Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1195

Search results for: rectangular band

1195 Optimization of Dual Band Antenna on Silicon Substrate

Authors: Syrine lahmadi, Jamel Bel Hadj Tahar


In this paper, a rectangular antenna with slots integrated on silicon substrate operating in 60GHz, is studied and optimized. The effect of different parameter of the antenna (width, length, the position of the microstrip-feed line...) and the parameter of the substrate (the thickness, the dielectric constant) on gain, frequency is presented. Also, the paper presents a solution to ameliorate the bandwidth. The maximum simulated radiation gain of this rectangular dual band antenna is 5, 38 dB around 60GHz. The simulation studied id developed based on advanced design system tools. It is found that the designed antenna is 19 % smaller than a rectangular antenna with the same dimensions. This antenna with dual band can function for many communication systems as automobile or radar.

Keywords: dual band, enlargement of bandwidth, miniaturized antennas, printed antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1194 Efficiency Improvement for Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna by Using EBG Technique

Authors: S. Kampeephat, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan


The conventional rectangular horn has been used for microwave antenna a long time. Its gain can be increased by enlarging the construction of horn to flare exponentially. This paper presents a study of the shaped woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) to improve its gain for conventional horn without construction enlargement. The gain enhancement synthesis method for shaped woodpile EBG that has to transfer the electromagnetic fields from aperture of a horn antenna through woodpile EBG is presented by using the variety of shaped woodpile EBGs such as planar, triangular, quadratic, circular, gaussian, cosine, and squared cosine structures. The proposed technique has the advantages of low profile, low cost for fabrication and light weight. The antenna characteristics such as reflection coefficient (S11), radiation patterns and gain are simulated by utilized A Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. With the proposed concept, an antenna prototype was fabricated and experimented. The S11 and radiation patterns obtained from measurements show a good impedance matching and a gain enhancement of the proposed antenna. The gain at dominant frequency of 10 GHz is 25.6 dB, application for X- and Ku-Band Radar, that higher than the gain of the basic rectangular horn antenna around 8 dB with adding only one appropriated EBG structures.

Keywords: conventional rectangular horn antenna, electromagnetic band gap, gain enhancement, X- and Ku-band radar

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1193 Existence and Construction of Maximal Rectangular Duals

Authors: Krishnendra Shekhawat


Given a graph G = (V, E), a rectangular dual of G represents the vertices of G by a set of interior-disjoint rectangles such that two rectangles touch if and only if there is an edge between the two corresponding vertices in G. Rectangular duals do not exist for every graph, so we can define maximal rectangular duals. A maximal rectangular dual is a rectangular dual of a graph G such that there exists no graph G ′ with a rectangular dual where G is a subgraph of G ′. In this paper, we enumerate all maximal rectangular duals (or, to be precise, the corresponding planar graphs) up to six nodes and presents a necessary condition for the existence of a rectangular dual. This work allegedly has applications in integrated circuit design and architectural floor plans.

Keywords: adjacency, degree sequence, dual graph, rectangular dual

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
1192 Congruences Induced by Certain Relations on Ag**-Groupoids

Authors: Faisal Yousafzai, Murad-ul-Islam Khan, Kar Ping Shum


We introduce the concept of partially inverse AG**-groupoids which is almost parallel to the concepts of E-inversive semigroups and E-inversive E-semigroups. Some characterization problems are provided on partially inverse AG**-groupoids. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a partially inverse AG**-subgroupoid E to be a rectangular band. Furthermore, we determine the unitary congruence η on a partially inverse AG**-groupoid and show that each partially inverse AG**-groupoid possesses an idempotent separating congruence μ. We also study anti-separative commutative image of a locally associative AG**-groupoid. Finally, we give the concept of completely N-inverse AG**-groupoid and characterize a maximum idempotent separating congruence.

Keywords: AG**-groupoids, congruences, inverses, rectangular band

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1191 Design of H-Shape X-band Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan H. Desai, Trushit Upadhyaya


This paper presents a new small electrically antenna rectangular X- band micro-strip patch antenna loaded with material Rogers RT/duroid 5870 (tm). The present discussion focuses on small Electrically antenna which are electrically small compared to wave length the performance of electrically small antenna are closely related to their electrical size, the gain can be increased to maintain the efficiency of the radiator. Basically micro-strip Patch antennas have been used in satellite communications and for their good characteristics such as lightness, low cost, and so on. Here in the design H- shape folded dipole, which increase the band width of the antenna.

Keywords: electrically small antennas, X-band application, antenna, micro-strip patch, frequency antenna, feed, gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1190 Design and Analysis of Proximity Fed Single Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with Parasitic Lines

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Sukhjit Kaur, Balwinder Singh Sohi


The design proposed in this paper mainly focuses on implementation of a single feed compact rectangular microstrip patch antenna (MSA) for single band application. The antenna presented here also works in dual band but its best performance has been obtained when optimised to work in single band mode. In this paper, a new feeding structure is applied in the patch antenna design to overcome undesirable features of the earlier multilayer feeding structures while maintaining their interesting features.To make the proposed antenna more efficient the optimization of the antenna design parameters have been done using HFSS’s optometric. For the proposed antenna one resonant frequency has been obtained at 6.03GHz, with Bandwidth of 167MHz and return loss of -33.82db. The characteristics of the designed structure are investigated by using FEM based electromagnetic solver.

Keywords: bandwidth, retun loss, parasitic lines, microstrip antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
1189 CRLH and SRR Based Microwave Filter Design Useful for Communication Applications

Authors: Subal Kar, Amitesh Kumar, A. Majumder, S. K. Ghosh, S. Saha, S. S. Sikdar, T. K. Saha


CRLH (composite right/left-handed) based and SRR (split-ring resonator) based filters have been designed at microwave frequency which can provide better performance compared to conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency, 2.45 GHz. Both CRLH and SRR are unit cells used in metamaterial design. The primary aim of designing filters with such structures is to realize size reduction and also to realize novel filter performance. The CRLH based filter has been designed in microstrip transmission line, while the SRR based filter is designed with SRR loading in waveguide. The CRLH based filter designed at 2.45 GHz provides an insertion loss of 1.6 dB with harmonic suppression up to 10 GHz with 67 % size reduction when compared with a conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency. One dimensional (1-D) SRR matrix loaded in a waveguide shows the possibility of realizing a stop-band with sharp skirts in the pass-band while a stop-band in the pass-band of normal rectangular waveguide with tailoring of the dimensions of SRR unit cells. Such filters are expected to be very useful for communication systems at microwave frequency.

Keywords: BPF, CRLH, harmonic, metamaterial, SRR and waveguide

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1188 Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency

Authors: Y. S. Lee, F. Malek, E. M. Cheng, W. W. Liu, F. H. Wee, M. N. Iqbal, Z. Liyana, B. S. Yew, F. S. Abdullah


This paper presents the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes (RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with the rice husk. The rectangular wave guide technique was used to measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10 mm thick.

Keywords: EMI shielding effectiveness, carbon nanotube, composite materials wave guide, x-band

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
1187 Low Profile Wide-Band Broad Side RMSA Suitable for On-Board Applications

Authors: Qaisar Fraz, H. M. Jafar, Mojeeb Bin Ihsan


This paper presents simulation and experimen-tal results for wide band U-shaped side slots loaded linearly polarized rectangular microstrip antenna with broad side radiation characteristics suitable for onboard applications. The structure has been evolved in rugged and compact form to make it suitable for on-board applications. In addition to U-shaped central slot, pair of parallel narrow slots has been embedded close to non-radiating edges. The size and shape of these side slots have been optimized to improve the matching at upper frequency of the band. The impedance bandwidth of 34.8% as compared to 2-5% bandwidth of conventional microstrip antenna has been achieved. The frequency ratio of the two well-matched operating sections is found to be f2 / f1=1.33. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results.

Keywords: low profile antennas, u-slot antennas, broad band antennas, broad-side radiation pattern, high gain antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
1186 Design of Ka-Band Satellite Links in Indonesia

Authors: Zulfajri Basri Hasanuddin


There is an increasing demand for broadband services in Indonesia. Therefore, the answer is the use of Ka-Band which has some advantages such as wider bandwidth, the higher transmission speeds, and smaller size of antenna in the ground. However, rain attenuation is the primary factor in the degradation of signal at the Kaband. In this paper, the author will determine whether the Ka-band frequency can be implemented in Indonesia which has high intensity of rainfall.

Keywords: Ka-band, link budget, link availability, BER, Eb/No, C/N

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
1185 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach


A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1184 Investigating the Capacity of Cracking Torsion of Rectangular and Cylindrical RC Beams with Spiral and Normal Stirrups

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei, Saeed Eskanderzadeh


In this paper, the capacity of cracking torsion on rectangular and cylindrical beams with spiral and normal stirrups in similar properties are investigated. Also, in the beams with spiral stirrups, stirrups are not wrapping and spiral stirrups similar to normal stirrups in ACI code. Therefore, models of above-mentioned beams have been numerically analyzed under various loads using ANSYS software. In this research, the behavior of rectangular reinforced concrete beams is compared with the cylindrical reinforced concrete beams. The capacity of cracking torsion of rectangular and cylindrical RC beams with spiral and normal stirrups are same. In the other words, the behavior of rectangular RC beams is similar to cylindrical beams.

Keywords: cracking torsion, RC beams, spiral stirrups, normal stirrups

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1183 Thermohydraulic Performance Comparison of Artificially Roughened Rectangular Channels

Authors: Narender Singh Thakur, Sunil Chamoli


The use of roughness geometry in the rectangular channel duct is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to the working fluid. The present research concentrates on the performance comparison of a rectangular channel with different roughness geometry of the test plate. The performance enhancement is compared by considering the statistical correlations developed by the various investigators for Nusselt number and friction factor. Among all the investigated geometries multiple v-shaped rib roughened rectangular channel found thermo hydraulically better than other investigated geometries under similar current and operating conditions.

Keywords: nusselt number, friction factor, thermohydraulic, performance parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1182 Compact 3-D Co-Planar Waveguide Fed Dual-Port Ultrawideband-Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Antenna with WLAN Band-Notched Characteristics

Authors: Asim Quddus


A miniaturized three dimensional co-planar waveguide (CPW) two-port MIMO antenna, exhibiting high isolation and WLAN band-notched characteristics is presented in this paper for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The microstrip patch antenna operates as a single UWB antenna element. The proposed design is a cuboid-shaped structure having compact size of 35 x 27 x 45 mm³. Radiating as well as decoupling structure is placed around cuboidal polystyrene sheet. The radiators are 27 mm apart, placed Face-to-Face in vertical direction. Decoupling structure is placed on the side walls of polystyrene. The proposed antenna consists of an oval shaped radiating patch. A rectangular structure with fillet edges is placed on ground plan to enhance the bandwidth. The proposed antenna exhibits a good impedance match (S11 ≤ -10 dB) over frequency band of 2 GHz – 10.6 GHz. A circular slotted structure is employed as a decoupling structure on substrate, and it is placed on the side walls of polystyrene to enhance the isolation between antenna elements. Moreover, to achieve immunity from WLAN band distortion, a modified, inverted crescent shaped slotted structure is etched on radiating patches to achieve band-rejection characteristics at WLAN frequency band 4.8 GHz – 5.2 GHz. The suggested decoupling structure provides isolation better than 15 dB over the desired UWB spectrum. The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) and gain for the MIMO antenna are analyzed as well. Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations are carried out in Ansys High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) for the proposed design. The antenna is realized on a Rogers RT/duroid 5880 with thickness 1 mm, relative permittivity ɛr = 2.2. The proposed antenna achieves a stable omni-directional radiation patterns as well, while providing rejection at desired WLAN band. The S-parameters as well as MIMO parameters like ECC are analyzed and the results show conclusively that the design is suitable for portable MIMO-UWB applications.

Keywords: 3-D antenna, band-notch, MIMO, UWB

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1181 Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam


This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103° provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.

Keywords: liquid crystal, tunable reflectarray, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1180 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency

Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani


Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.

Keywords: Chevron corrugated plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1179 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng


A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: microwave photonics, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift, conversion efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
1178 An Analytical Method for Bending Rectangular Plates with All Edges Clamped Supported

Authors: Yang Zhong, Heng Liu


The decoupling method and the modified Naiver method are combined for accurate bending analysis of rectangular thick plates with all edges clamped supported. The basic governing equations for Mindlin plates are first decoupled into independent partial differential equations which can be solved separately. Using modified Navier method, the analytic solution of rectangular thick plate with all edges clamped supported is then derived. The solution method used in this paper leave out the complicated derivation for calculating coefficients and obtain the solution to problems directly. Numerical comparisons show the correctness and accuracy of the results at last.

Keywords: Mindlin plates, decoupling method, modified Navier method, bending rectangular plates

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
1177 Active Noise Cancellation in the Rectangular Enclosure Systems

Authors: D. Shakirah Shukor, A. Aminudin, Hashim U. A., Waziralilah N. Fathiah, T. Vikneshvaran


The interior noise control is essential to be explored due to the interior acoustic analysis is significant in the systems such as automobiles, aircraft, air-handling system and diesel engine exhausts system. In this research, experimental work was undertaken for canceling an active noise in the rectangular enclosure. The rectangular enclosure was fabricated with multiple speakers and microphones inside the enclosure. A software program using digital signal processing is implemented to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental work was conducted to obtain the acoustic behavior and characteristics of the rectangular enclosure and noise cancellation based on active noise control in low-frequency range. Noise is generated by using multispeaker inside the enclosure and microphones are used for noise measurements. The technique for noise cancellation relies on the principle of destructive interference between two sound fields in the rectangular enclosure. One field is generated by the original or primary sound source, the other by a secondary sound source set up to interfere with, and cancel, that unwanted primary sound. At the end of this research, the result of output noise before and after cancellation are presented and discussed. On the basis of the findings presented in this research, an active noise cancellation in the rectangular enclosure is worth exploring in order to improve the noise control technologies.

Keywords: active noise control, digital signal processing, noise cancellation, rectangular enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1176 Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications

Authors: Ahmed Boutejdar, Bishoy I. Halim, Soumia El Hani, Larbi Bellarbi, Amal Afyf


In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.

Keywords: planar monopole antenna, FR4 substrate, HFSS, WLAN, WiMAX, C and Ku

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1175 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
1174 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao


A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: absorber, C-band, metamaterial, multilayer, X-band

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1173 Effect of Ionized Plasma Medium on the Radiation of a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna on Ferrite Substrate

Authors: Ayman Al Sawalha


This paper presents theoretical investigations on the radiation of rectangular microstrip antenna printed on a magnetized ferrite substrate Ni0.62Co0.02Fe1.948O4 in the presence of ionized plasma medium. The theoretical study of rectangular microstrip antenna in free space is carried out by applying the transmission line model combining with potential function techniques while hydrodynamic theory is used for it is analysis in plasma medium. By taking the biased and unbiased ferrite cases, far-field radiation patterns in free space and plasma medium are obtained which in turn are applied in computing radiated power, directivity, quality factor and bandwidth of antenna. It is found that the presence of plasma medium affects the performance of rectangular microstrip antenna structure significantly.

Keywords: ferrite, microstrip antenna, plasma, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1172 Some Results on the Generalized Higher Rank Numerical Ranges

Authors: Mohsen Zahraei


‎In this paper, ‎the notion of ‎rank-k numerical range of rectangular complex matrix polynomials‎ ‎are introduced. ‎Some algebraic and geometrical properties are investigated. ‎Moreover, ‎for ε>0 the notion of Birkhoff-James approximate orthogonality sets for ε-higher ‎rank numerical ranges of rectangular matrix polynomials is also introduced and studied. ‎The proposed definitions yield a natural generalization of the standard higher rank numerical ranges.

Keywords: ‎‎Rank-k numerical range‎, ‎isometry‎, ‎numerical range‎, ‎rectangular matrix polynomials

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1171 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Protruded Rectangular Fin

Authors: Tarique Jamil Khan, Swapnil Pande


The investigation deals with the study of heat transfer enhancement using protruded square fin. This study is enough to determine whether protrusion in forced convection is enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. It includes the results after performing experiments by using a plane rectangular fin of aluminum material and the same dimension rectangular fin of the same material but having protruded circular shape extended normally. The fins made by a sand casting method. The results clearly mentioned that the protruded surface is effective enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. This research investigates a modern fin topologies heat transfer characteristics that will clearly outdated the conventional fin to increase the rate of heat transfer. Protruded fins improve the rate of heat transfer compared to solid fin by varying shape of the protrusion in diameter and height.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, forced convection, protruted fin, rectangular fin

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1170 Effect of Band Application of Organic Manures on Growth and Yield of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)

Authors: S. B. Kalaghatagi, A. K. Guggari, Pallavi S. Manikashetti


A field experiment to study the effect of band application of organic manures on growth and yield of pigeon pea was conducted during 2016-17 at Kharif Seed Farm, College of Agriculture, Vijayapura. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with thirteen treatments viz., T1 to T6 were band application of vermicompost at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 t ha⁻¹, respectively. The treatments T7 to T12 include band application of sieved FYM at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 t ha⁻¹, respectively and were compared with already recommended practice of broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha⁻¹ (T13); and recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:0 NPK kg ha⁻¹) was applied commonly to all the treatments. The results revealed that band application of vermicompost (VC) at 3 t ha⁻¹ recorded significantly higher number of pods plant⁻¹ (116), grain weight plant⁻¹ (37.35 g), grain yield (1,647 kg ha⁻¹), stalk yield (2,920 kg ha⁻¹) and harvest index (0.36) and was on par with the band application of VC at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4.0 and 5.0 t ha⁻¹ as compared to broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha-1 (99.33, 24.07 g, 1,061 kg ha⁻¹, 2,920 kg ha⁻¹ and 0.36, respectively). Significantly higher net return (Rupees 59,410 ha⁻¹) and benefit cost ratio of 2.92 recorded with band application of VC at 3 t ha⁻¹ over broadcasting of FYM at 6 tonnes per ha (Rupees 25,401 ha⁻¹ and 1.78, respectively). It indicates from the above results that, growing of pigeon pea with band application of VC at 2, 2.5 and 3 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4 and 5 t ha⁻¹ leads to saving of 1 tonne of VC and 2 tonnes of FYM per ha.

Keywords: organic manures, rainfed pigeonpea, sieved FYM, vermicompost

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
1169 Depiction of a Circulated Double Psi-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Ku-Band Satellite Applications

Authors: M. Naimur Rahman, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mandeep Singh Jit Singh, Norbahiah Misran


This paper presents the architecture and exploration of a compact, circulated double Psi-shaped microstrip patch antenna for Ku-band satellite applications. The antenna is composed of the double Psi-shaped patch in opposite focus which is circulated with a ring. The antenna size is 24 mm × 18 mm and the prototype is imprinted on Rogers RT/duroid 5880 materials with the depth of 1.57 mm. The substrate has a relative permittivity of 2.2 and the dielectric constant of 0.0009. The excitation is supplied through a 50Ω microstrip line. The performance of the presented antenna has been simulated and verified with the High-Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS). The results depict that the antenna covers the frequency spectrum 14.6 - 17.4 GHz (Ku-band) with 10 dB return loss. The antenna has a 4.40 dBi maximum gain with stable radiation patterns throughout the operating band which makes the proposed antenna compatible for the satellite application in Ku-band.

Keywords: Ku-band antenna, microstrip antenna, psi-shaped antenna, satellite applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1168 Free Vibration and Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Nonuniform In-Plane Edge Shear Loads

Authors: T. H. Young, Y. J. Tsai


A method for determining the stress distribution of a rectangular plate subjected to two pairs of arbitrarily distributed in-plane edge shear loads is proposed, and the free vibration and buckling of such a rectangular plate are investigated in this work.  The method utilizes two stress functions to synthesize the stress-resultant field of the plate with each of the stress functions satisfying the biharmonic compatibility equation. The sum of stress-resultant fields due to these two stress functions satisfies the boundary conditions at the edges of the plate, from which these two stress functions are determined. Then, the free vibration and buckling of the rectangular plate are investigated by the Galerkin method. Numerical results obtained by this work are compared with those appeared in the literature, and good agreements are observed.

Keywords: stress analysis, free vibration, plate buckling, nonuniform in-plane edge shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1167 Proximity-Inset Fed Triple Band Antenna for Global Position System with High Gain

Authors: The Nan Chang, Ping-Tang Yu, Jyun-Ming Lin


A triple band circularly polarized antenna covering 1.17, 1.22, and 1.57 GHz is presented. To extend to the triple-band operation, we need to add one more ring while maintaining the mechanism to independently control each ring. The inset-part in the feeding scheme is used to excite the band at 1.22 GHz, while the proximate-part of the feeding scheme is used to excite not only the band at 1.57 GHz but also the band at 1.17 GHz. This is achieved by up-vertically coupled with one ring to radiate at 1.57 GHz and down-vertically coupled another ring to radiate at 1.17 GHz. It is also noted that the inset-part in our feeding scheme is by horizontal coupling. Furthermore, to increase the gain at all three bands, three air-layers are added to make the total height of the antenna be 7.8 mm. The total thickness of the three air-layers is 3 mm. The gains of the three bands are all greater than 5 dBiC after adding the air-layers.

Keywords: circular polarization, global position system, high gain, triband antenna

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1166 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna


A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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