Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: commutative

23 On the Girth of the Regular Digraph of Ideals of a ‎Commutative ‎Ring

Authors: Masoud Karimi


‎Let R be a commutative ring‎. ‎The regular digraph of ideals of R, which is denoted by‎ Γ(R)‎, ‎is a digraph whose vertex-set is the set of all ‎non-‎trivial ideals of R and‎, ‎for every‎ two distinct vertices I and J‎, ‎there is an arc from I to J‎, ‎whenever I contains‎ a non-zero-divisor on J. In this article, ‎we ‎show ‎that an indecomposable ‎Noetherian ring ‎‎‎R ‎is ‎Artinian ‎local ‎if ‎and ‎only ‎if Z(I)=Z(R) ‎for ‎every ‎non-nilpotent ‎ideal ‎‎‎I‎. ‎Then ‎we ‎conclude ‎that ‎‎the ‎girth ‎of‎ Γ(R)‎ ‎is ‎not ‎equal ‎to ‎four.

Keywords: commutative ring‎, ‎girth‎, regular digraph‎, zero-divisor

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22 Structure Function and Violation of Scale Invariance in NCSM: Theory and Numerical Analysis

Authors: M. R. Bekli, N. Mebarki, I. Chadou


In this study, we focus on the structure functions and violation of scale invariance in the context of non-commutative standard model (NCSM). We find that this violation appears in the first order of perturbation theory and a non-commutative version of the DGLAP evolution equation is deduced. Numerical analysis and comparison with experimental data imposes a new bound on the non-commutative parameter.

Keywords: NCSM, structure function, DGLAP equation, standard model

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21 Non Commutative Lᵖ Spaces as Hilbert Modules

Authors: Salvatore Triolo


We discuss the possibility of extending the well-known Gelfand-Naimark-Segal representation to modules over a C*algebra. We focus our attention on the case of Hilbert modules. We consider, in particular, the problem of the existence of a faithful representation. Non-commutative Lᵖ-spaces are shown to constitute examples of a class of CQ*-algebras. Finally, we have shown that any semisimple proper CQ*-algebra (X, A#), with A# a W*-algebra can be represented as a CQ*-algebra of measurable operators in Segal’s sense.

Keywords: Gelfand-Naimark-Segal representation, CQ*-algebras, faithful representation, non-commutative Lᵖ-spaces, operator in Hilbert spaces

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20 Noncommutative Differential Structure on Finite Groups

Authors: Ibtisam Masmali, Edwin Beggs


In this paper, we take example of differential calculi, on the finite group A4. Then, we apply methods of non-commutative of non-commutative differential geometry to this example, and see how similar the results are to those of classical differential geometry.

Keywords: differential calculi, finite group A4, Christoffel symbols, covariant derivative, torsion compatible

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19 Decomposition of Third-Order Discrete-Time Linear Time-Varying Systems into Its Second- and First-Order Pairs

Authors: Mohamed Hassan Abdullahi


Decomposition is used as a synthesis tool in several physical systems. It can also be used for tearing and restructuring, which is large-scale system analysis. On the other hand, the commutativity of series-connected systems has fascinated the interest of researchers, and its advantages have been emphasized in the literature. The presentation looks into the necessary conditions for decomposing any third-order discrete-time linear time-varying system into a commutative pair of first- and second-order systems. Additional requirements are derived in the case of nonzero initial conditions. MATLAB simulations are used to verify the findings. The work is unique and is being published for the first time. It is critical from the standpoints of synthesis and/or design. Because many design techniques in engineering systems rely on tearing and reconstruction, this is the process of putting together simple components to create a finished product. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that regarding sensitivity to initial conditions, some combinations may be better than others. The results of this work can be extended for the decomposition of fourth-order discrete-time linear time-varying systems into lower-order commutative pairs, as two second-order commutative subsystems or one first-order and one third-order commutative subsystems.

Keywords: commutativity, decomposition, discrete time-varying systems, systems

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18 Application of Soft Sets to Non-Associative Rings

Authors: Inayatur Rehman


Molodtstove developed the theory of soft sets which can be seen as an effective tool to deal with uncertainties. Since the introduction of this concept, the application of soft sets has been restricted to associative algebraic structures (groups, semi groups, associative rings, semi-rings etc.). Acceptably, though the study of soft sets, where the base set of parameters is a commutative structure, has attracted the attention of many researchers for more than one decade. But on the other hand there are many sets which are naturally endowed by two compatible binary operations forming a non-associative ring and we may dig out examples which investigate a non-associative structure in the context of soft sets. Thus it seems natural to apply the concept of soft sets to non-commutative and non-associative structures. In present paper, we make a new approach to apply Molodtsoves notion of soft sets to LA-ring (a class of non-associative ring). We extend the study of soft commutative rings from theoretical aspect.

Keywords: soft sets, LA-rings, soft LA-rings, soft ideals, soft prime ideals, idealistic soft LA-rings, LA-ring homomorphism

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17 About the Number of Fundamental Physical Interactions

Authors: Andrey Angorsky


In the article an issue about the possible number of fundamental physical interactions is studied. The theory of similarity on the dimensionless quantity as the damping ratio serves as the instrument of analysis. The structure with the features of Higgs field comes out from non-commutative expression for this ratio. The experimentally checked up supposition about the nature of dark energy is spoken out.

Keywords: damping ratio, dark energy, dimensionless quantity, fundamental physical interactions, Higgs field, non-commutative expression

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16 Extension and Closure of a Field for Engineering Purpose

Authors: Shouji Yujiro, Memei Dukovic, Mist Yakubu


Fields are important objects of study in algebra since they provide a useful generalization of many number systems, such as the rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. In particular, the usual rules of associativity, commutativity and distributivity hold. Fields also appear in many other areas of mathematics; see the examples below. When abstract algebra was first being developed, the definition of a field usually did not include commutativity of multiplication, and what we today call a field would have been called either a commutative field or a rational domain. In contemporary usage, a field is always commutative. A structure which satisfies all the properties of a field except possibly for commutativity, is today called a division ring ordivision algebra or sometimes a skew field. Also non-commutative field is still widely used. In French, fields are called corps (literally, body), generally regardless of their commutativity. When necessary, a (commutative) field is called corps commutative and a skew field-corps gauche. The German word for body is Körper and this word is used to denote fields; hence the use of the blackboard bold to denote a field. The concept of fields was first (implicitly) used to prove that there is no general formula expressing in terms of radicals the roots of a polynomial with rational coefficients of degree 5 or higher. An extension of a field k is just a field K containing k as a subfield. One distinguishes between extensions having various qualities. For example, an extension K of a field k is called algebraic, if every element of K is a root of some polynomial with coefficients in k. Otherwise, the extension is called transcendental. The aim of Galois Theory is the study of algebraic extensions of a field. Given a field k, various kinds of closures of k may be introduced. For example, the algebraic closure, the separable closure, the cyclic closure et cetera. The idea is always the same: If P is a property of fields, then a P-closure of k is a field K containing k, having property, and which is minimal in the sense that no proper subfield of K that contains k has property P. For example if we take P (K) to be the property ‘every non-constant polynomial f in K[t] has a root in K’, then a P-closure of k is just an algebraic closure of k. In general, if P-closures exist for some property P and field k, they are all isomorphic. However, there is in general no preferable isomorphism between two closures.

Keywords: field theory, mechanic maths, supertech, rolltech

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15 Derivation of BCK\BCI-Algebras

Authors: Tumadhir Fahim M Alsulami


The concept of this paper builds on connecting between two important notions, fuzzy ideals of BCK-algebras and derivation of BCI-algebras. The result we got is a new concept called derivation fuzzy ideals of BCI-algebras. Followed by various results and important theorems on different types of ideals. In chapter 1: We presented the basic and fundamental concepts of BCK\ BCI- algebras as follows: BCK/BCI-algebras, BCK sub-algebras, bounded BCK-algebras, positive implicative BCK-algebras, commutative BCK-algebras, implicative BCK- algebras. Moreover, we discussed ideals of BCK-algebras, positive implicative ideals, implicative ideals and commutative ideals. In the last section of chapter 1 we proposed the notion of derivation of BCI-algebras, regular derivation of BCI-algebras and basic definitions and properties. In chapter 2: It includes 3 sections as follows: Section 1 contains elementary concepts of fuzzy sets and fuzzy set operations. Section 2 shows O. G. Xi idea, where he applies fuzzy sets concept to BCK-algebras and we studied fuzzy sub-algebras as well. Section 3 contains fuzzy ideals of BCK-algebras basic definitions, closed fuzzy ideals, fuzzy commutative ideals, fuzzy positive implicative ideals, fuzzy implicative ideals, fuzzy H-ideals and fuzzy p-ideals. Moreover, we investigated their concepts in diverse theorems and propositions. In chapter 3: The main concept of our thesis on derivation fuzzy ideals of BCI- algebras is introduced. Chapter 3 splits into 4 sections. We start with General definitions and important theorems on derivation fuzzy ideal theory in section 1. Section 2 and 3 contain derivations fuzzy p-ideals and derivations fuzzy H-ideals of BCI- algebras, several important theorems and propositions were introduced. The last section studied derivations fuzzy implicative ideals of BCI-algebras and it includes new theorems and results. Furthermore, we presented a new theorem that associate derivations fuzzy implicative ideals, derivations fuzzy positive implicative ideals and derivations fuzzy commutative ideals. These concepts and the new results were obtained and introduced in chapter 3 were submitted in two separated articles and accepted for publication.

Keywords: BCK, BCI, algebras, derivation

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14 Second Representation of Modules over Commutative Rings

Authors: Jawad Abuhlail, Hamza Hroub


Let R be a commutative ring. Representation theory studies the representation of R-modules as (possibly finite) sums of special types of R-submodules. Here we are interested in a class of R-modules between the class of semisimple R-modules and the class of R-modules that can be written as (possibly finite) sums of secondary R-submodules (we know that every simple R-submodule is secondary). We investigate R-modules which can be written as (possibly finite) sums of second R-submodules (we call those modules second representable). Moreover, we investigate the class of (main) second attached prime ideals related to a module with such representation. We provide sufficient conditions for an R-module M to get a (minimal) second representation. We also found the collection of second attached prime ideals for some types of second representable R-modules, in particular within the class of injective R-modules. As we know that every simple R-submodule is second and every second R-submodule is secondary, we can see the importance of the second representable R-module.

Keywords: lifting modules, second attached prime ideals, second representations, secondary representations, semisimple modules, second submodules

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13 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Homogeneous Scalar Field in Deformed Phase Space

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie


In the present work, we revisit the collapse process of a spherically symmetric homogeneous scalar field (in FRW background) minimally coupled to gravity, when the phase-space deformations are taken into account. Such a deformation is mathematically introduced as a particular type of noncommutativity between the canonical momenta of the scale factor and of the scalar field. In the absence of such deformation, the collapse culminates in a spacetime singularity. However, when the phase-space is deformed, we find that the singularity is removed by a non-singular bounce, beyond which the collapsing cloud re-expands to infinity. More precisely, for negative values of the deformation parameter, we identify the appearance of a negative pressure, which decelerates the collapse to finally avoid the singularity formation. While in the un-deformed case, the horizon curve monotonically decreases to finally cover the singularity, in the deformed case the horizon has a minimum value that this value depends on deformation parameter and initial configuration of the collapse. Such a setting predicts a threshold mass for black hole formation in stellar collapse and manifests the role of non-commutative geometry in physics and especially in stellar collapse and supernova explosion.

Keywords: gravitational collapse, non-commutative geometry, spacetime singularity, black hole physics

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12 Rank of Semigroup: Generating Sets and Cases Revealing Limitations of the Concept of Independence

Authors: Zsolt Lipcsey, Sampson Marshal Imeh


We investigate a certain characterisation for rank of a semigroup by Howie and Ribeiro (1999), to ascertain the relevance of the concept of independence. There are cases where the concept of independence fails to be useful for this purpose. One would expect the basic element to be the maximal independent subset of a given semigroup. However, we construct examples for semigroups where finite basis exist and the basis is larger than the number of independent elements.

Keywords: generating sets, independent set, rank, cyclic semigroup, basis, commutative

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11 Explicit Chain Homotopic Function to Compute Hochschild Homology of the Polynomial Algebra

Authors: Zuhier Altawallbeh


In this paper, an explicit homotopic function is constructed to compute the Hochschild homology of a finite dimensional free k-module V. Because the polynomial algebra is of course fundamental in the computation of the Hochschild homology HH and the cyclic homology CH of commutative algebras, we concentrate our work to compute HH of the polynomial providing certain homotopic function.

Keywords: hochschild homology, homotopic function, free and projective modules, free resolution, exterior algebra, symmetric algebra

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10 Maximum Distance Separable b-Symbol Repeated-Root γ-Constacylic Codes over a Finite Chain Ring of Length 2

Authors: Jamal Laaouine, Mohammed Elhassani Charkani


Let p be a prime and let b be an integer. MDS b-symbol codes are a direct generalization of MDS codes. The γ-constacyclic codes of length pˢ over the finite commutative chain ring Fₚm [u]/ < u² > had been classified into four distinct types, where is a nonzero element of the field Fₚm. Let C₃ be a code of Type 3. In this paper, we obtain the b-symbol distance db(C₃) of the code C₃. Using this result, necessary and sufficient conditions under which C₃ is an MDS b-symbol code are given.

Keywords: constacyclic code, repeated-root code, maximum distance separable, MDS codes, b-symbol distance, finite chain rings

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9 Congruences Induced by Certain Relations on Ag**-Groupoids

Authors: Faisal Yousafzai, Murad-ul-Islam Khan, Kar Ping Shum


We introduce the concept of partially inverse AG**-groupoids which is almost parallel to the concepts of E-inversive semigroups and E-inversive E-semigroups. Some characterization problems are provided on partially inverse AG**-groupoids. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a partially inverse AG**-subgroupoid E to be a rectangular band. Furthermore, we determine the unitary congruence η on a partially inverse AG**-groupoid and show that each partially inverse AG**-groupoid possesses an idempotent separating congruence μ. We also study anti-separative commutative image of a locally associative AG**-groupoid. Finally, we give the concept of completely N-inverse AG**-groupoid and characterize a maximum idempotent separating congruence.

Keywords: AG**-groupoids, congruences, inverses, rectangular band

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8 Rings Characterized by Classes of Rad-plus-Supplemented Modules

Authors: Manoj Kumar Patel


In this paper, we introduce and give various properties of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented and cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented modules over some special kinds of rings, in particular, artinian serial ring and semiperfect ring. Also prove that ring R is artinian serial if and only if every right and left R-module is weak* Rad-plus-supplemented. We provide the counter example which proves that weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module is the generalization of plus-supplemented and Rad-plus-supplemented modules. Furthermore, as an application of above finding results of this research article, our main focus is to characterized the semisimple ring, artinian principal ideal ring, semilocal ring, semiperfect ring, perfect ring, commutative noetherian ring and Dedekind domain in terms of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module.

Keywords: cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module , Dedekind domain, Rad-plus-supplemented module, semiperfect ring

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7 Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem

Authors: Areej M. Abduldaim, Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi


Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

Keywords: cryptosystem, identification, skew π-Armendariz rings, skew polynomial rings, zero knowledge protocol

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6 On Modules over Dedekind Prime Rings

Authors: Elvira Kusniyanti, Hanni Garminia, Pudji Astuti


This research studies an interconnection between finitely generated uniform modules and Dedekind prime rings. The characterization of modules over Dedekind prime rings that will be investigated is an adoption of Noetherian and hereditary concept. Dedekind prime rings are Noetherian and hereditary rings. This property of Dedekind prime rings is a background of the idea of adopting arises. In Noetherian area, it was known that a ring R is Noetherian ring if and only if every finitely generated R-module is a Noetherian module. Similar to that result, a characterization of the hereditary ring is related to its projective modules. That is, a ring R is hereditary ring if and only if every projective R-module is a hereditary module. Due to the above two results, we suppose that characterization of a Dedekind prime ring can be analyzed from finitely generated modules over it. We propose a conjecture: a ring R is a Dedekind prime ring if and only if every finitely generated uniform R-module is a Dedekind module. In this article, we will generalize a concept of the Dedekind module for non-commutative ring case and present a part of the above conjecture.

Keywords: dedekind domains, dedekind prime rings, dedekind modules, uniform modules

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5 Building 1-Well-Covered Graphs by Corona, Join, and Rooted Product of Graphs

Authors: Vadim E. Levit, Eugen Mandrescu


A graph is well-covered if all its maximal independent sets are of the same size. A well-covered graph is 1-well-covered if deletion of every vertex of the graph leaves it well-covered. It is known that a graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered if and only if every two disjoint independent sets are included in two disjoint maximum independent sets. Well-covered graphs are related to combinatorial commutative algebra (e.g., every Cohen-Macaulay graph is well-covered, while each Gorenstein graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered). Our intent is to construct several infinite families of 1-well-covered graphs using the following known graph operations: corona, join, and rooted product of graphs. Adopting some known techniques used to advantage for well-covered graphs, one can prove that: if the graph G has no isolated vertices, then the corona of G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if H is a complete graph of order two at least; the join of the graphs G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if G and H have the same independence number and both are 1-well-covered; if H satisfies the property that every three pairwise disjoint independent sets are included in three pairwise disjoint maximum independent sets, then the rooted product of G and H is 1-well-covered, for every graph G. These findings show not only how to generate some more families of 1-well-covered graphs, but also that, to this aim, sometimes, one may use graphs that are not necessarily 1-well-covered.

Keywords: maximum independent set, corona, concatenation, join, well-covered graph

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4 Chaotic Semiflows with General Acting Topological Monoids

Authors: Alica Miller


A semiflow is a triple consisting of a Hausdorff topological space $X$, a commutative topological monoid $T$ and a continuous monoid action of $T$ on $X$. The acting monoid $T$ is usually either the discrete monoid $\N_0$ of nonnegative integers (in which case the semiflow can be defined as a pair $(X,f)$ consisting of a phase space $X$ and a continuous function $f:X\to X$), or the monoid $\R_+$ of nonnegative real numbers (the so-called one-parameter monoid). However, it turns out that there are real-life situations where it is useful to consider the acting monoids that are a combination of discrete and continuous monoids. That, for example, happens, when we are observing certain dynamical system at discrete moments, but after some time realize that it would be beneficial to continue our observations in real time. The acting monoid in that case would be $T=\{0, t_0, 2t_0, \dots, (n-1)t_0\} \cup [nt_0,\infty)$ with the operation and topology induced from real numbers. This partly explains the motivation for the level of generality which is pursued in our research. We introduce the PSP monoids, which include all but ``pathological'' monoids, and most of our statements hold for them. The topic of our presentation are some recent results about chaos-related properties in semiflows, indecomposability and sensitivity of semiflows in the described general context.

Keywords: chaos, indecomposability, PSP monoids, semiflow, sensitivity

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3 The Search for an Alternative to Tabarru` in Takaful Models

Authors: Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad, Muhammad Ayub


Tabarru` (unilateral gratuitous contribution) is thought to be the basic concept that distinguishes Takaful from conventional non-Sharīʿah compliant insurance. The Sharīʿah compliance of its current practice has been questioned in the premise that, a) it is a form of commutative contract; b) it is akin to the commercial corporate structure of insurance companies due to following the same marketing strategies, allocation to reserves, sharing of underwriting surplus by the companies one way or the other, providing loans to the Takaful funds, and resultantly absorbing the underwriting losses. The Sharīʿah scholars are of the view that the relationship between participants in Takaful should be in the form of commitment to donate, under which a contributor makes commitments himself to donate a sum of money for mutual help and cooperation on the condition that the balance, if any, should be returned to him. With the aim of finding solutions to the above mentioned concerns and other Sharīʿah related issues the study seeks to investigate whether the Takaful companies are functioning in accordance with the Islamic principles of brotherhood, solidarity, and cooperative risk sharing. Given that it discusses the cooperative model of Takaful to address the current and future Sharīʿah related and legal concerns. The study proposed an alternative model and considers it to best serve the objectives of Takaful which operates on the basis of ta`awun or mutual co-operation.

Keywords: hibah, musharakah ta`awuniyyah, Tabarru`, Takaful

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2 A Study on Ideals and Prime Ideals of Sub-Distributive Semirings and Its Applications to Symmetric Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Rosy Joseph


From an algebraic point of view, Semirings provide the most natural generalization of group theory and ring theory. In the absence of additive inverse in a semiring, one had to impose a weaker condition on the semiring, i.e., the additive cancellative law to study interesting structural properties. In many practical situations, fuzzy numbers are used to model imprecise observations derived from uncertain measurements or linguistic assessments. In this connection, a special class of fuzzy numbers whose shape is symmetric with respect to a vertical line called the symmetric fuzzy numbers i.e., for α ∈ (0, 1] the α − cuts will have a constant mid-point and the upper end of the interval will be a non-increasing function of α, the lower end will be the image of this function, is suitable. Based on this description, arithmetic operations and a ranking technique to order the symmetric fuzzy numbers were dealt with in detail. Wherein it was observed that the structure of the class of symmetric fuzzy numbers forms a commutative semigroup with cancellative property. Also, it forms a multiplicative monoid satisfying sub-distributive property.In this paper, we introduce the algebraic structure, sub-distributive semiring and discuss its various properties viz., ideals and prime ideals of sub-distributive semiring, sub-distributive ring of difference etc. in detail. Symmetric fuzzy numbers are visualized as an illustration.

Keywords: semirings, subdistributive ring of difference, subdistributive semiring, symmetric fuzzy numbers

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1 Species Profiling of White Grub Beetles and Evaluation of Pre and Post Sown Application of Insecticides against White Grub Infesting Soybean

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey, Mayank Kumar


White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand. Beetles feed on apple, apricot, plum, walnut etc. during night while, second and third instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non-cultivated crops. Collection and identification of scarab beetles through light trap was carried out at Crop Research Centre, Govind Ballab Pant University Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) during 2018. Field trials were also conducted in 2018 to evaluate pre and post sown application of different insecticides against the white grub infesting soybean. The insecticides like Carbofuran 3 Granule (G) (750 g a.i./ha), Clothianidin 50 Water Dispersal Granule (WG) (120 g a.i./ha), Fipronil 0.3 G (50 g a.i./ha), Thiamethoxam 25 WG (80 g a.i./ha), Imidacloprid 70 WG (300 g a.i./ha), Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G(100 g a.i./ha) and mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG (300 g a.i./ha) were applied at the time of sowing in pre sown experiment while same dosage of insecticides were applied in standing soybean crop during (first fortnight of July). Commutative plant mortality data were recorded after 20, 40, 60 days intervals and compared with untreated control. Total 23 species of white grub beetles recorded on the light trap and Holotrichia serrata Fabricious (Coleoptera: Melolonthinae) was found to be predominant species by recording 20.6% relative abundance out of the total light trap catch (i.e. 1316 beetles) followed by Phyllognathus sp. (14.6% relative abundance). H. rosettae and Heteronychus lioderus occupied third and fourth rank with 11.85% and 9.65% relative abundance, respectively. The emergence of beetles of predominant species started from 15th March, 2018. In April, average light trap catch was 382 white grub beetles, however, peak emergence of most of the white grub species was observed from June to July, 2018 i.e. 336 beetles in June followed by 303 beetles in the July. On the basis of the emergence pattern of white grub beetles, it may be concluded that the Peak Emergence Period (PEP) for the beetles of H. serrata was second fortnight of April for the total period of 15 days. In May, June and July relatively low population of H. serrata was observed. A decreasing trend in light trap catch was observed and went on till September during the study. No single beetle of H. serrata was observed on light trap from September onwards. The cumulative plant mortality data in both the experiments revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior in protection-wise (6.49-16.82% cumulative plant mortality) over untreated control where highest plant mortality was 17.28 to 39.65% during study. The mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective having lowest plant mortality i.e. 9.29 and 10.94% in pre and post sown crop, followed by Clothianidin 50 WG (120 g a.i. per ha) where the plant mortality was 10.57 and 11.93% in pre and post sown treatments, respectively. Both treatments were found significantly at par among each other. Production-wise, all the insecticidal treatments were found statistically superior (15.00-24.66 q per ha grain yields) over untreated control where the grain yield was 8.25 & 9.13 q per ha. Treatment Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective and significantly superior over Imidacloprid 70WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha.

Keywords: bio efficacy, insecticide, soybean, white grub

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