area from 450 to 620 m2/g. The X-ray was employed to examine the phase structure; the obtained pattern shows an amorphous material. A higher intensity of band D with respect to band G was confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy. C-OH, COOH, C-O, and C-C bonds were obtained from the deconvolution of the high-resolution C1s orbital. Macropores of 160 to 180µm and micropores of 0.5 to 2nm were observed by SEM and TEM images, respectively. Such combined characteristics of carbon confer efficient evaporation of water under 1 sun irradiation > 60%.

Keywords: solar-absorber, carbon, water-evaporation, interfacial

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
48 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: milk, polyphenol, animal feeding, lactating cows

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
47 Social Representations: Unplanned and Unwanted Pregnancy in Adolescents from Leon-Mexico

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Maria de los Angeles Covarrubias, Guillermo Julian Gonzalez, Noe Alfaro

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to identify the cultural dimensions of the terms unplanned pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy built by adolescent women, through the focus of the social representations. Two associative methods were used: free listings and the paired comparison. 72 female students between the ages of 15 and 19 were interviewed, from the downtown area of Leon Guanajuato, Mexico. Words related to inducer terms were classified into five thematic categories: facilitators, consequences, reactions, expectations, and lexicon. The results showed that the social representations of unplanned pregnancy highlighted elements related to economic difficulties and negative emotional aspects, while unwanted pregnancy was associated with negative emotional aspects such as anger, anxiety, and sadness. The meanings each person attributes to terms related to pregnancy are culturally constructed and differ between populations; therefore, more attention should be paid to understanding the cultural meanings and attitudes of people in fertility decision-making, including also the views of adolescent men and other types of population, stratified by age groups and social conditions.

Keywords: adolescent, qualitative research, unplanned pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
46 Evaluation of the Nutritional Potential of a Developed Spice Formulation for nah poh (An Emulsion-Based Gravy): Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Characterisations

Authors: Djiazet Stève, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Ravi Pullakhandam, Bethala L. A. Prabhavathi Devi, Tchiegang Clergé, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty

Abstract:

The nutritional potential of a developed spice formulation for nah poh was evaluated. It was found that when spices were used for the formulation for nah poh, the concentration of some nutrients is diluted while that of some of them increases. The proportion of unsaturated fats was estimated to be 76.2% of the total fat content while the chemical score varied between 31 to 39%. The contents of some essential minerals of nutritional interest in mg are as follows for 100g of spice: 2372.474 ± 0.007 for potassium, 16.447 ± 0.010 for iron, 4.772 ± 0.005 for zinc, 0.537 ± 0.001 for cupper, 0.138 ± 0.005 for selenium, and 112.954 ± 0.003 for manganese. This study shows that the consumption of these spices in the form of formulation significantly contributes to meet the mineral requirements of the populations whose food habits regularly require these spices.

Keywords: spice formulation, characterisation, nutritional potential, nah poh, techno functional properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
45 Rebuilding Christchurch's Infrastructure: An Analysis of Political Mismanagement

Authors: Hugh Byrd, Steve Matthewnan

Abstract:

The devastation of the city centre of Christchurch, New Zealand, after the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes presented an opportunity to rebuild infrastructure in a coordinated and efficient manner to allow for a city that was energy efficient, low carbon, resilient and provided both energy security and justice. The research described in this paper records the processes taken to attempt to rebuild the energy infrastructure. The story is one of political decisions overriding appropriate technology and ultimately is a lesson in how not to handle the implementation of post-disaster energy infrastructure. Lack of clarity in decision making by central government and then not pursuing consultant’s recommendations led to a scheme that was effectively abandoned in 2016 and described as ‘a total failure’. The paper records the critical events that occurred and explains why the proposed energy infrastructure was both politically and technologically inappropriate.

Keywords: energy infrastructure, policy and governance, post-disaster rebuilding

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
44 Fabrication of Profile-Coated Rhodium X-Ray Focusing Mirror

Authors: Bing Shi, Raymond A. Conley, Jun Qian, Xianbo Shi, Steve Heald, Lahsen Assoufid

Abstract:

A pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors were designed and fabricated for experiments within a hard x-ray energy range lower than 20 kev at beamline 20-ID in a synchrotron radiation facility, Advanced Photon Source (APS). The KB mirrors were deposited with Rhodium thin films using a customized designed and self-built magnetron sputtering system. The purpose of these mirrors is to focus the x-ray beam down to 1 micron. This is the first pair of Rhodium-coated KB mirrors with elliptical shape that was fabricated using the profile coating technique. The profile coating technique is to coat the substrate with designed shape using masks during the deposition. The mirrors were equipped at the beamline and achieved the designed focusing requirement. The details of the mirror design, the fabrication process, and the customized magnetron sputtering deposition system will be discussed.

Keywords: magnetron-sputtering deposition, focusing optics, x-ray, rhodium thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
43 Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor

Authors: Shefeen Maliyakkal, Pranav Satheesh, Steve Simon, Sharath Kuruppath

Abstract:

This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.

Keywords: buck-boost, E-motor, battery, voltage sag

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
42 A Non-Destructive TeraHertz System and Method for Capsule and Liquid Medicine Identification

Authors: Ke Lin, Steve Wu Qing Yang, Zhang Nan

Abstract:

The medicine and drugs has in the past been manufactured to the final products and then used laboratory analysis to verify their quality. However the industry needs crucially a monitoring technique for the final batch to batch quality check. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) provides an incentive to obtain real-time information about drugs on the production line, with the following optical techniques being considered: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, mid-infrared spectroscopy with the use of chemometric techniques to quantify the final product. However, presents problems in that the spectra obtained will consist of many combination and overtone bands of the fundamental vibrations observed, making analysis difficult. In this work, we describe a non-destructive system and method for capsule and liquid medicine identification, more particularly, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and/or designed terahertz portable system for identifying different types of medicine in the package of capsule or in liquid medicine bottles. The target medicine can be detected directly, non-destructively and non-invasively.

Keywords: terahertz, non-destructive, non-invasive, chemical identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
41 Restraint and Seclusion: Individual and Environmental Characteristics of the Educators Super Users

Authors: Caroline A. Mathieu, Steve Geoffrion, Alexandre Dumais, Denis Lafortune

Abstract:

In Quebec, troubled youths stay in a rehabilitation Center (RC), and educators in RC’S are particularly at risk of exposure to workplace violence. In order to manage youth violence and protect youth safety or their own, educators can resort to restraint and seclusion (R&S) strategies. To our best knowledge, in the literature, no study was found on the topic of R&S super users either in psychiatry or in a rehabilitation center. The objective of this study is to explore the differences between R&S super users and normal users among educators in terms of individual and environmental characteristics, over an eight weeks period. The 278 participants were volunteers recruited from 36 units that foster around 8 to 12 youths per unit, in a suburb of Montreal; Quebec, Canada. The results indicate that among the variables that were studied, only fear of violence and past exposure to violence at work characterized the R&S super users. These results suggest that exposure to violence in the workplace might increase the anticipation and fear of violence from a youth; this is concordant with the results indicating that these variables are the ones separating normal users from super users.

Keywords: seclusion and restraint, violence, youth, educators

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
40 Wellbore Spiraling Induced through Systematic Micro-Sliding

Authors: Christopher Viens, Bosko Gajic, Steve Krase

Abstract:

Stick-Slip is a term that is often overused and commonly diagnosed from surface drilling parameters of torque and differential pressure, but the actual magnitude of the condition is rarely captured at the BHA level as the necessary measurements are seldom deployed. Deployment of an accurate stick-slip measurement downhole has led to an interesting discovery that goes against long held traditional drilling lore. A divide has been identified between stick-slip as independent bit and BHA conditions. This phenomenon in horizontal laterals is common, but few M/LWD systems have been able to capture it. Utilizing measurements of downhole RPM bore pressure, high-speed magnetometer data, bending moment, and continuous inclination, the wellbore spiraling phenomenon is able to be captured, quantified, and intimately tied back to systematic effects of BHA stalling and micro-sliding. An operator in the Permian Basin has identified that this phenomenon is contributing to increased tortuosity and drag. Utilizing downhole torque measurements the root causes of the stick-slip and spiraling phenomenon were identified and able to engineered out of the system.

Keywords: bending moment, downhole dynamics measurements, micro sliding, wellbore spiraling

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
39 Investigating the Challenges and Opportunities for M-Government Implementation in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Anan Alssbaiheen, Steve Love

Abstract:

Given the lack of research into potential opportunities and challenges which are likely to be associated with the implementation of mobile services in developing countries including Saudi Arabia, the research reported here investigated the challenges and opportunities which are associated with the implementation of mobile government services in Saudi Arabia. By collecting data through surveys from 103 Saudi citizens and 46 employees working at the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology Saudi Arabia, this study indicates that the high level of mobile penetration in the country offers an opportunity for Saudi Arabian government to offer mobile government services in the country. The results also suggest that though a large percentage of populations do not have access to mobile technologies, there is still a strong desire among users for the provision of mobile government services. Moreover, the results suggest that effective implementation of mobile government services would help to increase the technological development of Saudi Arabia. However, there are certain challenges which may prevent the effective implementation of such services. First, there does not appear to be a sufficient level of understanding among the Saudi Arabian population about the benefits which are associated with mobile government services. Secondly, the results suggest that the implementation of the services needs to be closely tailored and personalised to the individual needs of target users. Finally, the lack of access to mobile technologies would be a challenge to the successful introduction of these services.

Keywords: challenges, e-government, mobile government, opportunities

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
38 Using Tilted Façade to Reduce Thermal Discomfort in a UK Passivhaus Dwelling for a Warming Climate

Authors: Yahya Lavafpour, Steve Sharples

Abstract:

This study investigated the potential negative impacts of future UK climate change on dwellings. In particular, the risk of overheating was considered for a Passivhaus dwelling in London. The study used dynamic simulation modelling software to investigate the potential use of building geometry to control current and future overheating risks in the dwelling for London climate. Specifically, the focus was on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building’s shape to self-protect itself. A range of different inclined façades were examined to test their effectiveness in reducing the overheating risk. The research found that implementing a 115° tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating in current climate, but with some consequence for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of overheating particularly by the 2080s. The study also used CFD modelling and sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the façade geometry on the wind pressure distributions on and around the building surface. This was done to assess natural ventilation flows for alternative façade inclinations.

Keywords: climate change, tilt façade, thermal comfort, passivhaus, overheating

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
37 Domain Driven Design vs Soft Domain Driven Design Frameworks

Authors: Mohammed Salahat, Steve Wade

Abstract:

This paper presents and compares the SSDDD “Systematic Soft Domain Driven Design Framework” to DDD “Domain Driven Design Framework” as a soft system approach of information systems development. The framework use SSM as a guiding methodology within which we have embedded a sequence of design tasks based on the UML leading to the implementation of a software system using the Naked Objects framework. This framework has been used in action research projects that have involved the investigation and modelling of business processes using object-oriented domain models and the implementation of software systems based on those domain models. Within this framework, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is used as a guiding methodology to explore the problem situation and to develop the domain model using UML for the given business domain. The framework is proposed and evaluated in our previous works, a comparison between SSDDD and DDD is presented in this paper, to show how SSDDD improved DDD as an approach to modelling and implementing business domain perspectives for Information Systems Development. The comparison process, the results, and the improvements are presented in the following sections of this paper.

Keywords: domain-driven design, soft domain-driven design, naked objects, soft language

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
36 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard

Abstract:

The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
35 The Impacts of Gentrification in Transit-Oriented Development on Mode Choice and Equity

Authors: Steve Apell

Abstract:

Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a popular intervention for local governments endeavoring to reduce auto-dependency and the adverse effects of sprawl. At the same time, American households such as the millennial generation, are shifting their residential preferences from the suburbs to the central city. These changes have intensified demand for TOD housing which generates high rents. This leads to displacement of low-income, transit-dependent households by more affluent middle class families. Critics argue that, the effectiveness of TOD might be compromised as newer affluent residents drive more and use transit less. However, there has not been a comprehensive study to test this hypothesis. Using census data ( 1990 – 2012) from six metropolitans areas, this research investigated if block groups within one-mile radius of TOD are gentrifying. Our findings reveal that the price of housing and number of college graduates, increased more in TODs compared to the metropolitan area. Similarly, the percentage of immigrants increased in TOD, while those of blacks and whites declined. Most importantly, TOD residents generally commuted less by car, while transit use increased in some metropolitan areas. TOD in the south of the United States registered higher cost of housing and less transit use. These findings have significant implications for the future of equitable and sustainable transportation policy.

Keywords: commuting, equity, gentrification, mode choice, transit oriented development

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
34 Effect on Tolerability and Adverse Events in Participants Receiving Naltrexone/Bupropion and Antidepressant Medication, Including SSRIs, in a Large Randomized Double-Blind Study

Authors: Kye Gilder, Kevin Shan, Amy Halseth, Steve Smith

Abstract:

This study assessed the effect of prolonged-release naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) on cardiovascular (CV) events in overweight/obese participants at elevated CV risk. Participants must lose ≥2% body weight at 16 wks, without a sustained increase in blood pressure, to continue drug. Only serious adverse events (SAE) and adverse events leading to discontinuation of study drug (AELDSD) were collected. The study was terminated early after second interim analysis with 50% of all CV events. Data on CV endpoints has been published. Current analyses focused on AEs in participants on antidepressants at baseline, as these individuals were excluded from Phase 3 trials. Intent-to-treat (ITT) population (placebo [PBO] N=4450, NB N=4455) was 54.5% female, 83.5% white, mean age of 61 yrs, mean BMI 37.3 kg/m2, 22.8% with a history of depression, 23.1% on antidepressants, including 15.4% on an SSRI. SAEs in participants receiving antidepressants was similar between NB (10.7%) and PBO (9.9%) and also similar to overall population (9.5% NB, 8.1% PBO). SAEs in those on SSRIs were similar, 10.1% NB and PBO 9.4%. For those on SSRIs or other antidepressants, AELDSDs were similar to overall population and were primarily GI disorders. Obesity increases the risk of developing depression. For participants taking NB and antidepressants, including SSRIs, there is a similar AE profile as the overall population and data revealed no evidence of an additional health risk with combined use.

Keywords: antidepressant, Contrave, Mysimba, obesity, pharmacotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
33 Real-Time Recognition of Dynamic Hand Postures on a Neuromorphic System

Authors: Qian Liu, Steve Furber

Abstract:

To explore how the brain may recognize objects in its general,accurate and energy-efficient manner, this paper proposes the use of a neuromorphic hardware system formed from a Dynamic Video Sensor~(DVS) silicon retina in concert with the SpiNNaker real-time Spiking Neural Network~(SNN) simulator. As a first step in the exploration on this platform a recognition system for dynamic hand postures is developed, enabling the study of the methods used in the visual pathways of the brain. Inspired by the behaviours of the primary visual cortex, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are modeled using both linear perceptrons and spiking Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) neurons. In this study's largest configuration using these approaches, a network of 74,210 neurons and 15,216,512 synapses is created and operated in real-time using 290 SpiNNaker processor cores in parallel and with 93.0% accuracy. A smaller network using only 1/10th of the resources is also created, again operating in real-time, and it is able to recognize the postures with an accuracy of around 86.4% -only 6.6% lower than the much larger system. The recognition rate of the smaller network developed on this neuromorphic system is sufficient for a successful hand posture recognition system, and demonstrates a much-improved cost to performance trade-off in its approach.

Keywords: spiking neural network (SNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), posture recognition, neuromorphic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
32 Downhole Logging and Dynamics Data Resolving Lithology-Related Drilling Behavior

Authors: Christopher Viens, Steve Krase

Abstract:

Terms such as “riding a hard streak”, “formation push”, and “fighting formation” are commonly used in the directional drilling world to explain BHA behavior that causes unwanted trajectory change. Theories about downhole directional tendencies are commonly speculated from various personal experiences with little merit due to the lack of hard data to reveal the actual mechanisms behind the phenomenon, leaving interpretation of the root cause up to personal perception. Understanding and identifying in real time the lithological factors that influence the BHA to change or hold direction adds tremendous value in terms reducing sliding time and targeting zones for optimal ROP. Utilizing surface drilling parameters and employing downhole measurements of azimuthal gamma, continuous inclination, and bending moment, a direct measure of the rock related directional phenomenon have been captured and quantified. Furthermore, identifying continuous zones of like lithology with consistent bit to rock interaction has value from a reservoir characterization and completions standpoint. The paper will show specific examples of lithology related directional tendencies from the Spraberry and Wolfcamp in the Delaware Basin.

Keywords: Azimuthal gamma imaging, bending moment, continuous inclination, downhole dynamics measurements, high frequency data

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
31 Counselling Needs of Psychiatric Patients as Perceived by Their Medical Personnel, in Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Abeokuta

Authors: F. N. Bolu-Steve, T. A. Ajiboye

Abstract:

A study was carried out on the awareness of counselling needs of psychiatric patients as perceived by medical personnel in the Federal Neuropsychiatric hospital, Aro, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The respondents comprised of medical personnel of the Neuropsychiatric hospital in Aro. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The target population of the study consisted of all medical doctors treating the psychiatric patients. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study out of which 143 were males and 57 of them were females. With their years of experience as a medical doctors, 49.5% of them have worked between 1-5 years, 30.5% of the respondents have 6-10 years’ experience while those with 16 years and above experience are 7.0%. The major counselling need of psychiatric patients as expressed by medical doctors is the need to have information about the right balance diet. The data were analyzed using percentages, mean, frequency, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test statistical tools. The instrument used for data collection was the structured questionnaire titled “Counselling Needs of Psychiatric Patients Questionnaire” (CNPPQ). This instrument was drafted by the researchers through the review of related literature. The reliability of the instrument was established using test-retest method. A reliability index of 0.74 was obtained. Three of the hypotheses were rejected while two of them were accepted at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that broad based counselling services should be provided to psychiatric patients in order to assist them to develop positive self- image and to cope with their challenges.

Keywords: counselling, needs, psychiatric, medical personnel, patients

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
30 Effect of Loading Frequency on Ammonia Removal Kinetics in Early-Stage Pilot Scale Vertical Flow Wetlands Treating Landfill Leachate

Authors: Dreyton Lott, Nicole Robey, Steve Laux, Timothy Townsend

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to test the effects of loading frequency and plant species on the kinetics of ammonia removal in a vertical flow (VF) wetland. Eight pilot-scale VF wetland columns were constructed for this experiment using 291.5-liter HDPE barrels. This study was conducted shortly after the initial construction of the columns as they were being acclimated in the early stages of plant and biofilm development. Half of the columns were planted with Typha Latifolia and the other half Scirpus Californicus. Raw leachate was fed to the system at different dilution ratios (1:30, 1:20, 1:10, and 1:5) over the course of the experiment. The average daily hydraulic loading rate for each column was fixed at 0.525 m/d. Half of the columns for each plant species were fed diluted leachate over the course of 24-hours, and the other half were fed diluted leachate over the course of 8-hours. Loading cycles consisted of 2-days of feeding following by 6-days of rest, for a total of an 8-day cycle. Performance in terms of ammonia removal was assessed in the context of the Kickuth Equation and First-Order CSTR equation. Of the four configurations tested, those columns planted with Typha Latifolia and fed over the course of 24-hours performed best. Some reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed in all columns, as well as production of nitrate and nitrite in the effluents, indicating the occurrence of nitrification. Samples were also analyzed for some PFAS compounds to analyze the effects that vertical flow wetlands may have on their concentration.

Keywords: vertical flow wetland, landfill leachate, ammonia removal kinetics, PFAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
29 The Influence of Training and Competition on Cortisol Levels and Sleep in Elite Female Athletes

Authors: Shannon O’Donnell, Matthew Driller, Gregory Jacobson, Steve Bird

Abstract:

Stress hormone levels in a competition vs. training setting are yet to be evaluated in elite female athletes. The effect that these levels of stress have on subsequent sleep quality and quantity is also yet to be investigated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate different psychophysiological stress markers in competition and training environments and the subsequent effect on sleep indices in an elite female athlete population. The study involved 10 elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yrs) providing multiple salivary hormone measures and having their sleep monitored on two occasions; a match day, and a training day. The training and match were performed at the same time of day and were matched for intensity and duration. Saliva samples were collected immediately pre (5:00 pm) and post session (7:15 pm), and at 10:00 pm and were analysed for cortisol concentrations. Sleep monitoring was performed using wrist actigraphy to assess total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%) and sleep latency (SL). Cortisol levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) immediately post the match vs post training (mean ± SD; 0.925 ± 0.341 μg/dL and 0.239 ± 0.284 μg/dL, respectively) and at 10:00pm (0.143 ± 0.085 μg/dL and 0.072 ± 0.064 μg/dL, respectively, p < 0.01). The difference between trials was associated with a very large effect (ES: 2.23) immediately post (7:15 pm) and a large effect (ES: 1.02) at 10:00 pm. There was a significant reduction in TST (mean ± SD; -117.9 ± 111.9 minutes, p < 0.01, ES: -1.89) and SE% (-7.7 ± 8.5%, p < 0.02, ES: -0.79) on the night following the netball match compared to the training session. Although not significant (p > 0.05), there was an increase in SL following the netball match v the training session (67.0 ± 51.9 minutes and 38.5 ± 29.3 minutes, respectively), which was associated with a moderate effect (ES: 0.80). The current study reports that cortisol levels are significantly higher and subsequent sleep quantity and quality is significantly reduced in elite female athletes following a match compared to a training session.

Keywords: cortisol, netball, performance, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
28 The Impact of the Enron Scandal on the Reputation of Corporate Social Responsibility Rating Agencies

Authors: Jaballah Jamil

Abstract:

KLD (Peter Kinder, Steve Lydenberg and Amy Domini) research & analytics is an independent intermediary of social performance information that adopts an investor-pay model. KLD rating agency does not have an explicit monitoring on the rated firm which suggests that KLD ratings may not include private informations. Moreover, the incapacity of KLD to predict accurately the extra-financial rating of Enron casts doubt on the reliability of KLD ratings. Therefore, we first investigate whether KLD ratings affect investors' perception by studying the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances. Second, we study the impact of the Enron scandal on investors' perception of KLD rating changes by comparing the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances before and after the failure of Enron. We propose an empirical study that relates a number of equally-weighted portfolios returns, excess stock returns and book-to-market ratio to different dimensions of KLD social responsibility ratings. We first find that over the last two decades KLD rating changes influence significantly and negatively stock returns and book-to-market ratio of rated firms. This finding suggests that a raise in corporate social responsibility rating lowers the firm's risk. Second, to assess the Enron scandal's effect on the perception of KLD ratings, we compare the effect of KLD rating changes before and after the Enron scandal. We find that after the Enron scandal this significant effect disappears. This finding supports the view that the Enron scandal annihilates the KLD's effect on Socially Responsible Investors. Therefore, our findings may question results of recent studies that use KLD ratings as a proxy for Corporate Social Responsibility behavior.

Keywords: KLD social rating agency, investors' perception, investment decision, financial performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
27 Enhancing Traditional Saudi Designs Pattern Cutting to Integrate Them Into Current Clothing Offers

Authors: Faizah Almalki, Simeon Gill, Steve G. Hayes, Lisa Taylor

Abstract:

A core element of cultural identity is the traditional costumes that provide insight into the heritage that has been acquired over time. This heritage is apparent in the use of colour, the styles and the functions of the clothing and it also reflects the skills of those who created the items and the time taken to produce them. Modern flat pattern drafting methods for making garment patterns are simple in comparison to the relatively laborious traditional approaches that would require personal interaction with the wearer throughout the production process. The current study reflects on the main elements of the pattern cutting system and how this has evolved in Saudi Arabia to affect the design of the Sawan garment. Analysis of the traditional methods for constructing Sawan garments was undertaken through observation of the practice and the garments and consulting documented guidance. This provided a foundation through which to explore how modern technology can be applied to improve the process. In this research, modern methods are proposed for producing traditional Saudi garments more efficiently while retaining elements of the conventional style and design. The current study has documented the vital aspects of Sawan garment style. The result showed that the method had been used to take the body measurements and pattern making was elementary and offered simple geometric shape and the Sawan garment is composed of four pieces. Consequently, this research allows for classical pattern shapes to be embedded in garments now worn in Saudi Arabia and for the continuation of cultural heritage.

Keywords: traditional Sawan garment technique, modern pattern cutting technique, the shape of the garment and software, Lectra Modaris

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
26 Metabolic and Phylogenetic Profiling of Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains Isolated from NZ Soils of Varying pH

Authors: Anish Shah, Steve A. Wakelin, Derrick Moot, Aurélie Laugraud, Hayley J. Ridgway

Abstract:

A mixed pasture system of ryegrass-clover is used in New Zealand, where clovers are generally inoculated with commercially available strains of rhizobia. The community of rhizobia living in the soil and the way in which they interact with the plant are affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. In general, bacterial richness and diversity in soil varies by soil pH. pH also affects cell physiology and acts as a master variable that controls the wider soil physiochemical conditions such as P availability, Al release and micronutrient availability. As such, pH can have both primary and secondary effects on soil biology and processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil pH on the genetic diversity and metabolic profile of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating clover. Soils were collected from 12 farms across New Zealand which had a pH(water) range of between 4.9 and 7.5, with four acidic (pH 4.9 – 5.5), four ‘neutral’ (5.8 – 6.1) and four alkaline (6.5 – 7.5) soils. Bacteria were recovered from nodules of Trifolium repens (white clover) and T. subterraneum (subterranean clover) grown in the soils. The strains were cultured and screened against a range of pH-amended media to demonstrate whether they were adapted to pH levels similar to their native soils. The strains which showed high relative growth at a given pH (~20% of those isolated) were selected for metabolic and taxonomic profiling. The Omnilog (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) phenotype array was used to perform assays on carbon (C) utilisation for selected strains. DNA was extracted from the strains which had differing C utilisation profiles and PCR products for both forward and reverse primers were sequenced for the following genes: 16S rRNA, recA, nodC, nodD and nifH (symbiotic).

Keywords: bacterial diversity, clover, metabolic and taxonomic profiling, pH adaptation, rhizobia

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25 A Mixed-Methods Approach to Developing and Evaluating an SME Business Support Model for Innovation in Rural England

Authors: Steve Fish, Chris Lambert

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Cumbria is a geo-political county in Northwest England within which the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site is located. Whilst the area has a formidable reputation for natural beauty and historic assets, the innovation ecosystem is described as ‘patchy’ for a number of reasons. The county is one of the largest in England by area and is sparsely populated. This paper describes the needs, development and delivery of an SME business-support programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund, Lancaster University and the University of Cumbria. The Cumbria Innovations Platform (CUSP) Project has been designed to respond to the nuanced needs of SMEs in this locale, whilst promoting the adoption of research and innovation. CUSP utilizes a funnel method to support rural businesses with access to university innovation intervention. CUSP has been built on a three-tier model: Communicate, Collaborate and Create. The paper describes this project in detail and presents results in terms of output indicators achieved, a beneficiary telephone survey and wider economic forecasts. From a pragmatic point-of-view, the paper provides experiences and reflections of those people who are delivering and evaluating knowledge exchange. The authors discuss some of the benefits, challenges and implications for both policy makers and practitioners. Finally, the paper aims to serve as an invitation to others who may consider adopting a similar method of university-industry collaboration in their own region.

Keywords: regional business support, rural business support, university-industry collaboration, collaborative R&D, SMEs, knowledge exchange

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24 Seasonal Lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin Ewes in Tropical Regions of Chiapas, Mexico

Authors: Juan C. Martínez-Alfaro, Aracely Zúñiga, Fernando Ruíz-Zarate

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In recent years, the Katahdin sheep breeds have been one of the breeds with greater acceptance by sheep farmers in southwestern Mexico. The Hair Sheep breeds from tropical latitudes (16° to 21° North Latitude) show low estrus activity from January to May. By contrast, these breeds of sheep exhibit high estrus activity from August to December. However, the reproductive management of Hair Sheep crossbred is very limited, independently of the socioeconomic levels of sheep farmers. Thus, in crossbred of Hair Sheep, occurrence of lambing is greater in autumn (84%) than spring (16%). In this sense, the aim of this study was to determine the lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin sheep during different seasons of the year. The Hypothesis was that in crossbred of Katahdin sheep, the lambing period has a behavior seasonal in the Southwestern Mexico. The study design consisted in evaluating the lambing proportion in one herds of Katahdin ewes crossbred during one year (October 1st, 2015 to October 1st, 2016). The study was realized in a farm located in the municipality of Jiquipilas, in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (16° North Latitude). A total of 40 female sheep homogeneous in terms of physical condition, age and physiological state were selected; and they were fed in grazing continuous, mainly with Africa star grass (Cynodon lemfuensis) and they are provided with water and mineral salts ad libitum; during the dry season, the ewes were supplemented with a diet of maize and sorghum, and the reproductive management was continuous mating. The lambing proportion was analyzed by chi-squared test, using SAS statistical software. The proportion of Katahdin ewes crossbred that lambed during the study period was high (100%; 40/40), the prolificacy was 1.42 (lamb/lambing). The proportion of lambing was higher (P<0.05) in autumn (67.5%; 27/40), than winter, spring and summer (32.5%; 13/40; 0%; 0/40; 0%; 0/40; respectively). The proportion of lambing was greater (P<0.05) in November (50%; 20/40), compared to October, December and January (2.5%; 1/40; 27.5%; 11/40; 20%; 8/40, respectively). The results are consistent with the fact that in the Hair Sheep Breeds, the lambing appears behave seasonally. The most important finding is that the lambing period in the crossbred of Katahdin Sheep is similar to the crossbred of Hair Sheep in tropical regions of Mexico. Therefore, the period of greater sexual activity occurs in the spring season. In conclusion, the period of lambing in crossbred of Katahdin ewes appears behave seasonally. Further researches to assess the ovarian activity in different breeds of Hair Ewes are under assessment.

Keywords: Katahdin ewes, lambing, prolificacy, seasonality

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23 Using Time Series NDVI to Model Land Cover Change: A Case Study in the Berg River Catchment Area, Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: Adesuyi Ayodeji Steve, Zahn Munch

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This study investigates the use of MODIS NDVI to identify agricultural land cover change areas on an annual time step (2007 - 2012) and characterize the trend in the study area. An ISODATA classification was performed on the MODIS imagery to select only the agricultural class producing 3 class groups namely: agriculture, agriculture/semi-natural, and semi-natural. NDVI signatures were created for the time series to identify areas dominated by cereals and vineyards with the aid of ancillary, pictometry and field sample data. The NDVI signature curve and training samples aided in creating a decision tree model in WEKA 3.6.9. From the training samples two classification models were built in WEKA using decision tree classifier (J48) algorithm; Model 1 included ISODATA classification and Model 2 without, both having accuracies of 90.7% and 88.3% respectively. The two models were used to classify the whole study area, thus producing two land cover maps with Model 1 and 2 having classification accuracies of 77% and 80% respectively. Model 2 was used to create change detection maps for all the other years. Subtle changes and areas of consistency (unchanged) were observed in the agricultural classes and crop practices over the years as predicted by the land cover classification. 41% of the catchment comprises of cereals with 35% possibly following a crop rotation system. Vineyard largely remained constant over the years, with some conversion to vineyard (1%) from other land cover classes. Some of the changes might be as a result of misclassification and crop rotation system.

Keywords: change detection, land cover, modis, NDVI

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22 CO2 Capture in Porous Silica Assisted by Lithium

Authors: Lucero Gonzalez, Salvador Alfaro

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered as the compounds with higher abundance among the greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx, SOx, CxHx, etc.), due to its higher concentration, this two gases have a greater impact in the environment pollution and provokes global warming. So, recovery, disposal and subsequent reuse, are of great interest, especially from the ecological and health perspective. By one hand, porous inorganic materials are good candidates to capture gases, because these type of materials are higher stability from the point view of thermal, chemical and mechanical under adsorption gas processes. By another hand, during the design and the synthetic preparation of the porous materials is possible add other intrinsic properties (physicochemical and structural) by adding chemical compounds as dopants or using structured directed agents or surfactants to improve the porous structure, the above features allow to have alternative materials for separation, capture and storage of greenhouse gases. In this work, ordered mesoporous materials base silica were prepared using Surfynol as surfactant. The surfactant micelles are commonly used as self-assembly templates for the development of new structure porous silica’s, adding a variety of textures and structures. By another hand, the Surfynol is a commercial surfactant, is non-ionic, for that is necessary determine its critical micelles concentration (cmc) by the pyrene I1/I3 ratio method, before to prepare silica particles. One time known the CMC, a precursor gel was prepared via sol-gel process at room temperature using TEOS as silica precursor, NH4OH as catalyst, Surfynol as template and H2O as solvent. Then, the gel precursor was treatment hydrothermally in a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave with a volume of 100 mL and kept at 100 ºC for 24 h under static conditions in a convection oven. After that, the porous silica particles obtained were impregnated with lithium to improve the CO2 adsorption capacity. Then the silica particles were characterized physicochemical, morphology and structurally, by XRD, FTIR, BET and SEM techniques. The thermal stability and the CO2 adsorption capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According the results, we found that the Surfynol is a good candidate to prepare silica particles with an ordered structure. Also the TGA analysis shown that the particles has a good thermal stability in the range of 250 °C and 800 °C. The best materials had, the capacity to adsorbing 70 and 90 mg per gram of silica particles and its CO2 adsorption capacity depends on the way to thermal pretreatment of the porous silica before of the adsorption experiments and of the concentration of surfactant used during the synthesis of silica particles. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by SIP-IPN through project SIP-20161862.

Keywords: CO2 adsorption, lithium as dopant, porous silica, surfynol as surfactant, thermogravimetric analysis

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21 Barrier Membrane Influence Histology of Guided Bone Regenerations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Laura Canagueral-Pellice, Antonio Munar-Frau, Adaia Valls-Ontanon, Joao Carames, Federico Hernandez-Alfaro, Jordi Caballe-Serrano

Abstract:

Objective: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) aims to replace the missing bone with a new structure to achieve long-term stability of rehabilitations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effect of barrier membranes on histological outcomes after GBR procedures. Moreover, the effect of the grafting material and tissue gain were analyzed. Materials & methods: Two independent reviewers performed an electronic search in Pubmed and Scopus, identifying all eligible publications up to March 2020. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a histological analysis of augmented areas were included. Results: A total of 6 publications were included for the present systematic review. A total of 110 biopsied sites were analysed; 10 corresponded to vertical bone augmentation procedures, whereas 100 analysed horizontal regeneration procedures. A mean tissue gain of 3 ± 1.48mm was obtained for horizontal defects. Histological assessment of new bone formation, residual particle and sub-epithelial connective tissue (SCT) was reported. The four main barrier membranes used were natural collagen membranes, e-PTFE, polylactic resorbable membranes and acellular dermal matrix membranes (AMDG). The analysis demonstrated that resorbable membranes result in higher values of new bone formation and lower values of residual particles and SCT. Xenograft resulted in lower new bone formation compared to allograft; however, no statistically significant differences were observed regarding residual particle and SCT. Overall, regeneration procedures adding autogenous bone, plasma derivate or growth factors achieved in general greater new bone formation and tissue gain. Conclusions: There is limited evidence favoring the effect of a certain type of barrier membrane in GBR. Data needs to be evaluated carefully; however, resorbable membranes are correlated with greater new bone formation values, especially when combined with allograft materials and/or the addition of autogenous bone, platelet reach plasma (PRP) or growth factors in the regeneration area. More studies assessing the histological outcomes of different GBR protocols and procedures testing different biomaterials are needed to maximize the clinical and histological outcomes in bone regeneration science.

Keywords: barrier membrane, graft material, guided bone regeneration, implant surgery, histology

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