Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14498

Search results for: fairness-based model of gender

14498 'Gender' and 'Gender Equalities': Conceptual Issues

Authors: Moustafa Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss and question some of the widely accepted concepts within the conceptual framework of gender from terminological, scientific, and Muslim cultural perspectives, and to introduce a new definition and a model of gender in the Arab and Muslim societies. This paper, therefore, uses a generic methodology and document analysis and comes in three sections and a conclusion. The first section discusses some of the terminological issues in the conceptual framework of gender. The second section highlights scientific issues, introduces a definition and a model of gender, whereas the third section offers Muslim cultural perspectives on some issues related to gender in the Muslim world. The paper, then, concludes with findings and recommendations reached so far.

Keywords: gender definition, gender equalities, sex-gender separability, fairness-based model of gender

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14497 Gender Diversity in Early Years Education: An Exploratory Study Applied to Preschool Curriculum System in Romania

Authors: Emilia-Gheorghina Negru

Abstract:

As an EU goal, gender diversity in early year’s education aims and promotes equality of chances and respect for gender peculiarities of the pupils which are involved in formal educational activities. Early year’s education, as the first step to the Curriculum, prints to teachers the need to identify the role of the gender dimension on this stage, depending on the age level of preschool children through effective, complex, innovative and analytical awareness of gender diversity teaching and management strategies. Through gender educational work we, as teachers, will examine the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the gender development of school-aged children. PATHS and a school-based preventive intervention model are necessary to be designed to improve children's ability to discuss and understand equality and gender concepts. Our teachers must create an intervention model and provide PATHS lessons during the school year. Results of the intervention will be effective for both low- and high-risk children in improving their range of math’s skills for girls and vocabulary, fluency and emotional part for boys in discussing gender experiences, their efficacy beliefs regarding the management of equality in gender area, and their developmental understanding of some aspects of gender.

Keywords: gender, gender differences, gender equality, gender role, gender stereotypes

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14496 Gender Recognition with Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Xiaoqi Jia, Qing Zhu, Hao Zhang, Su Yang

Abstract:

A gender recognition system is able to tell the gender of the given person through a few of frontal facial images. An effective gender recognition approach enables to improve the performance of many other applications, including security monitoring, human-computer interaction, image or video retrieval and so on. In this paper, we present an effective method for gender classification task in frontal facial images based on deep belief networks (DBNs), which can pre-train model and improve accuracy a little bit. Our experiments have shown that the pre-training method with DBNs for gender classification task is feasible and achieves a little improvement of accuracy on FERET and CAS-PEAL-R1 facial datasets.

Keywords: gender recognition, beep belief net-works, semi-supervised learning, greedy-layer wise RBMs

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14495 Mathematical Model to Quantify the Phenomenon of Democracy

Authors: Mechlouch Ridha Fethi

Abstract:

This paper presents a recent mathematical model in political sciences concerning democracy. The model is represented by a logarithmic equation linking the Relative Index of Democracy (RID) to Participation Ratio (PR). Firstly the meanings of the different parameters of the model were presented; and the variation curve of the RID according to PR with different critical areas was discussed. Secondly, the model was applied to a virtual group where we show that the model can be applied depending on the gender. Thirdly, it was observed that the model can be extended to different language models of democracy and that little use to assess the state of democracy for some International organizations like UNO.

Keywords: democracy, mathematic, modelization, quantification

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14494 The Erasure of Sex and Gender Minorities by Misusing Sex and Gender in Public Health

Authors: Tessalyn Morrison, Alexis Dinno, Taurica Salmon

Abstract:

Sex and gender conflation continue to perpetuate the invisibility of gender minorities and obscure information about the ways that biological sex and gender affect health. The misuse of sex and gender terms, and their respective binaries, can yield inaccurate results. But more importantly, it contributes to the erasure of sex and gender minority health experiences. This paper discusses ways in which public health researchers can use sex and gender terms correctly and center the health experiences of intersex, transgender, non binary, and a-gender individuals. It includes promoting sensitivity in approaching minority communities, improving survey questions, and collaborating with sex and gender minority communities to improve research quality and participant experiences. Improving our standards for the quality of sex and gender term usage and centering sex and gender minorities in public health research are imperative to address the health inequalities faced by sex and gender minorities.

Keywords: epidemiology, gender, intersex, research methods, sex, transgender

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14493 Gender Based of Sustainable Food Self-Resilience for Village Using Dynamic System Model

Authors: Kholil, Laksanto Utomo

Abstract:

The food needs of the Indonesian people will continue increase year to year due to the increase of population growth. For ensuring food securityand and resilience, the government has developed a program food self-resilience village since 2006. Food resilience is a complex system, consisting of subsystem availability, distribution and consumption of the sufficiency of food consumed both in quantity and quality. Low access, and limited assets to food sources is the dominant factor vulnerable of food. Women have a major role in supporting the productive activities of the family to meet food sufficiency and resilience. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the model of food self-resilience village wich gender responsive by using a dynamic system model. Model will be developed into 3 level: family, vilage, and regency in accordance with the concept of village food resilience model wich has been developed by ministry of agriculture. Model development based on the results of experts discussion and field study. By some scenarios and simulation models we will able to develop appropriate policy strategies for family food resilience. The result of study show that food resilience was influenced by many factors: goverment policies, technology, human resource, and in the same time it will be a feed back for goverment policies and number of poor family.

Keywords: food availability, food sufficiency, gender, model dynamic, law enfrocement

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14492 Gender Differences in the Descriptions of Shape

Authors: Shu-Feng Chang

Abstract:

During the past years, gender issues have been discussed in many fields. It causes such differences not only in physical field but also in mental field. Gender differences also appear in our daily life, especially in the communication of spoken language. This statement was proved in the descriptions of color. However, the research about describing shape was fewer. The purpose of the study was to determine the description of the shape was different or alike due to gender. If it was different, this difference was dissimilar or as the same as the conclusion of color. Data were collected on the shape descriptions by 15 female and 15male participants in describing five pictures. As a result, it was really different for the descriptions of shape due to gender factor. The findings of shape descriptions were almost as the same as color naming with gender factor.

Keywords: gender, naming, shape, sociolinguistics

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14491 The Impact of International Human Rights Law on Local Efforts to Address Women’s Realities of Violence: Lessons from Jamaica

Authors: Ramona Georgeta Biholar

Abstract:

Gender-based violence against women plagues societies around the world. The work to eliminate it is an ongoing battle. At the international level, Article 5 (a) CEDAW establishes an agenda for social and cultural transformation: it imposes on States parties to CEDAW an obligation to modify sex roles and stereotypical social and cultural patterns of conduct. Also, it provides for the protection of women from violence stemming from such gender norms. Yet, the lived realities of women are frequently disconnected from this agenda. Nonetheless, it is the reality of the local that is crucial for the articulation, implementation and realization of women’s rights in general, and for the elimination of gender-based violence against women in particular. In this paper we discuss the transformation of sex roles and gender stereotyping with a view to realize women’s right to be free from gender-based violence. This paper is anchored in qualitative data collection undertaken in Jamaica and socio-legal research. Based on this research, 1) We explain the process of vernacularisation as a strategy that enables women’s human rights to hit the ground and benefit rights holders, and 2) We present a synergistic model for the implementation of Article 5 (a) CEDAW so that women’s right to be free from gender-based violence can be realized in a concrete national jurisdiction. This model is grounded in context-based demands and recommendations for social and cultural transformation as a remedy for the incidence of gender-based violence against women. Moreover, the synergistic model offers directions that have a general application for the implementation of CEDAW and Article 5 (a) CEDAW in particular, with a view to realize women’s right to be free from gender-based violence. The model is thus not only a conceptual tool of analysis, but also a prescriptive tool for action. It contributes to the work of both academics and practitioners, such as Governmental officials, and national and local civil society representatives. Overall, this paper contributes to understanding the process necessary to bridge that gap between women’s human rights norms and women’s life realities of discrimination and violence.

Keywords: CEDAW, gender-based violence against women, international human rights law, women’s rights implementation, the Caribbean

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14490 Cross Analysis of Gender Discrimination in Print Media of Subcontinent via James Paul Gee Model

Authors: Luqman Shah

Abstract:

The myopic gender discrimination is now a well-documented and recognized fact. However, gender is only one facet of an individual’s multiple identities. The aim of this work is to investigate gender discrimination highlighted in print media in the subcontinent with a specific focus on Pakistan and India. In this study, an approach is adopted by using the James Paul Gee model for the identification of gender discrimination. As a matter of fact, gender discrimination is not consistent in its nature and intensity across global societies and varies as social, geographical, and cultural background change. The World has been changed enormously in every aspect of life, and there are also obvious changes towards gender discrimination, prejudices, and biases, but still, the world has a long way to go to recognize women as equal as men in every sphere of life. The history of the world is full of gender-based incidents and violence. Now the time came that this issue must be seriously addressed and to eradicate this evil, which will lead to harmonize society and consequently heading towards peace and prosperity. The study was carried out by a mixed model research method. The data was extracted from the contents of five Pakistani English newspapers out of a total of 23 daily English newspapers, and likewise, five Indian daily English newspapers out of 52 those were published 2018-2019. Two news stories from each of these newspapers, in total, twenty news stories were taken as sampling for this research. Content and semiotic analysis techniques were used to analyze through James Paul Gee's seven building tasks of language. The resources of renowned e-papers are utilized, and the highlighted cases in Pakistani newspapers of Indian gender-based stories and vice versa are scrutinized as per the requirement of this research paper. For analysis of the written stretches of discourse taken from e-papers and processing of data for the focused problem, James Paul Gee 'Seven Building Tasks of Language' is used. Tabulation of findings is carried to pinpoint the issue with certainty. Findings after processing the data showed that there is a gross human rights violation on the basis of gender discrimination. The print media needs a more realistic representation of what is what not what seems to be. The study recommends the equality and parity of genders.

Keywords: gender discrimination, print media, Paul Gee model, subcontinent

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14489 Gender Differences in Attitudes to Technology in Primary Education

Authors: Radek Novotný, Martina Maněnová

Abstract:

This article presents a summary of reviews on gender differences in perception of information and communication technology (ICT) by pupils in primary education. The article outlines the meaning of ICT in primary education then summarizes different studies of the use of ICT in primary education from the point of view of gender. The article also presents the specific differences of gender in the knowledge of modalities of use of specialized digital tools and the perception and value assigned to ICT, accordingly the article provides insight into the background of gender differences in performance in relation to ICT to determinate the complex meaning of pupils attitudes to the ICT.

Keywords: ICT in primary education, attitudes to ICT, gender differences, gender and ICT

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14488 Gender and Older People: Reframing Gender Analysis through Lifecycle Lens

Authors: Supriya Akerkar

Abstract:

The UN Decade on Healthy Ageing (2021-2030) provides a new opportunity to address ageing and gender issues in different societies. The concept of gender has been used to unpack and analyse the power and constructions of gender relations in different societies. Such analysis has been employed and used to inform policy and practices of governments and non-governmental organisations to further gender equalities in their work. Yet, experiences of older women and men are often left out of such mainstream gender analysis, marginalising their existence and issues. This paper argues that new critical analytical tools are needed to capture the realities and issues of interest to older women and men. In particular, it argues that gender analysis needs to integrate analytical concepts of ageing and lifecycle approach in its framework. The paper develops such a framework by critical interrogation of the gender analysis tools that are currently applied for framing gender issues in international development and humanitarian work. Informed by the realities and experiences of older women and men, developed through a synthesis of available literature, the paper will develop a new framework for gender analysis that can be used by governments and non-government organisations in their work to further gender justice across the life cycle.

Keywords: ageing, gender, older people, social inclusion

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14487 Analyzing the Influence of Gender onto Advertisement

Authors: Tamara Storozhenko

Abstract:

In the paper, we want to highlight the influence of the advertising field on gender and vice versa. We will show what it was like before and the way it has changed until nowadays. We will also analyze when and how advertisements are used to create gender stereotypes and at which moment gender became a shaping advertisement. In this paper, we work not only with pure advertisements (e.g., videos and printed materials) but also with films that contain ads. Special attention is placed on the separation of goods for the ‘male ones’ and ‘female ones’, specifically if they can be used independently of gender and sex (food items and some kinds of personal supplies). Also, in this paper, we represent the history of several advertising campaigns, including the following reaction of the society that demonstrated that some of the gender stereotypes were finding resonance while some of them were not heard. Moreover, advertisements could be used as a tool for creating new ones or developing stereotypes that had already existed, and it wasn’t always successful. In the final part of the paper, we would like to analyze the current situation in this area and show how the change of understanding gender made advertisement change.

Keywords: advertisement, gender studies, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics

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14486 Post-Structural Study of Gender in Shakespearean Othello from Butlerian Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Shakeel Rehman Hissam

Abstract:

This study aims at analyzing gender in Othello by applying Judith Butler’s Post-Structural theory of gender and gender performance. The analysis of the play provides us context by which we can examine what kinds of effects the drama have on understanding of the researchers regarding gender identity. The study sets out to examine that, is there any evidence or ground in Shakespearean selected work which leads to challenge the patriarchal taken for granted prescribed roles of gender? This would be the focal point in study of Othello that actions and performances of characters determine their gender identity rather than their sexuality. It argues that gender of Shakespearean characters has no constant, fixed and structural impression. On the contrary, they undergo consistent variations in their behavior and performance which impart fluidity and volatility to them. The focal point of the present study is Butler’s prominent work; Gender Trouble: Feminism and subversion of Identity and her post structural theory of Gender performativity as the theoretical underpinning of the text. It analyzes the selected play in Post-Structural gender perspective. The gender-centric plot of the play is riddled with fluidity of gender. The most fascinating aspect of the play is the transformations of genders on the basis of performances by different characters and through these transformations; gender identity is revealed and determined. The study reconstructs the accepted gender norms by challenging the traditional concept of gender that is based on sexual differences of characters.

Keywords: post structural, gender, performativity, socio-cultural gender norms, binaries, Othello, Butler, identity

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14485 Gender and Science: Is the Association Universal?

Authors: Neelam Kumar

Abstract:

Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Gender stratification is one of the most prevalent phenomena in the world of science. In most countries gender segregation, horizontal as well as vertical, stands out in the field of science and engineering. India is no exception. This paper aims to examine: (1) gender and science associations, historical as well as contemporary, (2) women’s enrolment and gender differences in selection of academic fields, (2) women as professional researchers, (3) career path and recognition/trajectories. The paper reveals that in recent years the gender–science relationship has changed, but is not totally free from biases. Women’s enrolment into various science disciplines has shown remarkable and steady increase in most parts of the world, including India, yet they remain underrepresented in the S&T workforce, although to a lesser degree than in the past.

Keywords: gender, science, universal, women

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14484 The Impact of Gender Inequality on Corruption:Evidence from Politics and Labor Market

Authors: Mahmoud Salari

Abstract:

Corruption and gender inequality are the main topics of interest for both economists and policymakers. This study develops various static and dynamic estimation models to examine the impact of gender inequality in politics and the labor market on corruption using data of 170 countries from 1998 to 2014. This study uses two most reliable corruption indexes, including Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and Corruption Control (CC), to evaluate corruption levels across countries. The results indicate that gender inequality in politics has a strong impact on corruption level, and those countries that have larger/smaller gender inequality in their parliaments are faced with higher/lower corruption, respectively. Meanwhile, there is no enough evidence that supports the relationship between gender inequality in the labor market and corruption, and the results indicate that gender inequality in the labor market is not directly linked to the corruption level.

Keywords: corruption, female labor force participation, politics, gender inequality

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14483 Gender Estimation by Means of Quantitative Measurements of Foramen Magnum: An Analysis of CT Head Images

Authors: Thilini Hathurusinghe, Uthpalie Siriwardhana, W. M. Ediri Arachchi, Ranga Thudugala, Indeewari Herath, Gayani Senanayake

Abstract:

The foramen magnum is more prone to protect than other skeletal remains during high impact and severe disruptive injuries. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore whether these measurements can be used to determine the human gender which is vital in forensic and anthropological studies. The idea was to find out the ability to use quantitative measurements of foramen magnum as an anatomical indicator for human gender estimation and to evaluate the gender-dependent variations of foramen magnum using quantitative measurements. Randomly selected 113 subjects who underwent CT head scans at Sri Jayawardhanapura General Hospital of Sri Lanka within a period of six months, were included in the study. The sample contained 58 males (48.76 ± 14.7 years old) and 55 females (47.04 ±15.9 years old). Maximum length of the foramen magnum (LFM), maximum width of the foramen magnum (WFM), minimum distance between occipital condyles (MnD) and maximum interior distance between occipital condyles (MxID) were measured. Further, AreaT and AreaR were also calculated. The gender was estimated using binomial logistic regression. The mean values of all explanatory variables (LFM, WFM, MnD, MxID, AreaT, and AreaR) were greater among male than female. All explanatory variables except MnD (p=0.669) were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Significant bivariate correlations were demonstrated by AreaT and AreaR with the explanatory variables. The results evidenced that WFM and MxID were the best measurements in predicting gender according to binomial logistic regression. The estimated model was: log (p/1-p) =10.391-0.136×MxID-0.231×WFM, where p is the probability of being a female. The classification accuracy given by the above model was 65.5%. The quantitative measurements of foramen magnum can be used as a reliable anatomical marker for human gender estimation in the Sri Lankan context.

Keywords: foramen magnum, forensic and anthropological studies, gender estimation, logistic regression

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14482 Gender Inequality in the Nigerian Labour Market as a Cause of Unemployment among Female Graduates

Authors: Temitope Faloye

Abstract:

The absence of equity and transparency in Nigeria's economic system has resulted in unemployment. Women’s unemployment rate remains higher because women's range of jobs is often narrower due to discriminatory attitudes of employers and gender segregation in the labor market. Gender inequality is one of the strong factors of unemployment, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where the female gender is marginalized in the labor force market. However, gender equality in terms of labor market access and employment condition has not yet been attained. Feminist theory is considered as an appropriate theory for this study. The study will use a mixed-method design, collecting qualitative and quantitative data to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the present situation of gender inequality in the Nigerian labor market.

Keywords: unemployment, gender inequality, gender equality, labor market, female graduate

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14481 Gender, Age, and Race Differences in Self-Reported Reading Attitudes of College Students

Authors: Jill Villarreal, Kristalyn Cooksey, Kai Lloyd, Daniel Ha

Abstract:

Little research has been conducted to examine college students' reading attitudes, including students' perceptions of reading behaviors and reading abilities. This is problematic, as reading assigned course material is a critical component to an undergraduate student's academic success. For this study, flyers were electronically disseminated to instructors at 24 public and 10 private U.S. institutions in “Reading-Intensive Departments” including Psychology, Sociology, Education, Business, and Communications. We requested the online survey be completed as an in-class activity during the fall 2019 and spring 2020 semesters. All participants voluntarily completed the questionnaire anonymously. Of the participants, 280 self-identified their race as Black and 280 self-identified their race as White. Of the participants, 177 self-identified their gender as Male and 383 self-identified their Gender as Female. Participants ranged in age from 18-24. Factor analysis found four dimensions resulting from the questions regarding reading. The first we interpret as “Reading Proficiency”, accounted for 19% of the variability. The second dimension was “Reading Anxiety” (15%), the third was “Textbook Reading Ability” (9%), and the fourth was “Reading Enjoyment” (8%). Linear models on each of these dimensions revealed no effect of Age, Gender, Race, or Income on “Reading proficiency”. The linear model of “Reading Anxiety” showed a significant effect of race (p = 0.02), with higher anxiety in white students, as well as higher reading anxiety in female students (p < 0.001). The model of “Textbook Reading Ability” found a significant effect of race (p < 0.001), with higher textbook problems in white students. The model of “Reading Enjoyment” showed significant effects of race (p = 0.013) with more enjoyment for white students, gender (p = 0.001) with higher enjoyment for female students, and age (p = 0.033) with older students showing higher enjoyment. These findings suggest that gender, age, and race are important factors in many aspects of college students' reading attitudes. Further research will investigate possible causes for these differences. In addition, the effectiveness of college-level programs to reduce reading anxiety, promote the reading of textbooks, and foster a love of reading will be assessed.

Keywords: age, college, gender, race, reading

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14480 Effect of Gender Norms and Gender Equality on Depression and Quality of Life among Young and Old Married Couples

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen, Fatima Zahra Khan, Hamida Bano, Faiza Anjum, Sara Tahir, Kainat Umar, Uzma Azam

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gender norms and gender equality on depression and quality of life among young and old married couples. The sample consisted of 60 old and 100 young married couples. It was mainly conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. However, since it was convenient and snowball sampling, we were able to get the data from other cities of Pakistan as well. By using Beck Depression Scale (Aaron T. Beck), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener), the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske,1996), and Gender Norms Attitude Scale(Waszak et al., 2000). It was found that the old couples have a high quality of life than young couples, which further proved them to have positive attitude towards gender equality, negative attitude towards gender norms and low level of depression. Also, couples having positive attitude towards gender equality have high level of satisfaction with life than the ones having negative attitude towards gender norms, who have low level of depression. Also, having a negative attitude towards gender norms has adverse effects on the level of depression. To achieve a high quality of life, it would be helpful to evolve with the world, especially with respect to the concepts of gender norms and equality.

Keywords: depression, gender equality, gender norms, married couples, quality of life

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14479 Intersection of Racial and Gender Microaggressions: Social Support as a Coping Strategy among Indigenous LGBTQ People in Taiwan

Authors: Ciwang Teyra, A. H. Y. Lai

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous LGBTQ individuals face with significant life stress such as racial and gender discrimination and microaggressions, which may lead to negative impacts of their mental health. Although studies relevant to Taiwanese indigenous LGBTQpeople gradually increase, most of them are primarily conceptual or qualitative in nature. This research aims to fulfill the gap by offering empirical quantitative evidence, especially investigating the impact of racial and gender microaggressions on mental health among Taiwanese indigenous LGBTQindividuals with an intersectional perspective, as well as examine whether social support can help them to cope with microaggressions. Methods: Participants were (n=200; mean age=29.51; Female=31%, Male=61%, Others=8%). A cross-sectional quantitative design was implemented using data collected in the year 2020. Standardised measurements was used, including Racial Microaggression Scale (10 items), Gender Microaggression Scale (9 items), Social Support Questionnaire-SF(6 items); Patient Health Questionnaire(9-item); and Generalised Anxiety Disorder(7-item). Covariates were age, gender, and perceived economic hardships. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed using Mplus 8.0 with the latent variables of depression and anxiety as outcomes. A main effect SEM model was first established (Model1).To test the moderation effects of perceived social support, an interaction effect model (Model 2) was created with interaction terms entered into Model1. Numerical integration was used with maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the interaction model. Results: Model fit statistics of the Model 1:X2(df)=1308.1 (795), p<.05; CFI/TLI=0.92/0.91; RMSEA=0.06; SRMR=0.06. For Model, the AIC and BIC values of Model 2 improved slightly compared to Model 1(AIC =15631 (Model1) vs. 15629 (Model2); BIC=16098 (Model1) vs. 16103 (Model2)). Model 2 was adopted as the final model. In main effect model 1, racialmicroaggressionand perceived social support were associated with depression and anxiety, but not sexual orientation microaggression(Indigenous microaggression: b = 0.27 for depression; b=0.38 for anxiety; Social support: b=-0.37 for depression; b=-0.34 for anxiety). Thus, an interaction term between social support and indigenous microaggression was added in Model 2. In the final Model 2, indigenous microaggression and perceived social support continues to be statistically significant predictors of both depression and anxiety. Social support moderated the effect of indigenous microaggression of depression (b=-0.22), but not anxiety. All covariates were not statistically significant. Implications: Results indicated that racial microaggressions have a significant impact on indigenous LGBTQ people’s mental health. Social support plays as a crucial role to buffer the negative impact of racial microaggression. To promote indigenous LGBTQ people’s wellbeing, it is important to consider how to support them to develop social support network systems.

Keywords: microaggressions, intersectionality, indigenous population, mental health, social support

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14478 The Role of Gender in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety

Authors: Fadil Elmenfi, Ahmed Gaibani

Abstract:

This study investigates the role of gender in influencing public speaking anxiety. Questionnaire survey was administered to the samples of the study. Technique of correlation and descriptive analysis will be further applied to the data collected to determine the relationship between gender and public speaking anxiety. This study could serve as a guide to identify the effects of gender differences on public speaking anxiety and provide necessary advice on how to design a way of coping with or overcoming public speaking anxiety.

Keywords: across culture, communication, English language competence, gender, postgraduate students, speaking anxiety

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14477 Gender Disparity in Film Industries: A Conceptual Study

Authors: Daniel Edem Adzovie, Jakub Kudlac

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The subtle institutionalization of male dominance in the film industry in the 1930s and its rippling effect of gender imbalance especially, regarding female active participation in film industries across the globe in terms of number and influence, is a worrying trend. The main purpose of the study is to explore the role of gender themes, especially patriarchal themes in films, in influencing the disparity experienced in film industries. Partially, we examine the motivations vis-à-vis the demotivating factors that attract and or refract females from enrolling in film schools against their male contemporaries. Employing a qualitative inquiry with a specific focus on document analysis as well as experts’ opinions in order to ascertain the antecedents and consequences of patriarchal themes in films on female participation in film industries, we drew extant literature from reputable databases such as EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, ERIH Plus, Google Scholar as well as notable books on gender and film. Secondly, we conceptualized a research model for a future qualitative research design that could take into consideration a study from at least three different film industries and analyze using thematic analysis. This could help validate the proposed conceptual model of the study. The literature review revealed that culture, to a large extent, influences the patriarchal themes conveyed in films, which inhibits active female participation in film industries. Research implications have been discussed.

Keywords: film industry, female, gender, male dominance, patriarchal themes

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14476 Board Gender Diversity and Firm Sustainable Investment: An Empirical Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Atif, M. Samsul Alam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We test the extent to which sustainable investment is affected by the presence of female directors on U.S. corporate boards. Using data of S&P 1500 indexed firms collected from Bloomberg covering the period 2004-2016, we estimate the baseline model to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We find a positive relationship between board gender diversity and sustainable investment. We also find that boards with two or more women have a pronounced impact on sustainable investment, consistent with the critical mass theory. Female independent directors have a stronger impact on sustainable investment than female executive directors. Our findings are robust to different identification and estimation techniques. The study offers another perspective of the ongoing debate in the social responsibility literature about the accountability relationships between business and society.

Keywords: sustainable investment, gender diversity, environmental proctection, social responsibility

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14475 The Role of Gender Ideology in the Legality of Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Analysis

Authors: Amber Salamanca-Blazek

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This paper explores the connection between gender ideology and the legality of same-sex marriage cross-nationally. The author questions what role gender ideology plays in the cultural shift concerning same-sex marriage currently underway around the world and the variations in the legal treatment of same-sex marriage at the national level. Existing literature on gender, gender ideology, the role of gender ideology in traditional and same-sex marriage, and the extent to which this connection has previously been examined is explored. Also, the author explores the relationship between gender ideology and the legality of same-sex marriage in three countries with the differing legality of same-sex marriage - The United States, where same-sex marriage was legalized in 2015, Australia, where same-sex marriage was legalized in 2017, and Iran, where the death penalty for homosexuality still exists. A comparison of gender ideology frameworks and an analysis of the political rhetoric surrounding same-sex marriage in each country are performed. It is argued that the important role of gender ideology in the legality of same-sex marriage has been greatly ignored and is in need of increased attention to assist gay rights activists in their framework. The link of gender ideology and patriarchal authority between the gay rights movement and the women’s rights movement are subsequently discussed. The author argues that because of this linkage between movements, there is a necessity for joint frameworks. Suggestions for future research are also provided.

Keywords: gender ideology, same-sex marriage, same-sex marriage legality, women's rights movement

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14474 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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14473 An Investigation of Item Bias in Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination in Turkey

Authors: Yeşim Özer Özkan, Fatma Büşra Fincan

Abstract:

Biased sample is a regression of an observation, design process and all of the specifications lead to tendency of a side or the situation of leaving from the objectivity. It is expected that, test items are answered by the students who come from different social groups and the same ability not to be different from each other. The importance of the expectation increases especially during student selection and placement examinations. For example, all of the test items should not be beneficial for just a male or female group. The aim of the research is an investigation of item bias whether or not the exam included in 2014 free boarding and scholarship examination in terms of gender variable. Data which belong to 5th, 6th, and 7th grade the secondary education students were obtained by the General Directorate of Measurement, Evaluation and Examination Services in Turkey. 20% students were selected randomly within 192090 students. Based on 38418 students’ exam paper were examined for determination item bias. Winsteps 3.8.1 package program was used to determine bias in analysis of data, according to Rasch Model in respect to gender variable. Mathematics items tests were examined in terms of gender bias. Firstly, confirmatory factor analysis was applied twenty-five math questions. After that, NFI, TLI, CFI, IFI, RFI, GFI, RMSEA, and SRMR were examined in order to be validity and values of goodness of fit. Modification index values of confirmatory factor analysis were examined and then some of the items were omitted because these items gave an error in terms of model conformity and conceptual. The analysis shows that in 2014 free boarding and scholarship examination exam does not include bias. This is an indication of the gender of the examination to be made in favor of or against different groups of students.

Keywords: gender, item bias, placement test, Rasch model

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14472 Gender Equality for the Environment: Positioning India

Authors: Nivedita Roy, Aparajita Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Gender discrimination is already one of the major factors why India is still in the list of the 3rd World Countries, but, when it comes to gender inclusion in the environmental arena, this umbrella concept is quite unheard of by our countrymen. The main objective was to assess gender equality for the environment through calculating Environment and Gender Index on a country level, India, in this case. 22 states out of 29 were considered for calculation. Also, out of the 72 countries chosen by IUCN to calculate EGI, the lower middle income group of countries was chosen to assess the position of India, also a lower middle income group country, among them. Linear Regression is executed through SPSS and simple graphs and tables are prepared through MS-EXCEL for analysis. India portrays good governance, reporting activities well to the UN but in terms of basic livelihood and gender equality, the performance is comparatively weak.

Keywords: environment, gender, livelihood, rights, participation, development, conservation

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14471 Gender and Political Participation in Africa

Authors: Ibrahim Baba

Abstract:

The work examines the nature and causes of differential politics in Africa with particular reference to the sub-Saharan region of the continent. It also among other objectives provides alternative panacea to gender discrimination in African politics and offers solutions on how to promote political inclusion of all citizens in respect of gender differences in Africa. The work is conducted using library base documentation analysis.

Keywords: gender, political, participation, differential politics, sub-Saharan Africa

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14470 Socioeconomic Status and Gender Influence on Linguistic Change: A Case Study on Language Competence and Confidence of Multilingual Minority Language Speakers

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

Abstract:

Male and female speakers use language differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors. It specifically examines how Kui minority language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender and discusses potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes. Moreover, it discusses whether women in Kui society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It discusses whether societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal current Kui speaking preferences and give predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism because the current Kui speakers will socialize and teach the prospective Kui speakers in the near future. It further confirms that Lao is losing importance in Kui speaker’s (female’s) daily life.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, language change, minority language, multilingualism, sociolinguistics, social Networks

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14469 Gender Mainstreaming in Kazakhstan: A University Audit as the First Stage to Inform Policy

Authors: A. S. CohenMiller, Jenifer Lewis, Gwen McEvoy, Kristy Kelly

Abstract:

This international, interdisciplinary study presents the first stage of a gender mainstreaming project within one university as a microcosm of society in Kazakhstan to make concrete policy recommendations and set up the potential for new research to monitor change over time. Local, regional, and UN representatives have noted the critical need and interest in gender related issues in Kazakhstan. Gender mainstreaming has been noted as a strategy to understand and address gender equality and equity such as within the academy in exploring and examining organizational/management issues, university decision-making and leadership, assessing the overall academic climate, discrimination issues, hiring and promotion, and student recruitment and retention. This presentation provides preliminary findings from the university gender audit, highlighting key elements for moving forward in gender mainstreaming. The full study analyzes findings from the full gender audit including interview with key stakeholders, time-use surveys, participant-observations and interviews with female students, staff and faculty, and reviews of formal organizational policies and practices.

Keywords: academia, equity, Eurasia, gender audit, gender mainstreaming, Kazakhstan, policy, time-use survey

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