Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: carnivores

9 Endoscopic Depiction and Treatment Evaluation of Spirocerca lupi in Dogs

Authors: ELdessouky Sheta, Sayed Elzomor, Haithem Farghali, Kawkab A. Ahmed, Naglaa A. Abd Elkader

Abstract:

The present investigation has been dealt with Spirocerca (S.) lupi infested mongrel dogs. This parasitic disease is highly infective to human beings and carnivores. The diagnosis march has been comprised the lateral contrast thoracic radiographs, fecal examination, blood profile, endoscopic examination and histopathological sections of deep seated pinch biopsies. These infested dogs have been put under an adopted treatment with Ivermectin injection combined with oral prednisolone. The obtained results reveal an absence of the pessimistic recognitions particularly after 3 weeks from the onset of treatment. Endoscopically the presented esophageal nodules are marked out in the distal third of infested dogs' esophagus as masses assigned into the esophageal lumen and fundus of stomach. The endoscopic outlook of Spirocerca lupi lesions has been considered an integral procedure of the diagnostic march and for evaluation of treatment follow up. The diagnostic procedures and the recommended treatment are the vet's guidance to care for Spirocerca lupi in dogs, hoping in future to prevent this disease from being spread among human beings and other carnivores.

Keywords: endoscopy, esophagus, stomach spirocercosis, dogs

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8 Strategies for a Sustainable Future of Forest and Tribal Peoples on This Planet

Authors: Dharmpal Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this proposed project is to relocation and resettlement of carnivores tribal communities who are currently residing in the protected forest land in all over the world just like resettlement project of the carnivores tribal families of Mongia who at past were residing in Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR) and had caused excess damage of endangered species of wildlife including Tigers. At present several tribal communities are residing in the another national parks and they not only consuming the wild animals but also involved in illegal trading of vital organs, skin and bones with National and international traders. Tribal are ideally suited for the job because they are highly skilled game trackers and due to having had a definite source of income over the years, they easily drawn in to the illegal wildlife trade and slaughter of wild animals. Their income is increasing but wild animals are on the brink of extinction. For the conservation of flora and fauna the rehabilitation process should be thought out according to the RTR project (which not only totally change the quality of life of mongia tribal community but also increased the conopy cover of forest and grass due to reduced the biotic pressure on protected land of forest in Rajasthan state) with appropriate understanding of the sociology of the people involved, their culture, education standard and the need of different skills to be acquired by them for sustenance such as agriculture, dairy, poultry, social forestry, job as forest guard and others eco-development programmes. Perhaps, the dimensions presented by me may generate discussion among the international wild life lovers and conservationists and remedies may be result oriented in the field of management of forest and conservation of wildlife on this planet.

Keywords: strategies, rehablety of tribals, conservation of forest, eco-development Programmes, wildlife

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7 Near Bottom Concentrations of Krill in Two Arctic Fjords, Spitsbergen

Authors: Kajetan Deja, Katarzyna Draganska-Deja, Mateusz Ormanczyk, Michał Procajlo

Abstract:

Two glaciated fjords on Spitsbergen (Hornsund 77°N) and Kongsfjorden (79°N) were studied for the occurrence of macroplankton (mostly euphausids, hyperiids, chaetognaths) with the use of drop down the camera. The underwater imagery demonstrates that closer to the glacier front, where turbid and freshwater occurs, most of the macroplankters leave the upper water column and descends to the bottom (about 100m depth). Concentrations of macroplankton in the immediate vicinity of the sediment reach over 500 specimens per m² - what corresponds to the biomass of 10g C/m³. Such concentrations of macroplankton are of prime interest for fish, seals and other carnivores. Conditions in the near-bottom waters are in many respects better than in the upper water column- better oxygenated, cold, fully saline and transparent waters with rich food deposited on the seabed from the surface (sinking microplankton). We suggest that near bottom occurrence of macroplankton is related to the increase of glacier melt and freshwater discharge intensity.

Keywords: arctic, ecosystem, fjords, Krill

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6 Human-Carnivore Interaction: Patterns, Causes and Perceptions of Local Herders of Hoper Valley in Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan

Authors: Saeed Abbas, Rahilla Tabassum, Haider Abbas, Babar Khan, Shahid Hussain, Muhammad Zafar Khan, Fazal Karim, Yawar Abbas, Rizwan Karim

Abstract:

Human–carnivore conflict is considered to be a major conservation and rural livelihood concern because many carnivore species have been heavily victimized due to elevated conflict levels with communities. Like other snow leopard range countries, this situation prevails in Pakistan, where WWF is currently working under Asia High Mountain Project (AHMP) in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan. To mitigate such conflicts requires a firm understanding of grazing and predation pattern including human-carnivore interaction. For this purpose we conducted a survey in Hoper valley (one of the AHMP project sites in Pakistan), during August, 2013 through a questionnaire based survey and unstructured interviews covering 647 households, permanently residing in the project area out of the total 900 households. The valley, spread over 409 km2 between 36°7'46" N and 74°49'2"E, at 2900m asl in Karakoram ranges is considered to be one of an important habitat of snow leopard and associated prey species such as Himalayan ibex. The valley is home of 8100 Brusho people (ancient tribe of Northern Pakistan) dependent on agro-pastoral livelihoods including farming and livestock rearing. The total number of livestock reported were (N=15,481) out of which 8346 (53.91%) were sheep, 3546 (22.91%) goats, 2193 (14.16%) cows, 903 (5.83%) yaks, 508 (3.28%) bulls, 28 (0.18%) donkeys, 27 (0.17%) zo/zomo (cross breed of yak and cow), and 4 (0.03%) horses. 83 percent respondent (n=542 households) confirmed loss of their livestock during the last one year July, 2012 to June, 2013 which account for 2246 (14.51%) animals. The major reason of livestock loss include predation by large carnivores such as snow leopards and wolf (1710, 76.14%) followed by diseases (536, 23.86%). Of the total predation cases snow leopard is suspected to kill 1478 animals (86.43%). Among livestock sheep were found to be the major prey of snow leopard (810, 55%) followed by goats (484, 32.7%) cows (151, 10.21%), yaks (15, 1.015%), zo/zomo (7, 0.5%) and donkey (1, 0.07%). The reason for the mass depredation of sheep and goats is that they tend to browse on twigs of bushes and graze on soft grass near cliffs. They are also considered to be very active as compared to other species in moving quickly and covering more grazing area. This makes them more vulnerable to snow leopard attack. The majority (1283, 75%) of livestock killed by predators occurred during the warm season (May-September) in alpine and sub-alpine pastures and remaining (427, 25%) occurred in the winter season near settlements in valley. It was evident from the recent study that Snow leopard kills outside the pen were (1351, 79.76%) as compared to inside pen (359, 20.24%). Assessing the economic loss of livestock predation we found that the total loss of livestock predation in the study area is equal to PKR 11,230,000 (USD 105,797), which is about PRK 17, 357 (USD 163.51) per household per year. Economic loss incurred by the locals due to predation is quite significant where the average cash income per household per year is PKR 85,000 (USD 800.75).

Keywords: carnivores, conflict, predation, livelihood, conservation, rural, snow leopard, livestock

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5 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa

Abstract:

Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, molecular characterization, polymerase chain reaction, Karnataka, India

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4 Case Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Sustainable Trophy Hunting Programme on Local Community of Sassi-Haramosh Conservancy, Gilgit District, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Abbas, Rehmat Ali, Muhammad Akbar

Abstract:

This study has been conducted in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan, under the Conservation Leadership Programme of Fauna and Flora International. The main objectives of the study were to assess the socio-economic impact of community-based conservation in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy and identify effects of trophy hunting on the conservation of wildlife in the area. The first trophy hunting program of Astor Markhor was held in year February 21, 2015, and the second on February 21, 2016. The community received a share of 49200 USD and 52400 USD from the first and second hunting, and the total earning was 101600 USD which are Rs. 10,871,200 in Pak Rs. The amounts from the trophy hunting are being managed by the Wildlife Conservation and Social Development Organization (WCSDO) Sassi. The village-based organization WCSDO is spending 50% of the trophy hunting amount in the protection of wildlife, its habitat and other natural resources, 30% in developmental sectors of the village and 20% of the amount in the office expenses. Several developmental projects, like construction of 300 KVA hydropower stations, purchase of 8 acres of land for agriculture, potable water supply project, construction of treks, and other social welfare activities have been carried in the village utilizing the trophy hunting grant. These developmental activities have uplifted the socio-economic conditions of the conservancy. Furthermore, trophy hunting program has positive impacts on the wildlife in the area, as the population of Markhor and Ibex has been increased, results in increasing number of other carnivores in the area. The WCSDO has banned any illegal activities in the habitat of wildlife and grazing of livestock in the core habitats. The program raised the level of awareness in communities and reduced poaching, illegal hunting, cutting of shrubs and extraction of Artemisia species from the pastures.

Keywords: Markhor, trophy hunting, Sassi-Haramosh, Gilgit

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3 The Need for Automation in the Domestic Food Processing Sector and its Impact

Authors: Shantam Gupta

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to address the critical need for automation in the domestic food processing sector and study its impact. Food is the one of the most basic physiological needs essential for the survival of a living being. Some of them have the capacity to prepare their own food (like most plants) and henceforth are designated as primary food producers; those who depend on these primary food producers for food form the primary consumers’ class (herbivores). Some of the organisms relying on the primary food are the secondary food consumers (carnivores). There is a third class of consumers called tertiary food consumers/apex food consumers that feed on both the primary and secondary food consumers. Humans form an essential part of the apex predators and are generally at the top of the food chain. But still further disintegration of the food habits of the modern human i.e. Homo sapiens, reveals that humans depend on other individuals for preparing their own food. The old notion of eating raw/brute food is long gone and food processing has become very trenchant in lives of modern human. This has led to an increase in dependence on other individuals for ‘processing’ the food before it can be actually consumed by the modern human. This has led to a further shift of humans in the classification of food chain of consumers. The effects of the shifts shall be systematically investigated in this paper. The processing of food has a direct impact on the economy of the individual (consumer). Also most individuals depend on other processing individuals for the preparation of food. This dependency leads to establishment of a vital link of dependency in the food web which when altered can adversely affect the food web and can have dire consequences on the health of the individual. This study investigates the challenges arising out due to this dependency and the impact of food processing on the economy of the individual. A comparison of Industrial food processing and processing at domestic platforms (households and restaurants) has been made to provide an idea about the present scenario of automation in the food processing sector. A lot of time and energy is also consumed while processing food at home for consumption. The high frequency of consumption of meals (greater than 2 times a day) makes it even more laborious. Through the medium of this study a pressing need for development of an automatic cooking machine is proposed with a mission to reduce the inter-dependency & human effort of individuals required for the preparation of food (by automation of the food preparation process) and make them more self-reliant The impact of development of this product has also further been profoundly discussed. Assumption used: The individuals those who process food also consume the food that they produce. (They are also termed as ‘independent’ or ‘self-reliant’ modern human beings.)

Keywords: automation, food processing, impact on economy, processing individual

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2 Effect of Human Use, Season and Habitat on Ungulate Densities in Kanha Tiger Reserve

Authors: Neha Awasthi, Ujjwal Kumar

Abstract:

Density of large carnivores is primarily dictated by the density of their prey. Therefore, optimal management of ungulates populations permits harbouring of viable large carnivore populations within protected areas. Ungulate density is likely to respond to regimes of protection and vegetation types. This has generated the need among conservation practitioners to obtain strata specific seasonal species densities for habitat management. Kanha Tiger Reserve (KTR) of 2074 km2 area comprises of two distinct management strata: The core (940 km2), devoid of human settlements and buffer (1134 km2) which is a multiple use area. In general, four habitat strata, grassland, sal forest, bamboo-mixed forest and miscellaneous forest are present in the reserve. Stratified sampling approach was used to access a) impact of human use and b) effect of habitat and season on ungulate densities. Since 2013 to 2016, ungulates were surveyed in winter and summer of each year with an effort of 1200 km walk in 200 spatial transects distributed throughout Kanha Tiger Reserve. We used a single detection function for each species within each habitat stratum for each season for estimating species specific seasonal density, using program DISTANCE. Our key results state that the core area had 4.8 times higher wild ungulate biomass compared with the buffer zone, highlighting the importance of undisturbed area. Chital was found to be most abundant, having a density of 30.1(SE 4.34)/km2 and contributing 33% of the biomass with a habitat preference for grassland. Unlike other ungulates, Gaur being mega herbivore, showed a major seasonal shift in density from bamboo-mixed and sal forest in summer to miscellaneous forest in winter. Maximum diversity and ungulate biomass were supported by grassland followed by bamboo-mixed habitat. Our study stresses the importance of inviolate core areas for achieving high wild ungulate densities and for maintaining populations of endangered and rare species. Grasslands accounts for 9% of the core area of KTR maintained in arrested stage of succession, therefore enhancing this habitat would maintain ungulate diversity, density and cater to the needs of only surviving population of the endangered barasingha and grassland specialist the blackbuck. We show the relevance of different habitat types for differential seasonal use by ungulates and attempt to interpret this in the context of nutrition and cover needs by wild ungulates. Management for an optimal habitat mosaic that maintains ungulate diversity and maximizes ungulate biomass is recommended.

Keywords: distance sampling, habitat management, ungulate biomass, diversity

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1 Inconsistent Effects of Landscape Heterogeneity on Animal Diversity in an Agricultural Mosaic: A Multi-Scale and Multi-Taxon Investigation

Authors: Chevonne Reynolds, Robert J. Fletcher, Jr, Celine M. Carneiro, Nicole Jennings, Alison Ke, Michael C. LaScaleia, Mbhekeni B. Lukhele, Mnqobi L. Mamba, Muzi D. Sibiya, James D. Austin, Cebisile N. Magagula, Themba’alilahlwa Mahlaba, Ara Monadjem, Samantha M. Wisely, Robert A. McCleery

Abstract:

A key challenge for the developing world is reconciling biodiversity conservation with the growing demand for food. In these regions, agriculture is typically interspersed among other land-uses creating heterogeneous landscapes. A primary hypothesis for promoting biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. While there is evidence that landscape heterogeneity positively influences biodiversity, the application of this hypothesis is hindered by a need to determine which components of landscape heterogeneity drive these effects and at what spatial scale(s). Additionally, whether diverse taxonomic groups are similarly affected is central for determining the applicability of this hypothesis as a general conservation strategy in agricultural mosaics. Two major components of landscape heterogeneity are compositional and configurational heterogeneity. Disentangling the roles of each component is important for biodiversity conservation because each represents different mechanisms underpinning variation in biodiversity. We identified a priori independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity within an extensive agricultural mosaic in north-eastern Swaziland. We then tested how bird, dung beetle, ant and meso-carnivore diversity responded to compositional and configurational heterogeneity across six different spatial scales. To determine if a general trend could be observed across multiple taxa, we also tested which component and spatial scale was most influential across all taxonomic groups combined, Compositional, not configurational, heterogeneity explained diversity in each taxonomic group, with the exception of meso-carnivores. Bird and ant diversity was positively correlated with compositional heterogeneity at fine spatial scales < 1000 m, whilst dung beetle diversity was negatively correlated to compositional heterogeneity at broader spatial scales > 1500 m. Importantly, because of these contrasting effects across taxa, there was no effect of either component of heterogeneity on the combined taxonomic diversity at any spatial scale. The contrasting responses across taxonomic groups exemplify the difficulty in implementing effective conservation strategies that meet the requirements of diverse taxa. To promote diverse communities across a range of taxa, conservation strategies must be multi-scaled and may involve different strategies at varying scales to offset the contrasting influences of compositional heterogeneity. A diversity of strategies are likely key to conserving biodiversity in agricultural mosaics, and we have demonstrated that a landscape management strategy that only manages for heterogeneity at one particular scale will likely fall short of management objectives.

Keywords: agriculture, biodiversity, composition, configuration, heterogeneity

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