Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1999

Search results for: covariance matrix

1999 Parallel Computation of the Covariance-Matrix

Authors: Claude Tadonki

Abstract:

We address the issues related to the computation of the covariance matrix. This matrix is likely to be ill conditioned following its canonical expression, thus consequently raises serious numerical issues. The underlying linear system, which therefore should be solved by means of iterative approaches, becomes computationally challenging. A huge number of iterations is expected in order to reach an acceptable level of convergence, necessary to meet the required accuracy of the computation. In addition, this linear system needs to be solved at each iteration following the general form of the covariance matrix. Putting all together, its comes that we need to compute as fast as possible the associated matrix-vector product. This is our purpose in the work, where we consider and discuss skillful formulations of the problem, then propose a parallel implementation of the matrix-vector product involved. Numerical and performance oriented discussions are provided based on experimental evaluations.

Keywords: covariance-matrix, multicore, numerical computing, parallel computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1998 BIASS in the Estimation of Covariance Matrices and Optimality Criteria

Authors: Juan M. Rodriguez-Diaz

Abstract:

The precision of parameter estimators in the Gaussian linear model is traditionally accounted by the variance-covariance matrix of the asymptotic distribution. However, this measure can underestimate the true variance, specially for small samples. Traditionally, optimal design theory pays attention to this variance through its relationship with the model's information matrix. For this reason it seems convenient, at least in some cases, adapt the optimality criteria in order to get the best designs for the actual variance structure, otherwise the loss in efficiency of the designs obtained with the traditional approach may be very important.

Keywords: correlated observations, information matrix, optimality criteria, variance-covariance matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1997 Adaptive Target Detection of High-Range-Resolution Radar in Non-Gaussian Clutter

Authors: Lina Pan

Abstract:

In non-Gaussian clutter of a spherically invariant random vector, in the cases that a certain estimated covariance matrix could become singular, the adaptive target detection of high-range-resolution radar is addressed. Firstly, the restricted maximum likelihood (RML) estimates of unknown covariance matrix and scatterer amplitudes are derived for non-Gaussian clutter. And then the RML estimate of texture is obtained. Finally, a novel detector is devised. It is showed that, without secondary data, the proposed detector outperforms the existing Kelly binary integrator.

Keywords: non-Gaussian clutter, covariance matrix estimation, target detection, maximum likelihood

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
1996 Performance Comparison of Wideband Covariance Matrix Sparse Representation (W-CMSR) with Other Wideband DOA Estimation Methods

Authors: Sandeep Santosh, O. P. Sahu

Abstract:

In this paper, performance comparison of wideband covariance matrix sparse representation (W-CMSR) method with other existing wideband Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation methods has been made.W-CMSR relies less on a priori information of the incident signal number than the ordinary subspace based methods.Consider the perturbation free covariance matrix of the wideband array output. The diagonal covariance elements are contaminated by unknown noise variance. The covariance matrix of array output is conjugate symmetric i.e its upper right triangular elements can be represented by lower left triangular ones.As the main diagonal elements are contaminated by unknown noise variance,slide over them and align the lower left triangular elements column by column to obtain a measurement vector.Simulation results for W-CMSR are compared with simulation results of other wideband DOA estimation methods like Coherent signal subspace method (CSSM), Capon, l1-SVD, and JLZA-DOA. W-CMSR separate two signals very clearly and CSSM, Capon, L1-SVD and JLZA-DOA fail to separate two signals clearly and an amount of pseudo peaks exist in the spectrum of L1-SVD.

Keywords: W-CMSR, wideband direction of arrival (DOA), covariance matrix, electrical and computer engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
1995 Principle Components Updates via Matrix Perturbations

Authors: Aiman Elragig, Hanan Dreiwi, Dung Ly, Idriss Elmabrook

Abstract:

This paper highlights a new approach to look at online principle components analysis (OPCA). Given a data matrix X R,^m x n we characterise the online updates of its covariance as a matrix perturbation problem. Up to the principle components, it turns out that online updates of the batch PCA can be captured by symmetric matrix perturbation of the batch covariance matrix. We have shown that as n→ n0 >> 1, the batch covariance and its update become almost similar. Finally, utilize our new setup of online updates to find a bound on the angle distance of the principle components of X and its update.

Keywords: online data updates, covariance matrix, online principle component analysis, matrix perturbation

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
1994 Survey of Methods for Solutions of Spatial Covariance Structures and Their Limitations

Authors: Joseph Thomas Eghwerido, Julian I. Mbegbu

Abstract:

In modelling environment processes, we apply multidisciplinary knowledge to explain, explore and predict the Earth's response to natural human-induced environmental changes. Thus, the analysis of spatial-time ecological and environmental studies, the spatial parameters of interest are always heterogeneous. This often negates the assumption of stationarity. Hence, the dispersion of the transportation of atmospheric pollutants, landscape or topographic effect, weather patterns depends on a good estimate of spatial covariance. The generalized linear mixed model, although linear in the expected value parameters, its likelihood varies nonlinearly as a function of the covariance parameters. As a consequence, computing estimates for a linear mixed model requires the iterative solution of a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. In other to predict the variables at unsampled locations, we need to know the estimate of the present sampled variables. The geostatistical methods for solving this spatial problem assume covariance stationarity (locally defined covariance) and uniform in space; which is not apparently valid because spatial processes often exhibit nonstationary covariance. Hence, they have globally defined covariance. We shall consider different existing methods of solutions of spatial covariance of a space-time processes at unsampled locations. This stationary covariance changes with locations for multiple time set with some asymptotic properties.

Keywords: parametric, nonstationary, Kernel, Kriging

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
1993 An Optimized Method for 3D Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside Human Arteries

Authors: Evangelos G. Karvelas, Christos Liosis, Andreas Theodorakakos, Theodoros E. Karakasidis

Abstract:

In the present work, a numerical method for the estimation of the appropriate gradient magnetic fields for optimum driving of the particles into the desired area inside the human body is presented. The proposed method combines Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) evolution strategy for the magnetic navigation of nanoparticles. It is based on an iteration procedure that intents to eliminate the deviation of the nanoparticles from a desired path. Hence, the gradient magnetic field is constantly adjusted in a suitable way so that the particles’ follow as close as possible to a desired trajectory. Using the proposed method, it is obvious that the diameter of particles is crucial parameter for an efficient navigation. In addition, increase of particles' diameter decreases their deviation from the desired path. Moreover, the navigation method can navigate nanoparticles into the desired areas with efficiency approximately 99%.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy, discrete element method, DEM, magnetic navigation, spherical particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1992 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati

Abstract:

In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1991 Design of Enhanced Adaptive Filter for Integrated Navigation System of FOG-SINS and Star Tracker

Authors: Nassim Bessaad, Qilian Bao, Zhao Jiangkang

Abstract:

The fiber optics gyroscope in the strap-down inertial navigation system (FOG-SINS) suffers from precision degradation due to the influence of random errors. In this work, an enhanced Allan variance (AV) stochastic modeling method combined with discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for signal denoising is implemented to estimate the random process in the FOG signal. Furthermore, we devise a measurement-based iterative adaptive Sage-Husa nonlinear filter with augmented states to integrate a star tracker sensor with SINS. The proposed filter adapts the measurement noise covariance matrix based on the available data. Moreover, the enhanced stochastic modeling scheme is invested in tuning the process noise covariance matrix and the augmented state Gauss-Markov process parameters. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed filter is investigated by employing the collected data in laboratory conditions. The result shows the filter's improved accuracy in comparison with the conventional Kalman filter (CKF).

Keywords: inertial navigation, adaptive filtering, star tracker, FOG

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1990 The Influence of Covariance Hankel Matrix Dimension on Algorithms for VARMA Models

Authors: Celina Pestano-Gabino, Concepcion Gonzalez-Concepcion, M. Candelaria Gil-Fariña

Abstract:

Some estimation methods for VARMA models, and Multivariate Time Series Models in general, rely on the use of a Hankel matrix. It is known that if the data sample is populous enough and the dimension of the Hankel matrix is unnecessarily large, this may result in an unnecessary number of computations as well as in numerical problems. In this sense, the aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide some theoretical results for these matrices which translate into a lower dimension for the matrices normally used in the algorithms. This contribution thus serves to improve those methods from a numerical and, presumably, statistical point of view. Second, we have chosen an estimation algorithm to illustrate in practice our improvements. The results we obtained in a simulation of VARMA models show that an increase in the size of the Hankel matrix beyond the theoretical bound proposed as valid does not necessarily lead to improved practical results. Therefore, for future research, we propose conducting similar studies using any of the linear system estimation methods that depend on Hankel matrices.

Keywords: covariances Hankel matrices, Kronecker indices, system identification, VARMA models

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1989 Conditions on Expressing a Matrix as a Sum of α-Involutions

Authors: Ric Joseph R. Murillo, Edna N. Gueco, Dennis I. Merino

Abstract:

Let F be C or R, where C and R are the set of complex numbers and real numbers, respectively, and n be a natural number. An n-by-n matrix A over the field F is called an α-involutory matrix or an α-involution if there exists an α in the field such that the square of the matrix is equal to αI, where I is the n-by-n identity matrix. If α is a complex number or a nonnegative real number, then an n-by-n matrix A over the field F can be written as a sum of n-by-n α-involutory matrices over the field F if and only if the trace of that matrix is an integral multiple of the square root of α. Meanwhile, if α is a negative real number, then a 2n-by-2n matrix A over R can be written as a sum of 2n-by-2n α-involutory matrices over R if and only the trace of the matrix is zero. Some other properties of α-involutory matrices are also determined

Keywords: α-involutory Matrices, sum of α-involutory Matrices, Trace, Matrix Theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
1988 Theoretical Framework for Value Creation in Project Oriented Companies

Authors: Mariusz Hofman

Abstract:

The paper ‘Theoretical framework for value creation in Project-Oriented Companies’ is designed to determine, how organisations create value and whether this allows them to achieve market success. An assumption has been made that there are two routes to achieving this value. The first one is to create intangible assets (i.e. the resources of human, structural and relational capital), while the other one is to create added value (understood as the surplus of revenue over costs). It has also been assumed that the combination of the achieved added value and unique intangible assets translates to the success of a project-oriented company. The purpose of the paper is to present hypothetical and deductive model which describing the modus operandi of such companies and approach to model operationalisation. All the latent variables included in the model are theoretical constructs with observational indicators (measures). The existence of a latent variable (construct) and also submodels will be confirmed based on a covariance matrix which in turn is based on empirical data, being a set of observational indicators (measures). This will be achieved with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Due to this statistical procedure, it will be verified whether the matrix arising from the adopted theoretical model differs statistically from the empirical matrix of covariance arising from the system of equations. The fit of the model with the empirical data will be evaluated using χ2, RMSEA and CFI (Comparative Fit Index). How well the theoretical model fits the empirical data is assessed through a number of indicators. If the theoretical conjectures are confirmed, an interesting development path can be defined for project-oriented companies. This will let such organisations perform efficiently in the face of the growing competition and pressure on innovation.

Keywords: value creation, project-oriented company, structural equation modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1987 Efficient Principal Components Estimation of Large Factor Models

Authors: Rachida Ouysse

Abstract:

This paper proposes a constrained principal components (CnPC) estimator for efficient estimation of large-dimensional factor models when errors are cross sectionally correlated and the number of cross-sections (N) may be larger than the number of observations (T). Although principal components (PC) method is consistent for any path of the panel dimensions, it is inefficient as the errors are treated to be homoskedastic and uncorrelated. The new CnPC exploits the assumption of bounded cross-sectional dependence, which defines Chamberlain and Rothschild’s (1983) approximate factor structure, as an explicit constraint and solves a constrained PC problem. The CnPC method is computationally equivalent to the PC method applied to a regularized form of the data covariance matrix. Unlike maximum likelihood type methods, the CnPC method does not require inverting a large covariance matrix and thus is valid for panels with N ≥ T. The paper derives a convergence rate and an asymptotic normality result for the CnPC estimators of the common factors. We provide feasible estimators and show in a simulation study that they are more accurate than the PC estimator, especially for panels with N larger than T, and the generalized PC type estimators, especially for panels with N almost as large as T.

Keywords: high dimensionality, unknown factors, principal components, cross-sectional correlation, shrinkage regression, regularization, pseudo-out-of-sample forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
1986 An Improved Adaptive Dot-Shape Beamforming Algorithm Research on Frequency Diverse Array

Authors: Yanping Liao, Zenan Wu, Ruigang Zhao

Abstract:

Frequency diverse array (FDA) beamforming is a technology developed in recent years, and its antenna pattern has a unique angle-distance-dependent characteristic. However, the beam is always required to have strong concentration, high resolution and low sidelobe level to form the point-to-point interference in the concentrated set. In order to eliminate the angle-distance coupling of the traditional FDA and to make the beam energy more concentrated, this paper adopts a multi-carrier FDA structure based on proposed power exponential frequency offset to improve the array structure and frequency offset of the traditional FDA. The simulation results show that the beam pattern of the array can form a dot-shape beam with more concentrated energy, and its resolution and sidelobe level performance are improved. However, the covariance matrix of the signal in the traditional adaptive beamforming algorithm is estimated by the finite-time snapshot data. When the number of snapshots is limited, the algorithm has an underestimation problem, which leads to the estimation error of the covariance matrix to cause beam distortion, so that the output pattern cannot form a dot-shape beam. And it also has main lobe deviation and high sidelobe level problems in the case of limited snapshot. Aiming at these problems, an adaptive beamforming technique based on exponential correction for multi-carrier FDA is proposed to improve beamforming robustness. The steps are as follows: first, the beamforming of the multi-carrier FDA is formed under linear constrained minimum variance (LCMV) criteria. Then the eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix is ​​performed to obtain the diagonal matrix composed of the interference subspace, the noise subspace and the corresponding eigenvalues. Finally, the correction index is introduced to exponentially correct the small eigenvalues ​​of the noise subspace, improve the divergence of small eigenvalues ​​in the noise subspace, and improve the performance of beamforming. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can make the multi-carrier FDA form a dot-shape beam at limited snapshots, reduce the sidelobe level, improve the robustness of beamforming, and have better performance.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, correction index, limited snapshot, multi-carrier frequency diverse array, robust

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1985 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: M. Hadji, N. Chiker, Y. Hadji, A. Haddad

Abstract:

In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: MAX phase, microstructures, composites, hardness, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1984 Improving Temporal Correlations in Empirical Orthogonal Function Expansions for Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function Algorithm

Authors: Ping Bo, Meng Yunshan

Abstract:

Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) is a key parameter for many operational and scientific applications. However, the disadvantage of SST data is a high percentage of missing data which is mainly caused by cloud coverage. Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF) algorithm is an EOF-based technique for reconstructing the missing data and has been widely used in oceanographic field. The reconstruction of SST images within a long time series using DINEOF can cause large discontinuities and one solution for this problem is to filter the temporal covariance matrix to reduce the spurious variability. Based on the previous researches, an algorithm is presented in this paper to improve the temporal correlations in EOF expansion. Similar with the previous researches, a filter, such as Laplacian filter, is implemented on the temporal covariance matrix, but the temporal relationship between two consecutive images which is used in the filter is considered in the presented algorithm, for example, two images in the same season are more likely correlated than those in the different seasons, hence the latter one is less weighted in the filter. The presented approach is tested for the monthly nighttime 4-km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder SST for the long-term period spanning from 1989 to 2006. The results obtained from the presented algorithm are compared to those from the original DINEOF algorithm without filtering and from the DINEOF algorithm with filtering but without taking temporal relationship into account.

Keywords: data interpolating empirical orthogonal function, image reconstruction, sea surface temperature, temporal filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1983 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Renata Masarova, Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
1982 Protein Remote Homology Detection by Using Profile-Based Matrix Transformation Approaches

Authors: Bin Liu

Abstract:

As one of the most important tasks in protein sequence analysis, protein remote homology detection has been studied for decades. Currently, the profile-based methods show state-of-the-art performance. Position-Specific Frequency Matrix (PSFM) is widely used profile. However, there exists noise information in the profiles introduced by the amino acids with low frequencies. In this study, we propose a method to remove the noise information in the PSFM by removing the amino acids with low frequencies called Top frequency profile (TFP). Three new matrix transformation methods, including Autocross covariance (ACC) transformation, Tri-gram, and K-separated bigram (KSB), are performed on these profiles to convert them into fixed length feature vectors. Combined with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), the predictors are constructed. Evaluated on two benchmark datasets, and experimental results show that these proposed methods outperform other state-of-the-art predictors.

Keywords: protein remote homology detection, protein fold recognition, top frequency profile, support vector machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
1981 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche

Abstract:

In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
1980 On Direct Matrix Factored Inversion via Broyden's Updates

Authors: Adel Mohsen

Abstract:

A direct method based on the good Broyden's updates for evaluating the inverse of a nonsingular square matrix of full rank and solving related system of linear algebraic equations is studied. For a matrix A of order n whose LU-decomposition is A = LU, the multiplication count is O (n3). This includes the evaluation of the LU-decompositions of the inverse, the lower triangular decomposition of A as well as a “reduced matrix inverse”. If an explicit value of the inverse is not needed the order reduces to O (n3/2) to compute to compute inv(U) and the reduced inverse. For a symmetric matrix only O (n3/3) operations are required to compute inv(L) and the reduced inverse. An example is presented to demonstrate the capability of using the reduced matrix inverse in treating ill-conditioned systems. Besides the simplicity of Broyden's update, the method provides a mean to exploit the possible sparsity in the matrix and to derive a suitable preconditioner.

Keywords: Broyden's updates, matrix inverse, inverse factorization, solution of linear algebraic equations, ill-conditioned matrices, preconditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1979 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1978 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1977 Texture Analysis of Grayscale Co-Occurrence Matrix on Mammographic Indexed Image

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha

Abstract:

The mammographic image of breast cancer compressed and synthesized to get co-efficient values which will be converted (5x5) matrix to get ROI image where we get the highest value of effected region and with the same ideology the technique has been extended to differentiate between Calcification and normal cell image using mean value derived from 5x5 matrix values

Keywords: texture analysis, mammographic image, partitioned gray scale co-oocurance matrix, co-efficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
1976 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song

Abstract:

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural Robustness, Structural Reliability, Redundancy Component, Redundancy Matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1975 Multiple Images Stitching Based on Gradually Changing Matrix

Authors: Shangdong Zhu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hang Hu, Yazhou Zhang

Abstract:

Image stitching is a very important branch in the field of computer vision, especially for panoramic map. In order to eliminate shape distortion, a novel stitching method is proposed based on gradually changing matrix when images are horizontal. For images captured horizontally, this paper assumes that there is only translational operation in image stitching. By analyzing each parameter of the homography matrix, the global homography matrix is gradually transferred to translation matrix so as to eliminate the effects of scaling, rotation, etc. in the image transformation. This paper adopts matrix approximation to get the minimum value of the energy function so that the shape distortion at those regions corresponding to the homography can be minimized. The proposed method can avoid multiple horizontal images stitching failure caused by accumulated shape distortion. At the same time, it can be combined with As-Projective-As-Possible algorithm to ensure precise alignment of overlapping area.

Keywords: image stitching, gradually changing matrix, horizontal direction, matrix approximation, homography matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
1974 Matrix Method Posting

Authors: Varong Pongsai

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is introducing a new method of accounting posting which is called Matrix Method Posting. This method is based on the Matrix operation of pure Mathematics. Although, accounting field is classified as one of the social-science knowledge, many of accounting operations are placed by Mathematics sign and operation. Through the operation applying, it seems to be that the operations of Mathematics should be applied to accounting possibly. So, this paper tries to over-lap Mathematics logic to accounting logic smoothly. According to the context of discovery, deductive approach is employed to prove a simultaneously logical concept of both Mathematics and Accounting. The result proves that the Matrix can be placed to operate accounting perfectly, because Matrix and accounting logic also have a similarity concept which is balancing 2 sides during operations. Moreover, the Matrix posting also has a lot of benefit. It can help financial analyst calculating financial ratios comfortably. Furthermore, the matrix determinant which is a signature operation itself also helps auditors checking out the correction of clients’ recording. If the determinant is not equaled to 0, it will point out that the recording process of clients getting into the problem. Finally, the Matrix should be easily determining a concept of merger and consolidation far beyond the present day concept.

Keywords: matrix method posting, deductive approach, determinant, accounting application

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
1973 Effects of the Mass and Damping Matrix Model in the Non-Linear Seismic Response of Steel Frames

Authors: Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Mario D. Llanes-Tizoc, Eden Bojorquez, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Juan Bojorquez, Jose R. Gaxiola-Camacho, Achintya Haldar

Abstract:

Seismic analysis of steel buildings is usually based on the use of the concentrated mass (ML) matrix and the Rayleigh damping matrix (C). Similarly, the initial stiffness matrix (KO) and the first two modes associated with lateral vibrations are commonly used to develop matrix C. The evaluation of the accuracy of these practices for the particular case of steel buildings with moment-resisting steel frames constitutes the main objective of this research. For this, the non-linear seismic responses of three models of steel frames, representing low-, medium- and high-rise steel buildings, are considered. Results indicate that if the ML matrix is used, shears and bending moments in columns are underestimated by up to 30% and 65%, respectively when compared to the corresponding results obtained with the consistent mass matrix (MC). It is also shown that if KO is used in C instead of the tangent stiffness matrix (Kt), axial loads in columns are underestimated by up to 80%. It is concluded that the consistent mass matrix should be used in the structural modelling of moment-resisting steel frames and that the tangent stiffness matrix should be used to develop the Rayleigh damping matrix.

Keywords: moment-resisting steel frames, consistent and concentrated mass matrices, non-linear seismic response, Rayleigh damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1972 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium

Authors: Radha H. R., Krupakara P. V.

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.

Keywords: aluminium 6061, corrosion, quartz, vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
1971 Membership Surface and Arithmetic Operations of Imprecise Matrix

Authors: Dhruba Das

Abstract:

In this paper, a method has been developed to construct the membership surfaces of row and column vectors and arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix. A matrix with imprecise elements would be called an imprecise matrix. The membership surface of imprecise vector has been already shown based on Randomness-Impreciseness Consistency Principle. The Randomness- Impreciseness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of impreciseness using two different laws of randomness. In this paper, the author has shown row and column membership surfaces and arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix and demonstrated with the help of numerical example.

Keywords: imprecise number, imprecise vector, membership surface, imprecise matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
1970 Ensemble Sampler For Infinite-Dimensional Inverse Problems

Authors: Jeremie Coullon, Robert J. Webber

Abstract:

We introduce a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sam-pler for infinite-dimensional inverse problems. Our sam-pler is based on the affine invariant ensemble sampler, which uses interacting walkers to adapt to the covariance structure of the target distribution. We extend this ensem-ble sampler for the first time to infinite-dimensional func-tion spaces, yielding a highly efficient gradient-free MCMC algorithm. Because our ensemble sampler does not require gradients or posterior covariance estimates, it is simple to implement and broadly applicable. In many Bayes-ian inverse problems, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) meth-ods are needed to approximate distributions on infinite-dimensional function spaces, for example, in groundwater flow, medical imaging, and traffic flow. Yet designing efficient MCMC methods for function spaces has proved challenging. Recent gradi-ent-based MCMC methods preconditioned MCMC methods, and SMC methods have improved the computational efficiency of functional random walk. However, these samplers require gradi-ents or posterior covariance estimates that may be challenging to obtain. Calculating gradients is difficult or impossible in many high-dimensional inverse problems involving a numerical integra-tor with a black-box code base. Additionally, accurately estimating posterior covariances can require a lengthy pilot run or adaptation period. These concerns raise the question: is there a functional sampler that outperforms functional random walk without requir-ing gradients or posterior covariance estimates? To address this question, we consider a gradient-free sampler that avoids explicit covariance estimation yet adapts naturally to the covariance struc-ture of the sampled distribution. This sampler works by consider-ing an ensemble of walkers and interpolating and extrapolating between walkers to make a proposal. This is called the affine in-variant ensemble sampler (AIES), which is easy to tune, easy to parallelize, and efficient at sampling spaces of moderate dimen-sionality (less than 20). The main contribution of this work is to propose a functional ensemble sampler (FES) that combines func-tional random walk and AIES. To apply this sampler, we first cal-culate the Karhunen–Loeve (KL) expansion for the Bayesian prior distribution, assumed to be Gaussian and trace-class. Then, we use AIES to sample the posterior distribution on the low-wavenumber KL components and use the functional random walk to sample the posterior distribution on the high-wavenumber KL components. Alternating between AIES and functional random walk updates, we obtain our functional ensemble sampler that is efficient and easy to use without requiring detailed knowledge of the target dis-tribution. In past work, several authors have proposed splitting the Bayesian posterior into low-wavenumber and high-wavenumber components and then applying enhanced sampling to the low-wavenumber components. Yet compared to these other samplers, FES is unique in its simplicity and broad applicability. FES does not require any derivatives, and the need for derivative-free sam-plers has previously been emphasized. FES also eliminates the requirement for posterior covariance estimates. Lastly, FES is more efficient than other gradient-free samplers in our tests. In two nu-merical examples, we apply FES to challenging inverse problems that involve estimating a functional parameter and one or more scalar parameters. We compare the performance of functional random walk, FES, and an alternative derivative-free sampler that explicitly estimates the posterior covariance matrix. We conclude that FES is the fastest available gradient-free sampler for these challenging and multimodal test problems.

Keywords: Bayesian inverse problems, Markov chain Monte Carlo, infinite-dimensional inverse problems, dimensionality reduction

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