Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 752

# Search results for: definition

##### 752 Why and When to Teach Definitions: Necessary and Unnecessary Discontinuities Resulting from the Definition of Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Josephine Shamash, Stuart Smith

Abstract:

We examine reasons for introducing definitions in teaching mathematics in a number of different cases. We try to determine if, where, and when to provide a definition, and which definition to choose. We characterize different types of definitions and the different purposes we may have for formulating them, and detail examples of each type. Giving a definition at a certain stage can sometimes be detrimental to the development of the concept image. In such a case, it is advisable to delay the precise definition to a later stage. We describe two models, the 'successive approximation model', and the 'model of the extending definition' that fit such situations. Detailed examples that fit the different models are given based on material taken from a number of textbooks, and analysis of the way the concept is introduced, and where and how its definition is given. Our conclusions, based on this analysis, is that some of the definitions given may cause discontinuities in the learning sequence and constitute obstacles and unnecessary cognitive conflicts in the formation of the concept definition. However, in other cases, the discontinuity in passing from definition to definition actually serves a didactic purpose, is unavoidable for the mathematical evolution of the concept image, and is essential for students to deepen their understanding. Downloads 61
##### 751 Confusion on the Definition of Terrorism and Difficulty in Criminalizing Terrorist Financing

Authors: Hamed Tofangsaz

Abstract:

In the absence of an internationally agreed definition of terrorism, the question which needs to be posed is whether there is a clear and common understanding of what constitutes terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist groups, the financing of which needs to be stopped. That is, from a criminal law perspective, whether the Terrorist Financing Convention, as the backbone of the counter-terrorist financing regime, clarifies what types of conduct, by who, in what circumstances and when, against whom (targets or victims) and with what intention or motivation should be considered terrorism? It will be explained how and why it has been difficult to reach an agreement on the definition of terrorism. The endeavour of the drafters of the Terrorist Financing Convention and others involved in countering terrorist financing to establish a general definition of terrorism will be examined. The record of attempts to define the elements of terrorism proves that it is hardly possible to reach an agreement on a generic definition of terrorism because the concept of terrorism is elusive and subject to various understandings. Even the definition provided by the Terrorist Financing Convention, is not convincing. With regard to the findings, this paper calls for further research on the legal consequences of the implementation of the terrorist financing-counter measures while the scope of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations have been left vague.

Keywords: terrorism, terrorist financing, crime, convention

##### 750 Constructing Cultural Identity and Belonging: Defining Latvia's Diaspora in the Diaspora Law

Authors: Mara Simons

Abstract:

There are many ways to define what 'diaspora' is in a global world as the term has become more and more fluid in the way it is understood and implemented. The main focus of the research has been on the definition of diaspora – arguments against and for the wider and inclusive definition versus the narrower and excluding one. Who can belong and who are supposed to be left out, who is 'ours' and who is 'other' – those struggles have been observed and researched in the content analysis of Latvia’s mass media, audio recordings from the Foreign Affairs Commission of the parliament of Latvia and official letters from the Ministries, deputies and NGO’s. Latvia’s case is interesting from the point of view of cultural studies as it has been a real struggle to define the term 'diaspora' and it's content in Latvia’s Diaspora law. Those in favour of a narrow definition warned of political risks for Latvia (such as voting demographics). The side arguing for a wide definition argued that anyone with a felt ‘connection’ should be eligible. This identity-based debate is still on-going in spite of the inclusive definition of diaspora being integrated into the law.

Keywords: belonging, cultural studies, diaspora, Latvia

##### 749 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the growing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grows more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterised by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion, and translation problems etc. Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology. Downloads 259
##### 748 The Convention Refugee Definition-from Universal to Regional: A Systematic Review

Authors: Wen Jiayuan

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This article traces the broadening of the refugee definition from the early 1970s onwards. It first discusses Article 1A(1), the core universal legal definition of ‘refugee’ provided by the 1951 Geneva Convention. It then focuses on Article 1A(2), read together with the 1967 Protocol, which without time or geographical limits, offers a general definition of the refugee as including any person who is outside their country or origin and unable or unwilling to return there or to avail themselves of its protection, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social group or political opinion. It then shifts to the contemporary alternative refugee definitions adopted in regional areas, namely Africa, Latin America, and Europe. By looking deeply into the 1969 OAU Convention, the 1984 Cartagena Declaration, and ECtHR, the assertation is that while the appearance of new definitions may lead to a more responsive international environment, it may also undermine the consistency of the international refugee regime. Downloads 58
##### 747 The Concept of Art: A Redefinition or Reconstruction

Authors: Patricia Agboro

Abstract:

The definition of a concept is quite important in any philosophical discourse as it serves as a guide in the analysis of that concept. In the sciences, arriving at a consensus regarding concepts is quite easily achievable due to the nature of the discipline. Problem arises when one delves into the realm of the humanities. Discourses in the humanities are largely perspectival because the question of values come into play. Defining the concept of Art is no different as it has yielded unresolved and problematic issues arising from attempts at definition. A major problem arising from such attempt is that of exclusion of other art forms. In this paper therefore, we call for the rejection of an attempt at providing a comprehensive definition for Art since it is clear that the collection of definitions provided so far, has failed in capturing the nuances and intricacies of the infinite varieties of the art forms that there are. Rather, a more fruitful approach to philosophical discourses on Art is not to construe the theories of Art per-se but to reconstruct them as a collection of criteria for determining artistic excellence.

Keywords: art, creativity, definition, reconstruction

##### 746 Unravelling the Knot: Towards a Definition of ‘Digital Labor’

Authors: Marta D'Onofrio

Abstract:

The debate on the digitalization of the economy has raised questions about how both labor and the regulation of work processes are changing due to the introduction of digital technologies in the productive system. Within the literature, the term ‘digital labor’ is commonly used to identify the impact of digitalization on labor. Despite the wide use of this term, it is still not available an unambiguous definition of it, and this could create confusion in the use of terminology and in the attempts of classification. As a consequence, the purpose of this paper is to provide for a definition and to propose a classification of ‘digital labor’, resorting to the theoretical approach of organizational studies. Downloads 70
##### 745 Biomedical Definition Extraction Using Machine Learning with Synonymous Feature

Authors: Jian Qu, Akira Shimazu

Abstract:

OOV (Out Of Vocabulary) terms are terms that cannot be found in many dictionaries. Although it is possible to translate such OOV terms, the translations do not provide any real information for a user. We present an OOV term definition extraction method by using information available from the Internet. We use features such as occurrence of the synonyms and location distances. We apply machine learning method to find the correct definitions for OOV terms. We tested our method on both biomedical type and name type OOV terms, our work outperforms existing work with an accuracy of 86.5%. Downloads 419
##### 744 Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge on the Definition of Limit and Derivative

Authors: Reyhan Tekin Sitrava

Abstract:

Teachers should have robust and comprehensive content knowledge for effective mathematics teaching. It was explained that content knowledge includes knowing the facts, truths, and concepts; explaining the reasons behind these facts, truths and concepts, and making relationship between the concepts and other disciplines. By virtue of its importance, it will be significant to explore teachers and prospective teachers’ content knowledge related to variety of topics in mathematics. From this point of view, the purpose of this study was to investigate prospective mathematics teachers’ content knowledge. Particularly, it was aimed to reveal the prospective teachers’ knowledge regarding the definition of limit and derivate. To achieve the purpose and to get in-depth understanding, a qualitative case study method was used. The data was collected from 34 prospective mathematics teachers through a questionnaire containing 2 questions. The first question required the prospective teachers to define the limit and the second one required to define the derivative. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Based on the analysis of the data, although half of the prospective teachers (50%) could write the definition of the limit, nine prospective teachers (26.5%) could not define limit. However, eight prospective teachers’ definition was regarded as partially correct. On the other hand, twenty-seven prospective teachers (79.5%) could define derivative, but seven of them (20.5%) defined it partially. According to the findings, most of the prospective teachers have robust content knowledge on limit and derivative. This result is important because definitions have a virtual role in learning and teaching of mathematics. More specifically, definition is starting point to understand the meaning of a concept. From this point of view, prospective teachers should know the definitions of the concepts to be able to teach them correctly to the students. In addition, they should have knowledge about the relationship between limit and derivative so that they can explain these concepts conceptually. Otherwise, students may memorize the rules of calculating the derivative and the limit. In conclusion, the present study showed that most of the prospective mathematics teachers had enough knowledge about the definition of derivative and limit. However, the rest of them should learn their definition conceptually. The examples of correct, partially correct, and incorrect definition of both concepts will be presented and discussed based on participants’ statements. This study has some implications for instructors. Instructors should be careful about whether students learn the definition of these concepts or not. In order to this, the instructors may give prospective teachers opportunities to discuss the definition of these concepts and the relationship between the concepts. Downloads 136
##### 743 'Gender' and 'Gender Equalities': Conceptual Issues

Authors: Moustafa Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss and question some of the widely accepted concepts within the conceptual framework of gender from terminological, scientific, and Muslim cultural perspectives, and to introduce a new definition and a model of gender in the Arab and Muslim societies. This paper, therefore, uses a generic methodology and document analysis and comes in three sections and a conclusion. The first section discusses some of the terminological issues in the conceptual framework of gender. The second section highlights scientific issues, introduces a definition and a model of gender, whereas the third section offers Muslim cultural perspectives on some issues related to gender in the Muslim world. The paper, then, concludes with findings and recommendations reached so far. Downloads 40
##### 742 Technical and Legal Definitions in Cyber Terrorism

Abstract:

In recent years the speed of new technology has brought forth so many new issues. Cyberspace is among the new technologies that need novel ways to address the various issues that have arisen. While cyberspace is a technical notion that defies a single definition, this new technology requires the adoption and application of new laws. In order to manage issues arising from the existence of cyberspace, proper policies and definitions must be formulated which satisfy both technical and legal aspects. One difficulty in this regard is due to the unique features of cyberspace architecture. This article proposes to define cyberspace and cyber terrorism. This will allow for a more effective and comprehensive addressing of legal issues as they can then be handled better by introducing a new factor to the otherwise ordinary analysis in whichever field is implicated such as the nature and place of use. Downloads 477
##### 741 Functions and Pragmatic Aspects of English Nonsense

Authors: Natalia V. Ursul

Abstract:

In linguistic studies, the question of nonsense is attracting increasing interest. Nonsense is usually defined as spoken or written words that have no meaning. However, this definition is likely to be outdated as any speech act is generated due to the speaker’s pragmatic reasons, thus it cannot be purely illogical or meaningless. In the current paper a new working definition of nonsense as a linguistic medium will be formulated; moreover, the pragmatic peculiarities of newly coined linguistic patterns and possible ways of their interpretation will be discussed.

Keywords: nonsense, nonse verse, pragmatics, speech act

##### 740 Classification of Construction Projects

Abstract:

To address construction project requirements and specifications, scholars and practitioners need to establish a taxonomy according to a scheme that best fits their need. While existing characterization methods are continuously being improved, new ones are devised to cover project properties which have not been previously addressed. One such method, the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI), has received limited consideration strictly as a classification scheme. Developed by the Construction Industry Institute (CII) in 1996, the PDRI has been refined over the last two decades as a method for evaluating a project's scope definition completeness during front-end planning (FEP). The main contribution of this study is a review of practical project classification methods, and a discussion of how PDRI can be used to classify projects based on their readiness in the FEP phase. The proposed model has been applied to 59 construction projects in Ontario, and the results are discussed. Downloads 576
##### 739 Beyond Taguchi’s Concept of the Quality Loss Function

Authors: Atul Dev, Pankaj Jha

Abstract:

Dr. Genichi Taguchi looked at quality in a broader term and gave an excellent definition of quality in terms of loss to society. However the scope of this definition is limited to the losses imparted by a poor quality product to the customer only and are considered during the useful life of the product and further in a certain situation this loss can even be zero. In this paper, it has been proposed that the scope of quality of a product shall be further enhanced by considering the losses imparted by a poor quality product to society at large, due to associated environmental and safety related factors, over the complete life cycle of the product. Moreover, though these losses can be further minimized with the use of techno-safety interventions, the net losses to society however can never be made zero. This paper proposes an entirely new approach towards defining product quality and is based on Taguchi’s definition of quality. Downloads 216
##### 738 Government (Big) Data Ecosystem: Definition, Classification of Actors, and Their Roles

Abstract:

Organizations, including governments, generate (big) data that are high in volume, velocity, veracity, and come from a variety of sources. Public Administrations are using (big) data, implementing base registries, and enforcing data sharing within the entire government to deliver (big) data related integrated services, provision of insights to users, and for good governance. Government (Big) data ecosystem actors represent distinct entities that provide data, consume data, manipulate data to offer paid services, and extend data services like data storage, hosting services to other actors. In this research work, we perform a systematic literature review. The key objectives of this paper are to propose a robust definition of government (big) data ecosystem and a classification of government (big) data ecosystem actors and their roles. We showcase a graphical view of actors, roles, and their relationship in the government (big) data ecosystem. We also discuss our research findings. We did not find too much published research articles about the government (big) data ecosystem, including its definition and classification of actors and their roles. Therefore, we lent ideas for the government (big) data ecosystem from numerous areas that include scientific research data, humanitarian data, open government data, industry data, in the literature. Downloads 59
##### 737 Research on Ice Fixed-Abrasive Polishing Mechanism and Technology for High-Definition Display Panel Glass

Authors: Y. L. Sun, L. Shao, Y. Zhao, H. X. Zhou, W. Z. Lu, J. Li, D. W. Zuo

Abstract:

This study introduces an ice fixed-abrasive polishing (IFAP) technology. Using silica solution IFAP pad and Al2O3 IFAP pad, orthogonal tests were performed on polishing high-definition display panel glass, respectively. The results show that the polishing efficiency and effect polished with silica solution IFAP pad are better than those polished with Al2O3 IFAP pad. The optimized silica solution IFAP parameters are: polishing pressure 0.1MPa, polishing time 40min, table velocity 80r/min, and the ratio of accelerator and slurry 1:10. Finally, the IFAP mechanism was studied and it suggests by complicated analysis that IFAP is comprehensive effect of mechanical removal and microchemical reaction, combined with fixed abrasive polishing and free abrasive polishing. Downloads 307
##### 736 From the Recursive Definition of Refutability to the Invalidity of Gödel’s 1931 Incompleteness

Authors: Paola Cattabriga

Abstract:

According to Gödel’s first incompleteness argument it is possible to construct a formally undecidable proposition in Principia mathematica, a statement that, although true, turns out to be neither provable nor refutable for the system, making therefore incomplete any formal system suitable for the arithmetic of integers. Its features and limitation effects are today widespread basics throughout whole scientific thought. This article brings Gödel’s achievement into question by the definition of the refutability predicate as a number-theoretical statement. We develop proof of invalidity of Theorem VI in Gödel’s 1931, the so-called Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem, in two steps: defining refutability within the same recursive status as provability and showing that as a consequence propositions (15) and (16), derived from definition 8.1 in Gödel’s 1931, are false and unacceptable for the system. The achievement of their falsity blocks the derivation of Theorem VI, which turns out to be therefore invalid, together with all the depending theorems. This article opens up thus new perspectives for mathematical research and for the overall scientific reasoning. Downloads 109
##### 735 Happiness and Its Political Consequences: A Proposal for a Socially Constructed Object

Authors: Luciano E. Sewaybricker

Abstract:

Psychology has faced many challenges in order to claim its right to study happiness. Probably the major issue has been to present a clear definition of happiness, which has a long history outside the scientific field and has been used imprecisely in the daily life. Even after years of great improvement, different meanings of happiness still have been seen in academic studies. This scenario allows to question if any definition is consistent enough to sustain the recent findings of the psychological processes behind happiness. Moreover, does it make sense to seek a single definition of happiness? By investigating the history of happiness and the theoretical foundations of Positive Psychology, it can be advocated that it’s proper for happiness to be polysemic. Since Ancient Greece most attempts to outline happiness consists of an appreciation of the "best way to live" and consequently requires a delineation of the most important things in life. Besides this generic definition, it’s hard to find consensus about happiness. In fact, what and how much something will be considered important to happiness depend on social influence. This compels happiness to vary between groups, historical periods, and even for the same person over time. Therefore, the same psychological processes will not necessarily be behind all forms of happiness. Consequently, three assumptions should be considered when studying happiness: it’s intrinsic of happiness to be transitory and socially influenced; happiness refers not only to what is possible in the present, but also to an ideal future; when someone (including a scientist) talks about happiness they describe and prescribe a better way to live. Because any attempt to define happiness will be limited in space and time, it's more suitable to study its variations than its universalities. This may have considerable consequences to political agenda on happiness evaluation and maximization, like Gross National Happiness and utilitarian initiatives. Happiness policies should be understood as an arbitrary choice amongst all kinds of happiness and as prescriptive of what “the best way to live” should be.

Keywords: happiness, politics, positive psychology, well-being

##### 734 On an Experimental Method for Investigating the Dynamic Parameters of Multi-Story Buildings at Vibrating Seismic Loadings

Authors: Shakir Mamedov, Tukezban Hasanova

Abstract:

Research of dynamic properties of various materials and elements of structures at shock affecting and on the waves so many scientific works of the Azerbaijani scientists are devoted. However, Experimental definition of dynamic parameters of fluctuations of constructions and buildings while carries estimated character. The purpose of the present experimental researches is definition of parameters of fluctuations of installation of observations. In this case, a mockup of four floor buildings and sixteen floor skeleton-type buildings built in the Baku with the stiffening diaphragm at natural vibrating seismic affectings. Downloads 312
##### 733 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili

Abstract:

The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method. Downloads 339
##### 732 Managing Virtual Teams in a Pandemic

Authors: M. Jafari Toosy, A. Zamani

Abstract:

This article, considering the result of pandemics at the international level and all activities and projects performed virtually and the need for resource management and virtual teams in this period identifies the components of virtual management after searching the available resources. Exploration of virtual management in the pandemic era is explored in 10 international articles. The results of research with this method and according to the tasks and topics related to management knowledge and definition of virtual teams can be divided into topics such as planning, decision making, control, organization, leadership, attention to growth and capability, resources and facilities, Communication, creativity, innovation and security. In order to explain the nature of virtual management, a definition of virtual management was provided.

Keywords: management, virtual, virtual team management, pandemic, team

##### 731 Developing an Exhaustive and Objective Definition of Social Enterprise through Computer Aided Text Analysis

Authors: Deepika Verma, Runa Sarkar

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##### 730 The Utility and the Consequences of Counter Terrorism Financing

Authors: Fatemah Alzubairi

Abstract:

Terrorism financing is a theme that dramatically evolved post-9/11. Supra-national bodies, above all UN Security Council and the Financial Action Task Form (FATF), have established an executive-like mechanism, which allows blacklisting individuals and groups, freezing their funds, and restricting their travel, all of which have become part of states’ anti-terrorism frameworks. A number of problems arise from building counter-terrorism measures on the foundation of a vague definition of terrorism. This paper examines the utility and consequences of counter-terrorism financing with considering the lack of an international definition of terrorism. The main problem with national and international anti-terrorism legislation is the lack of a clear objective definition of terrorism. Most, if not all, national laws are broad and vague. Determining what terrorism remains the crucial underpinning of any successful discussion of counter-terrorism, and of the future success of counter-terrorist measures. This paper focuses on the legal and political consequences of equalizing the treatment of violent terrorist crimes, such as bombing, with non-violent terrorism-related crimes, such as funding terrorist groups. While both sorts of acts requires criminalization, treating them equally risks wrongfully or unfairly condemning innocent people who have associated with “terrorists” but are not involved in terrorist activities. This paper examines whether global obligations to counter terrorism financing focus on controlling terrorist groups more than terrorist activities. It also examines the utility of the obligations adopted by the UN Security Council and FATF, and whether they serve global security; or whether the utility is largely restricted to Western security, with little attention paid to the unique needs and demands of other regions. Downloads 257
##### 729 Testing of Canadian Integrated Healthcare and Social Services Initiatives with an Evidence-Based Case Definition for Healthcare and Social Services Integrations

Authors: S. Cheng, C. Catallo

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##### 728 Calculation of Lungs Physiological Lung Motion in External Lung Irradiation

Abstract:

This is an experimental study deals with measurement of the periodic physiological organ motion during lung external irradiation in order to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The results showed for left lung displacement reading (4.52+1.99 mm) and right lung is (8.21+3.77 mm) which the radiotherapy physician should take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, the calculation of tumour mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a high resolution CT scan with a margin of 3-5 mm is appropriate. Downloads 341
##### 727 Linking Excellence in Biomedical Knowledge and Computational Intelligence Research for Personalized Management of Cardiovascular Diseases within Personal Health Care

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The main goal of LINK project is to join competences in intelligent processing in order to create a research ecosystem to address two central scientific and technical challenges for personal health care (PHC) deployment: i) how to merge clinical evidence knowledge in computational decision support systems for PHC management and ii) how to provide achieve personalized services, i.e., solutions adapted to the specific user needs and characteristics. The final goal of one of the work packages (WP2), designated Sustainable Linking and Synergies for Excellence, is the definition, implementation and coordination of the necessary activities to create and to strengthen durable links between the LiNK partners. This work focuses on the strategy that has been followed to achieve the definition of the Research Tracks (RT), which will support a set of actions to be pursued along the LiNK project. These include common research activities, knowledge transfer among the researchers of the consortium, and PhD student and post-doc co-advisement. Moreover, the RTs will establish the basis for the definition of concepts and their evolution to project proposals. Downloads 146
##### 726 Terrorism: Definition, History and Different Approaches in the Analysis of Terrorism Phenomenon

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Nowadays, the political phenomenon of terrorism is considered as an effective factor on political, social, and economic changes. It has replaced the recognized political phenomena such as revolutions, wars (total war among two or more political units with distinct identities in the form of national states), coups d’état, insurgencies and etc. and has challenged political life in all its levels (sub national, national, and international political groups). In this paper by using descriptive-analytical method, the authors try to explain the spread of this political phenomenon across the world, its definition and types, also analyze different approaches to understand it. The authors believe that the Logical-Rational approach is the best way to explain and understand this phenomenon. Downloads 251
##### 725 Re-Defining Food Waste and Food Waste Management in the Food Service Sector: A Case Study in a University Food Service Unit

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The food service sector wastes staggering quantities of food. More than one-third of food produced today gets wasted. This is both perplexing and daunting given that not all that is wasted is accounted for when measuring food waste. It is recognised that the present food waste definitions are ambiguous and do not really take into account all food waste generated. The contention is that food waste in the food service sector can be prevented or reduced if we have an explicit food waste definition in the context of food service. This study, therefore, explores the definition of the concept of food waste in the food service sector and its implications on sustainable food waste management strategies. An ethnographic research approach was adopted. A university food service unit was selected as a research site. Data collection techniques employed included document analyses, participant observations, focus group discussions with front-of-house and back-of-house staff, and one-on-one interviews with staff on managerial positions. A grounded theory approach was applied to analyse data. The concept of food waste was constructed differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, BOH and FOH staff drew upon socio-cultural implications. This study lays the foundation for a harmonised definition of the concept of food waste in food service. Downloads 157
##### 724 Proposal of Design Method in the Semi-Acausal System Model

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This study is used as a definition method to the value and function in manufacturing sector. In concurrence of discussion about present condition of modeling method, until now definition of 1D-CAE is ambiguity and not conceptual. Across all the physics fields, those methods are defined with the formulation of differential algebraic equation which only applied time derivation and simulation. At the same time, we propose semi-acausal modeling concept and differential algebraic equation method as a newly modeling method which the efficiency has been verified through the comparison of numerical analysis result between the semi-acausal modeling calculation and FEM theory calculation. Downloads 391
##### 723 Information Literacy: Concept and Importance

Authors: Gaurav Kumar

Abstract:

An information literate person is one who uses information effectively in all its forms. When presented with questions or problems, an information literate person would know what information to look for, how to search efficiently and be able to access relevant sources. In addition, an information literate person would have the ability to evaluate and select appropriate information sources and to use the information effectively and ethically to answer questions or solve problems. Information literacy has become an important element in higher education. The information literacy movement has internationally recognized standards and learning outcomes. The step-by-step process of achieving information literacy is particularly crucial in an era where knowledge could be disseminated through a variety of media. What is the relationship between information literacy as we define it in higher education and information literacy among non-academic populations? What forces will change how we think about the definition of information literacy in the future and how we will apply the definition in all environments? Downloads 210