Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: A. Zamani

23 An Engineering Review of Grouting in Soil Improvement Applications

Authors: Mohamad Kazem Zamani, Meldi Suhatril

Abstract:

Soil improvement is one of the main concerns of each civil engineer who is working at soil mechanics and geotechnics. Grouting has been used as a powerful treatment for soil improving. In this paper, we have tried to review the grouting application base on grouts which is used and also we have tried to give a general view of grout applications and where and when can be used.

Keywords: cementious grouting, chemical grouting, soil improvement, civil engineering

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22 Managing Virtual Teams in a Pandemic

Authors: M. Jafari Toosy, A. Zamani

Abstract:

This article, considering the result of pandemics at the international level and all activities and projects performed virtually and the need for resource management and virtual teams in this period identifies the components of virtual management after searching the available resources. Exploration of virtual management in the pandemic era is explored in 10 international articles. The results of research with this method and according to the tasks and topics related to management knowledge and definition of virtual teams can be divided into topics such as planning, decision making, control, organization, leadership, attention to growth and capability, resources and facilities, Communication, creativity, innovation and security. In order to explain the nature of virtual management, a definition of virtual management was provided.

Keywords: management, virtual, virtual team management, pandemic, team

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21 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi

Abstract:

Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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20 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Material and Investigation of Its Catalytic Reaction

Authors: Mojgan Zendehdel, Safura Molla Mohammad Zamani

Abstract:

In this paper, Fe3O4/NaY zeolite nanocomposite with different molar ratio were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM graphs showed that much of Fe3O4 was successfully coated by the NaY zeolite layer. Also, the results show that the magnetism of the products is stable with added zeolite. The catalytic effect of nanocomposite investigated for esterification reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hence, the effect of the catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were considered and nanocomposite that created from zeolite and 16.6 percent of Fe3O4 showed the highest yield. The catalyst can be easily separated from reaction with the magnet and it can also be used for several times.

Keywords: zeolite, magnetic, nanocompsite, esterification

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19 One Dimensional Magneto-Plasmonic Structure Based On Metallic Nano-Grating

Authors: S. M. Hamidi, M. Zamani

Abstract:

Magneto-plasmonic (MP) structures have turned into essential tools for the amplification of magneto-optical (MO) responses via the combination of MO activity and surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Both the plasmonic and the MO properties of the resulting MP structure become interrelated because the SPR of the metallic medium. This interconnection can be modified the wave vector of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) in MP multilayer [1] or enhanced the MO activity [2- 3] and also modified the sensor responses [4]. There are several types of MP structures which are studied to enhance MO response in miniaturized configuration. In this paper, we propose a new MP structure based on the nano-metal grating and we investigate the MO and optical properties of this new structure. Our new MP structure fabricate by DC magnetron sputtering method and our home made MO experimental setup use for characterization of the structure.

Keywords: Magneto-plasmonic structures, magneto-optical effect, nano-garting

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18 Eu³⁺ PVC Membrane Sensor Based on 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid

Authors: Noshin Mehrabian, Mohammad Reza Abedi, Hassan Ali Zamani

Abstract:

A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane sensor produced by using 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DAPTA) as active material is described. The electrode displays Nernstian behavior over the concentration range 1.0×10⁻⁶ to 1.0×10⁻² M. The detection limit of the electrode is 7.2×10⁻⁷ M. The best performance was obtained with the membrane containing 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 65% nitrobenzene (NB), 2% sodium tetra phenyl borate (Na TPB), 3% DAPTA. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.5–‎‎9.1. ‎The proposed sensor displays a fast response time 'less than 10s'. The electrode shows a good selectivity for Eu (III) ion with respect to most common cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric ‎titration of 25 mL of a 1.0×10⁻⁴ M Eu (III) solution with a 1.0×10⁻² M EDTA solution.

Keywords: potentiometry, PVC membrane, sensor, ion-selective electrode

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17 Cancellation of Transducer Effects from Frequency Response Functions: Experimental Case Study on the Steel Plate

Authors: P. Zamani, A. Taleshi Anbouhi, M. R. Ashory, S. Mohajerzadeh, M. M. Khatibi

Abstract:

Modal analysis is a developing science in the experimental evaluation of dynamic properties of the structures. Mechanical devices such as accelerometers are one of the sources of lack of quality in measuring modal testing parameters. In this paper, eliminating the accelerometer’s mass effect of the frequency response of the structure is studied. So, a strategy is used for eliminating the mass effect by using sensitivity analysis. In this method, the amount of mass change and the place to measure the structure’s response with least error in frequency correction is chosen. Experimental modal testing is carried out on a steel plate and the effect of accelerometer’s mass is omitted using this strategy. Finally, a good agreement is achieved between numerical and experimental results.

Keywords: accelerometer mass, frequency response function, modal analysis, sensitivity analysis

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16 A Novel Integration of Berth Allocation, Quay Cranes and Trucks Scheduling Problems in Container Terminals

Authors: M. Moharami Gargari, S. Javdani Zamani, A. Mohammadnejad, S. Abuali

Abstract:

As maritime container transport is developing fast, the need arises for efficient operations at container terminals. One of the most important determinants of container handling efficiency is the productivity of quay cranes and internal transportation vehicles, which are responsible transporting of containers for unloading and loading operations for container vessels. For this reason, this paper presents an integrated mathematical model formulation for discrete berths with quay cranes and internal transportations vehicles. The problems have received increasing attention in the literature and the present paper deals with the integration of these interrelated problems. A new mixed integer linear formulation is developed for the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP), Quay Crane Assignment and Scheduling Problem (QCASP) and Internal Transportation Scheduling (ITS), which accounts for cranes and trucks positioning conditions.

Keywords: discrete berths, container terminal, truck scheduling, dynamic vessel arrival

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15 The Effect of Pre-Cracks on Structural Strength of the Nextel Fibers: A Multiscale Modeling Approach

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Zamani, Kamran Behdinan

Abstract:

In this study, a multiscale framework is performed to model the strength of Nextel fibers in presence of an atomistic scale pre-crack at finite temperatures. The bridging cell method (BCM) is the multiscale technique applied in this study, which decomposes the system into the atomistic, bridging and continuum domains; solves the whole system in a finite element framework; and incorporates temperature dependent calculations. Since Nextel is known to be structurally stable and retain 70% of its initial strength up to 1100°C; simulations are conducted at both of the room temperatures, 25°C, and fire temperatures, 1200°C. Two cases are modeled for a pre-crack present in either phases of alumina or mullite of the Nextel structure. The materials’ response is studied with respect to deformation behavior and ultimate tensile strength. Results show different crack growth trends for the two cases, and as the temperature increases, the crack growth resistance and material’s strength decrease.

Keywords: Nextel fibers, multiscale modeling, pre-crack, ultimate tensile strength

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14 Combating Islamophobia in Australia: An Analysis of Six Legal and Holistic Strategies to Help Address Discrimination towards Muslims

Authors: F. Zamani Ashni, P. Gerber

Abstract:

In today's religious and political climate, Muslims find themselves the focus of much attention, often in the form of discrimination and vilification. There is a widely held belief that Islam and terrorism are inextricably intertwined. An anti-Muslim narrative has been shaping policy around the world for some time now. This study, which focuses on the experience of Muslims in Australia, provides guidance on legislative and other steps that can be taken by Australia to help address Islamophobia. This study provides a doctrinal analysis of the state, territory, and federal anti-discrimination laws in Australia. Using principles of statutory interpretation along aside an analysis of relevant jurisprudence, this study concludes that Australian anti-discrimination laws are ill-equipped to address modern-day Islamophobia. The study also finds that laws alone are insufficient to combat Islamophobia, and a more holistic approach is required. Six strategies are identified, which can, in combination, help to successfully respond to Islamophobia. In addition to legislative initiatives, combating Islamophobia requires Australia to promote inclusive human rights education, fair media coverage, strong leadership, integration of the Islamic community, and comprehensive documentation of anti-Muslim attacks.

Keywords: Australia, discrimination, Islamophobia, Muslim

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13 Adaptive Architecture: Reformulation of Socio-Ecological Systems

Authors: Pegah Zamani

Abstract:

This multidisciplinary study interrogates the reformulation of socio-ecological systems by bringing different disciplines together and incorporating ecological, social, and technological components to the sustainable design. The study seeks for a holistic sustainable system to understand the multidimensional impact of the evolving innovative technologies on responding to the variable socio-environmental conditions. Through a range of cases, from the vernacular built spaces to the sophisticated optimized systems, the research unfolds how far the environmental elements would impact the performance of a sustainable building, its micro-climatic ecological requirements, and its human inhabitation. As a product of the advancing technologies, an optimized and environmentally responsive building offers new identification, and realization of the built space through reformulating the connection to its internal and external environments (such as solar, thermal, and airflow), as well as its dwellers. The study inquires properties of optimized buildings, by bringing into the equation not only the environmental but also the socio-cultural, morphological, and phenomenal factors. Thus, the research underlines optimized built space as a product and practice which would not be meaningful without addressing and dynamically adjusting to the diversity and complexity of socio-ecological systems.

Keywords: ecology, morphology, socio-ecological systems, sustainability

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12 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device

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11 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

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10 Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and Pinx1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Y. Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, F. Badrzadeh, N. Zarghami, S. Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi, R. Zamani

Abstract:

Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. The results showed that curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be the good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.

Keywords: curcumin, NIPAAm-MAA, PinX1, telomerase, lung cancer cells

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9 Numerical Investigation on Optimizing Fatigue Life in a Lap Joint Structure

Authors: P. Zamani, S. Mohajerzadeh, R. Masoudinejad, K. Farhangdoost

Abstract:

The riveting process is one of the important ways to keep fastening the lap joints in aircraft structures. Failure of aircraft lap joints directly depends on the stress field in the joint. An important application of riveting process is in the construction of aircraft fuselage structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element method is carried out in order to optimize residual stress field in a riveted lap joint and also to estimate its fatigue life. In continue, a number of experiments are designed and analyzed using design of experiments (DOE). Then, Taguchi method is used to select an optimized case between different levels of each factor. Besides that, the factor which affects the most on residual stress field is investigated. Such optimized case provides the maximum residual stress field. Fatigue life of the optimized joint is estimated by Paris-Erdogan law. Stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using both finite element analysis and experimental formula. In addition, the effect of residual stress field, geometry, and secondary bending are considered in SIF calculation. A good agreement is found between results of such methods. Comparison between optimized fatigue life and fatigue life of other joints has shown an improvement in the joint’s life.

Keywords: fatigue life, residual stress, riveting process, stress intensity factor, Taguchi method

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8 Studying the Dynamical Response of Nano-Microelectromechanical Devices for Nanomechanical Testing of Nanostructures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

Characterizing the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures is one of the most challenging tasks in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to lack of a MEMS/NEMS device for generating uniform cyclic loadings at high frequencies. Here, the dynamic response of a recently proposed MEMS/NEMS device under different inputs signals is completely investigated. This MEMS/NEMS device is designed and modeled based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents, known as Ampere’s Force Law (AFL). Since this MEMS/NEMS device only uses two paired wires for actuation part and sensing part, it represents highly sensitive and linear response for nanostructures with any stiffness and shapes (single or arrays of nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets or nanowalls). In addition to studying the maximum gains at different resonance frequencies of the MEMS/NEMS device, its dynamical responses are investigated for different inputs and nanostructure properties to demonstrate the capability, usability, and reliability of the device for wide range of nanostructures. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures as well as their softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and/or propagation of nanocracks in them.

Keywords: MEMS/NEMS devices, paired wire actuators and sensors, dynamical response, fatigue and fracture characterization, Ampere’s force law

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7 Finite Element Modelling of a 3D Woven Composite for Automotive Applications

Authors: Ahmad R. Zamani, Luigi Sanguigno, Angelo R. Maligno

Abstract:

A 3D woven composite, designed for automotive applications, is studied using Abaqus Finite Element (FE) software suite. Python scripts were developed to build FE models of the woven composite in Complete Abaqus Environment (CAE). They can read TexGen or WiseTex files and automatically generate consistent meshes of the fabric and the matrix. A user menu is provided to help define parameters for the FE models, such as type and size of the elements in fabric and matrix as well as the type of matrix-fabric interaction. Node-to-node constraints were imposed to guarantee periodicity of the deformed shapes at the boundaries of the representative volume element of the composite. Tensile loads in three axes and biaxial loads in x-y directions have been applied at different Fibre Volume Fractions (FVFs). A simple damage model was implemented via an Abaqus user material (UMAT) subroutine. Existing tools for homogenization were also used, including voxel mesh generation from TexGen as well as Abaqus Micromechanics plugin. Linear relations between homogenised elastic properties and the FVFs are given. The FE models of composite exhibited balanced behaviour with respect to warp and weft directions in terms of both stiffness and strength.

Keywords: 3D woven composite (3DWC), meso-scale finite element model, homogenisation of elastic material properties, Abaqus Python scripting

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6 A Coupled Extended-Finite-Discrete Element Method: On the Different Contact Schemes between Continua and Discontinua

Authors: Shervin Khazaeli, Shahab Haj-zamani

Abstract:

Recently, advanced geotechnical engineering problems related to soil movement, particle loss, and modeling of local failure (i.e. discontinua) as well as modeling the in-contact structures (i.e. continua) are of the great interest among researchers. The aim of this research is to meet the requirements with respect to the modeling of the above-mentioned two different domains simultaneously. To this end, a coupled numerical method is introduced based on Discrete Element Method (DEM) and eXtended-Finite Element Method (X-FEM). In the coupled procedure, DEM is employed to capture the interactions and relative movements of soil particles as discontinua, while X-FEM is utilized to model in-contact structures as continua, which may consist of different types of discontinuities. For verification purposes, the new coupled approach is utilized to examine benchmark problems including different contacts between/within continua and discontinua. Results are validated by comparison with those of existing analytical and numerical solutions. This study proves that extended-finite-discrete element method can be used to robustly analyze not only contact problems, but also other types of discontinuities in continua such as (i) crack formations and propagations, (ii) voids and bimaterial interfaces, and (iii) combination of previous cases. In essence, the proposed method can be used vastly in advanced soil-structure interaction problems to investigate the micro and macro behaviour of the surrounding soil and the response of the embedded structure that contains discontinuities.

Keywords: contact problems, discrete element method, extended-finite element method, soil-structure interaction

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5 Managing High-Performance Virtual Teams

Authors: Mehdi Rezai, Asghar Zamani

Abstract:

Virtual teams are a reality in today’s fast-paced world. With the possibility of commonly using common resources, an increase of inter-organizational projects, cooperation, outsourcing, and the increase in the number of people who work remotely or flexitime, an extensive and active presence of high-performance teams is a must. Virtual teams are a challenge by themselves. Their members remove the barriers of cultures, time regions and organizations, and they often communicate through electronic devices over considerable distances. Firstly, we examine the management of virtual teams by considering different issues such as cultural and personal diversities, communications and arrangement issues. Then we will examine individuals, processes and the existing tools in a team. The main challenge is managing high-performance virtual teams. First of all, we must examine the concept of performance. Then, we must focus on teams and the best methods of managing them. Constant improvement of performance, together with precisely regulating every individual’s method of working, increases the levels of performance in the course of time. High-performance teams exploit every issue as an opportunity for achieving high performance. And we know that doing projects with high performance is among every organization or team’s objectives. Performance could be measured using many criteria, among which carrying out projects in time, the satisfaction of stakeholders, and not exceeding budgets could be named. Elements such as clear objectives, clearly-defined roles and responsibilities, effective communications, and commitment to collaboration are essential to a team’s effectiveness. Finally, we will examine roles, systems, processes and will carry out a cause-and-effect analysis of different criteria in improving a team’s performance.

Keywords: virtual teams, performance, management, process, improvement, effectiveness

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4 6 DOF Cable-Driven Haptic Robot for Rendering High Axial Force with Low Off-Axis Impedance

Authors: Naghmeh Zamani, Ashkan Pourkand, David Grow

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and mechanical model of a hybrid impedance/admittance haptic device optimized for applications, like bone drilling, spinal awl probe use, and other surgical techniques were high force is required in the tool-axial direction, and low impedance is needed in all other directions. The performance levels required cannot be satisfied by existing, off-the-shelf haptic devices. This design may allow critical improvements in simulator fidelity for surgery training. The device consists primarily of two low-mass (carbon fiber) plates with a rod passing through them. Collectively, the device provides 6 DOF. The rod slides through a bushing in the top plate and it is connected to the bottom plate with a universal joint, constrained to move in only 2 DOF, allowing axial torque display the user’s hand. The two parallel plates are actuated and located by means of four cables pulled by motors. The forward kinematic equations are derived to ensure that the plates orientation remains constant. The corresponding equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson method. The static force/torque equations are also presented. Finally, we present the predicted distribution of location error, cables velocity, cable tension, force and torque for the device. These results and preliminary hardware fabrication indicate that this design may provide a revolutionary approach for haptic display of many surgical procedures by means of an architecture that allows arbitrary workspace scaling. Scaling of the height and width can be scaled arbitrarily.

Keywords: cable direct driven robot, haptics, parallel plates, bone drilling

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3 Virtual Team Management in Companies and Organizations

Authors: Asghar Zamani, Mostafa Falahmorad

Abstract:

Virtualization is established to combine and use the unique capabilities of employees to increase productivity and agility to provide services regardless of location. Adapting to fast and continuous change and getting maximum access to human resources are reasons why virtualization is happening. The distance problem is solved by information. Flexibility is the most important feature of virtualization, and information will be the main focus of virtualized companies. In this research, we used the Covid-19 opportunity window to assess the productivity of the companies that had been going through more virtualized management before the Covid-19 in comparison with those that just started planning on developing infrastructures on virtual management after the crises of pandemic occurred. The research process includes financial (profitability and customer satisfaction) and behavioral (organizational culture and reluctance to change) metrics assessment. In addition to financial and CRM KPIs, a questionnaire is devised to assess how manager and employees’ attitude has been changing towards the migration to virtualization. The sample companies and questions are selected by asking from experts in the IT industry of Iran. In this article, the conclusion is that companies open to virtualization based on accurate strategic planning or willing to pay to train their employees for virtualization before the pandemic are more agile in adapting to change and moving forward in recession. The prospective companies in this research, not only could compensate for the short period loss from the first shock of the Covid-19, but they could also foresee new needs of their customer sooner than other competitors, resulting in the need to employ new staff for executing the emerging demands. Findings were aligned with the literature review. Results can be a wake-up call for business owners especially in developing countries to be more resilient toward modern management styles instead of continuing with traditional ones.

Keywords: virtual management, virtual organization, competitive advantage, KPI, profit

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2 The Effect of Restaurant Residuals on Performance of Japanese Quail

Authors: A. A. Saki, Y. Karimi, H. J. Najafabadi, P. Zamani, Z. Mostafaie

Abstract:

The restaurant residuals reasons such as competition between human and animal consumption of cereals, increasing environmental pollution and the high cost of production of livestock products is important. Therefore, in this restaurant residuals have a high nutritional value (protein and high energy) that it is possible can replace some of the poultry diets are especially Japanese quail. Today, the challenges of processing and consumption of these lesions occurring in modern industry would be confronting. Increasing costs, pressures, and problems associated with waste excretion, the need for re-evaluation and utilization of waste to livestock and poultry feed fortifies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of restaurant residuals on performance of 300 layer Japanese quails. This experiment included 5 treatments, 4 replicates, and 15 quails in each from 10 to 18 weeks age in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments consist of basal diet including corn and soybean meal (without residual restaurants), and treatments 2, 3, 4 and 5, includes a basal diet containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of restaurant residuals, respectively. There were no significant effect of restaurant residuals levels on body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), percentage of egg production (EP), egg mass (EM) between treatments (P > 0/05). However, feed intake (FI) of 5% restaurant residual was significantly higher than 20% treatment (P < 0/05). Egg weight (EW) was also higher by receiving 20% restaurant residuals compared with 10% in this respect (P < 0/05). Yolk weight (YW) of treatments containing 10 and 20% of the residual restaurant were significantly higher than control (P < 0/05). Eggs white weight (EWW) of 20 and 5% restaurants residual treatments were significantly increased compared by 10% (P < 0/05). Furthermore, EW, egg weight to shell surface area and egg surface area in 20% treatment were significantly higher than control and 10% treatment (P < 0/05). The overall results of this study have shown that restaurant residuals for laying quail diets in levels of 10 and 15 percent could be replaced with a part of the quail ration without any adverse effect.

Keywords: by-product, laying quail, performance, restaurant residuals

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1 Isolation, Characterization and Screening of Antimicrobial Producing Actinomycetes from Sediments of Persian Gulf

Authors: H. Alijani, M. Jabari, S. Matroodi, H. Zolqarnein, A. Sharafi, I. Zamani

Abstract:

Actinomycetes, Gram-positive bacteria, are interesting as a main producer of secondary metabolites and are important industrially and pharmaceutically. The marine environment is a potential source for new actinomycetes, which can provide novel bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify novel actinomycetes from Persian Gulf sediments and screen these isolates for the production of secondary metabolites, especially antibiotics, Using phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene sequence), morphological and biochemical analyses. 15 different actinomycete strains from Persian Gulf sediments at a depth of 5-10 m were identified. DNA extraction was done using Cinnapure DNA Kit. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA gene was performed using F27 and R1492 primers. Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the MEGA 6 software. Most of the isolated strains belong to the genus namely Streptomyces (14), followed by Nocardiopsis (1). Antibacterial assay of the isolates supernatant was performed using a standard disc diffusion assay with replication (n=3). The results of disk diffusion assay showed that most active strain against Proteus volgaris and Bacillus cereus was AMJ1 (16.46±0.2mm and 13.78±0.2mm, respectively), against Salmonella sp. AMJ7 was the most effective strain (10.13±0.2mm), and AMJ1 and AHA5 showed more inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli (8.04±0.02 mm and 8.2±0.03 ). The AMJ6 strain showed best antibacterial activity against Klebsiella sp. (8.03±0.02mm). Antifungal activity of AMJ2 showed that it was most active strain against complex (16.05±0.02mm) and against Aspergillus flavus strain AMJ1 was most active strain (16.4±0.2mm) and highest antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gyp serum and Candida albicans, were shown by AHA1 (21.03±0.02mm), AHA3 and AHA7 (18±0.03mm), AMJ6 (21.03±0.2mm) respectively. Our results revealed that the marine actinomycetes of Persian Gulf sediments were potent source of novel antibiotics and bioactive compounds and indicated that the antimicrobial metabolites were extracellular. Most of the secondary metabolites and antibiotics are extracellular in nature and extracellular products of actinomycetes show potent antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, marine actinomycetes, Persian Gulf

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