Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 276

Search results for: Robert J. Fletcher

276 Origins of Strict Liability for Abnormally Dangerous Activities in the United States, Rylands v. Fletcher and a General Clause of Strict Liability in the UK

Authors: Maria Lubomira Kubica

Abstract:

The paper reveals the birth and evolution of the British precedent Rylands v. Fletcher that, once adopted on the other side of the Ocean (in United States), gave rise to a general clause of liability for abnormally dangerous activities recognized by the §20 of the American Restatements of the Law Third, Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm. The main goal of the paper was to analyze the development of the legal doctrine and of the case law posterior to the precedent together with the intent of the British judicature to leapfrog from the traditional rule contained in Rylands v. Fletcher to a general clause similar to that introduced in the United States and recently also on the European level. As it is well known, within the scope of tort law two different initiatives compete with the aim of harmonizing the European laws: European Group on Tort Law with its Principles of European Tort Law (hereinafter PETL) in which article 5:101 sets forth a general clause for strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities and Study Group on European Civil Code with its Common Frame of Reference (CFR) which promotes rather ad hoc model of listing out determined cases of strict liability. Very narrow application scope of the art. 5:101 PETL, restricted only to abnormally dangerous activities, stays in opposition to very broad spectrum of strict liability cases governed by the CFR. The former is a perfect example of a general clause that offers a minimum and basic standard, possibly acceptable also in those countries in which, like in the United Kingdom, this regime of liability is completely marginalized.

Keywords: Rylands v. Fletcher, strict liability, dangerous activities, general clause

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
275 Legal Doctrine on Rylands v. Fletcher: One more time on Feasibility of a General Clause of Strict Liability in the UK

Authors: Maria Lubomira Kubica

Abstract:

The paper reveals the birth and evolution of the British precedent Rylands v. Fletcher that, once adopted on the other side of the Ocean (in United States), gave rise to a general clause of liability for abnormally dangerous activities recognized by the §20 of the American Restatements of the Law Third, Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm. The main goal of the paper was to analyze the development of the legal doctrine and of the case law posterior to the precedent together with the intent of the British judicature to leapfrog from the traditional rule contained in Rylands v. Fletcher to a general clause similar to that introduced in the United States and recently also on the European level. As it is well known, within the scope of tort law two different initiatives compete with the aim of harmonizing the European laws: European Group on Tort Law with its Principles of European Tort Law (hereinafter PETL) in which article 5:101 sets forth a general clause for strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities and Study Group on European Civil Code with its Common Frame of Reference (CFR) which promotes rather ad hoc model of listing out determined cases of strict liability. Very narrow application scope of the art. 5:101 PETL, restricted only to abnormally dangerous activities, stays in opposition to very broad spectrum of strict liability cases governed by the CFR. The former is a perfect example of a general clause that offers a minimum and basic standard, possibly acceptable also in those countries in which, like in the United Kingdom, this regime of liability is completely marginalized.

Keywords: abnormally dangerous activities, general clause, Rylands v. Fletcher, strict liability

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
274 Inconsistent Effects of Landscape Heterogeneity on Animal Diversity in an Agricultural Mosaic: A Multi-Scale and Multi-Taxon Investigation

Authors: Chevonne Reynolds, Robert J. Fletcher, Jr, Celine M. Carneiro, Nicole Jennings, Alison Ke, Michael C. LaScaleia, Mbhekeni B. Lukhele, Mnqobi L. Mamba, Muzi D. Sibiya, James D. Austin, Cebisile N. Magagula, Themba’alilahlwa Mahlaba, Ara Monadjem, Samantha M. Wisely, Robert A. McCleery

Abstract:

A key challenge for the developing world is reconciling biodiversity conservation with the growing demand for food. In these regions, agriculture is typically interspersed among other land-uses creating heterogeneous landscapes. A primary hypothesis for promoting biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. While there is evidence that landscape heterogeneity positively influences biodiversity, the application of this hypothesis is hindered by a need to determine which components of landscape heterogeneity drive these effects and at what spatial scale(s). Additionally, whether diverse taxonomic groups are similarly affected is central for determining the applicability of this hypothesis as a general conservation strategy in agricultural mosaics. Two major components of landscape heterogeneity are compositional and configurational heterogeneity. Disentangling the roles of each component is important for biodiversity conservation because each represents different mechanisms underpinning variation in biodiversity. We identified a priori independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity within an extensive agricultural mosaic in north-eastern Swaziland. We then tested how bird, dung beetle, ant and meso-carnivore diversity responded to compositional and configurational heterogeneity across six different spatial scales. To determine if a general trend could be observed across multiple taxa, we also tested which component and spatial scale was most influential across all taxonomic groups combined, Compositional, not configurational, heterogeneity explained diversity in each taxonomic group, with the exception of meso-carnivores. Bird and ant diversity was positively correlated with compositional heterogeneity at fine spatial scales < 1000 m, whilst dung beetle diversity was negatively correlated to compositional heterogeneity at broader spatial scales > 1500 m. Importantly, because of these contrasting effects across taxa, there was no effect of either component of heterogeneity on the combined taxonomic diversity at any spatial scale. The contrasting responses across taxonomic groups exemplify the difficulty in implementing effective conservation strategies that meet the requirements of diverse taxa. To promote diverse communities across a range of taxa, conservation strategies must be multi-scaled and may involve different strategies at varying scales to offset the contrasting influences of compositional heterogeneity. A diversity of strategies are likely key to conserving biodiversity in agricultural mosaics, and we have demonstrated that a landscape management strategy that only manages for heterogeneity at one particular scale will likely fall short of management objectives.

Keywords: agriculture, biodiversity, composition, configuration, heterogeneity

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
273 Indecisiveness in 'The Road Not Taken' by Robert Frost: An Expressive Critical Analysis

Authors: Kurt S. Candilas

Abstract:

This expressive critical study is an effort to bring in light new interpretation of Robert Frost poem 'The Road Not Taken' as a reflection of his indecisiveness in life. Specifically, it aims at examining Frost’s inner being, emphasizing his own self and experiences in the poem or text. The study employs the qualitative research design which made use of discourse analysis using the critical theory of expressivism as the main guide. In acquiring the data of the study, the art of historiography is used such as autobiographical and/or biographical notes, sources documents, and web information. In executing the methods involved in this study, it is observed that the poem shows a naturalist implicatures, expressing Frost’s strong feelings and emotions being devoid of free will and a narrow bit of confusions and ambiguities with his indecisions in life.

Keywords: The Road Not Taken, expressivism, indecisiveness, naturalist implicatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
272 Parameter Estimation of Gumbel Distribution with Maximum-Likelihood Based on Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shanno Quasi-Newton

Authors: Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih, Hendrika Handayani

Abstract:

Extreme data on an observation can occur due to unusual circumstances in the observation. The data can provide important information that can’t be provided by other data so that its existence needs to be further investigated. The method for obtaining extreme data is one of them using maxima block method. The distribution of extreme data sets taken with the maxima block method is called the distribution of extreme values. Distribution of extreme values is Gumbel distribution with two parameters. The parameter estimation of Gumbel distribution with maximum likelihood method (ML) is difficult to determine its exact value so that it is necessary to solve the approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the parameter estimation of Gumbel distribution with quasi-Newton BFGS method. The quasi-Newton BFGS method is a numerical method used for nonlinear function optimization without constraint so that the method can be used for parameter estimation from Gumbel distribution whose distribution function is in the form of exponential doubel function. The quasi-New BFGS method is a development of the Newton method. The Newton method uses the second derivative to calculate the parameter value changes on each iteration. Newton's method is then modified with the addition of a step length to provide a guarantee of convergence when the second derivative requires complex calculations. In the quasi-Newton BFGS method, Newton's method is modified by updating both derivatives on each iteration. The parameter estimation of the Gumbel distribution by a numerical approach using the quasi-Newton BFGS method is done by calculating the parameter values that make the distribution function maximum. In this method, we need gradient vector and hessian matrix. This research is a theory research and application by studying several journals and textbooks. The results of this study obtained the quasi-Newton BFGS algorithm and estimation of Gumbel distribution parameters. The estimation method is then applied to daily rainfall data in Purworejo District to estimate the distribution parameters. This indicates that the high rainfall that occurred in Purworejo District decreased its intensity and the range of rainfall that occurred decreased.

Keywords: parameter estimation, Gumbel distribution, maximum likelihood, broyden fletcher goldfarb shanno (BFGS)quasi newton

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
271 A Mimetic Textuality in Robert Frost's 'Nothing Gold Can Stay'

Authors: Kurt S. Candilas

Abstract:

This study is a critical analysis of the work of Robert Frost, 'Nothing Gold Can Stay'. It subjects the literary piece into a qualitative analysis using the critical theory of mimesis. In effect, this study is proposed to find out and shed light on the mimetic feature of the poem’s textuality. Generally, it aims to analyze the poem’s deeper meaning in the context of the reality of life from birth to death. For the most part, this critical analysis discerns, investigates, and highlights the features which present the imitation of life in detail and from a deeper view. Based on the result of analysis, it shows that Frost has portrayed the cycle of life from birth to midst life as about proving oneself to others as far as achievements and accomplishments are concerned; secondly, at some point of one’s life, successes and achievements are just one’s perfect signature of living. As Frost discloses his poem, his message of the reality of life from birth to death is clear enough, that nothing is going to last forever.

Keywords: Nothing Gold Can Stay, mimesis, birth, death

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
270 The Effect of Closed Circuit Television Image Patch Layout on Performance of a Simulated Train-Platform Departure Task

Authors: Aaron J. Small, Craig A. Fletcher

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of closed circuit television (CCTV) image patch layout on performance of a simulated train-platform departure task. The within-subjects experimental design measures target detection rate and response latency during a CCTV visual search task conducted as part of the procedure for safe train dispatch. Three interface designs were developed by manipulating CCTV image patch layout. Eye movements, perceived workload and system usability were measured across experimental conditions. Task performance was compared to identify significant differences between conditions. The results of this study have not been determined.

Keywords: rail human factors, workload, closed circuit television, platform departure, attention, information processing, interface design

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
269 Developing New Algorithm and Its Application on Optimal Control of Pumps in Water Distribution Network

Authors: R. Rajabpour, N. Talebbeydokhti, M. H. Ahmadi

Abstract:

In recent years, new techniques for solving complex problems in engineering are proposed. One of these techniques is JPSO algorithm. With innovative changes in the nature of the jump algorithm JPSO, it is possible to construct a graph-based solution with a new algorithm called G-JPSO. In this paper, a new algorithm to solve the optimal control problem Fletcher-Powell and optimal control of pumps in water distribution network was evaluated. Optimal control of pumps comprise of optimum timetable operation (status on and off) for each of the pumps at the desired time interval. Maximum number of status on and off for each pumps imposed to the objective function as another constraint. To determine the optimal operation of pumps, a model-based optimization-simulation algorithm was developed based on G-JPSO and JPSO algorithms. The proposed algorithm results were compared well with the ant colony algorithm, genetic and JPSO results. This shows the robustness of proposed algorithm in finding near optimum solutions with reasonable computational cost.

Keywords: G-JPSO, operation, optimization, pumping station, water distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
268 Assessment of Student Attitudes to Higher Education Service Measures: The Development of a Framework for Private Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia

Authors: Farrah Anne Robert, Robert McClelland, Seng Kiat Kok

Abstract:

Higher education service quality is widely regarded as key factors in the long term success of a higher education institution in attracting and retaining students. This research attempted to establish the impact of service quality on recruiting and retaining students in private higher education institutions (PHEI’s). 501 local and international students responded to a 49 item educational service measure questionnaire from PHEIs in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, two states in Malaysia which together account for 60% of private colleges in Malaysia. Results from this research revealed that, inter-alia, facilities, employability, management and administration services, academic staff competence, curriculum and student overall experiences were key driving factors in attracting and retaining students. Lack of “campus-like building” facilities and lecturer’s effectiveness in delivering lectures were keys concerns in the provision of service quality by PHEI’s in Malaysia. Over the last decade, the Government of Malaysia has set a target of recruiting 200,000 international students to study in Malaysia by PHEI’s and PHEI’s have failed to achieve this target. This research suggests that service quality issues identified above are impacting efforts to recruit and retain both local and international students by PHEIs. The researcher recommends that further and detailed research be carried on these factors and its impact on recruitment and retention. PHEI administrators can benefit from this research by conducting an evaluation of service measures delivered in their institutions and take corrective measures. Prospective students can benefit from this study by including in their choice factors the “service quality delivery” of PHEI’s when deciding to enroll in a particular PHEI.

Keywords: higher education, recruitment, retention, service quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
267 Formal Models of Sanitary Inspections Teams Activities

Authors: Tadeusz Nowicki, Radosław Pytlak, Robert Waszkowski, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos

Abstract:

This paper presents methods for formal modeling of activities in the area of sanitary inspectors outbreak of food-borne diseases. The models allow you to measure the characteristics of the activities of sanitary inspection and as a result allow improving the performance of sanitary services and thus food security.

Keywords: food-borne disease, epidemic, sanitary inspection, mathematical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
266 Artificial Neural Network Regression Modelling of GC/MS Retention of Terpenes Present in Satureja montana Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Jelena Vladić, Senka Vidović, Zoran Zeković, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac Kuzmanović

Abstract:

Supercritical extracts of highly valuated medicinal plant Satureja montana were prepared by application of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction in the carbon dioxide pressure range from 125 to 350 bar and temperature range from 40 to 60°C. Using GC/MS method of analysis chemical profiles (aromatic constituents) of S. montana extracts were obtained. Self-training artificial neural networks were applied to predict the retention time of the analyzed terpenes in GC/MS system. The best ANN model obtained was multilayer perceptron (MLP 11-11-1). Hidden activation was tanh and output activation was identity with Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno training algorithm. Correlation measures of the obtained network were the following: R(training) = 0.9975, R(test) = 0.9971 and R(validation) = 0.9999. The comparison of the experimental and predicted retention times of the analyzed compounds showed very high correlation (R = 0.9913) and significant predictive power of the established neural network.

Keywords: ANN regression, GC/MS, Satureja montana, terpenes

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
265 An Integrated Mathematical Approach to Measure the Capacity of MMTS

Authors: Bayan Bevrani, Robert L. Burdett, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda

Abstract:

This article focuses upon multi-modal transportation systems (MMTS) and the issues surrounding the determination of system capacity. For that purpose a multi-objective framework is advocated that integrates all the different modes and many different competing capacity objectives. This framework is analytical in nature and facilitates a variety of capacity querying and capacity expansion planning.

Keywords: analytical model, capacity analysis, capacity query, multi-modal transportation system (MMTS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
264 A Mathematical Framework for Expanding a Railway’s Theoretical Capacity

Authors: Robert L. Burdett, Bayan Bevrani

Abstract:

Analytical techniques for measuring and planning railway capacity expansion activities have been considered in this article. A preliminary mathematical framework involving track duplication and section sub divisions is proposed for this task. In railways, these features have a great effect on network performance and for this reason they have been considered. Additional motivations have also arisen from the limitations of prior models that have not included them.

Keywords: capacity analysis, capacity expansion, railways, track sub division, track duplication

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
263 Doping in Sport: Attitudes, Beliefs and Knowledge of Talented

Authors: Kim Nolte, Ben J. M. Steyn, Pieter E. Krüger, Lizelle Fletcher

Abstract:

Objective: The primary aim of this research was to determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young South African athletes regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations. Methods: This was a survey study and a quantitative research approach was used. South African TuksSport academy athletes at the High Performance Centre, University of Pretoria and competitive high school athletes at four private high schools in Gauteng completed the survey. A self-determined structured questionnaire was used to establish the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of the athletes. Results: A total of 346 (208 males, 138 females) athletes, age (mean ± SD) 16.9 ±1.41 years participated in the survey. According to this survey, 3.9% of the athletes in this survey admitted to be using a prohibited PED and more than 14% of the athletes said they would consider using a prohibited PED if they knew they would not get caught out. Ambition (46%) and emotional pressure (22.5%) was the primary reasons why the athletes would consider using prohibited PEDs. Even though coaches appear to be the main source of information (PEDs and anti-doping rules), only 42.1% of the athletes felt they were well informed. Conclusion: Controlling doping by means of testing is important. However, it is not sufficient and interventions should include psychosocial programmes planned and developed focusing on changing attitudes towards doping and doping culture, as well as the appropriate education specifically on the health risks of using PEDs.

Keywords: doping, anti-doping, attitudes, athletes and sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
262 Refutation of Imre Hermann's Allegation: János Bolyai Was Not Insane

Authors: Oláh Gál Róbert, Veress Bágyi Ibolya

Abstract:

The scientific public has relatively little knowledge about the Hungarian János Bolyai, one of the greatest thinkers of all times. Few people know that apart from being the founder of the non-Euclidean geometry he was also interested in sociology, philosophy, epistemology and linguistics. According to the renowned Hungarian psychoanalytic Imre Hermann, who lives in France, János Bolyai was mentally deranged. However, this is incorrect. The present article intends to prove that he was completely sane until the moment of his death.

Keywords: Imre Hermann, insane, János Bolyai, mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry, psyphoanalytic

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
261 Wood Ashes from Electrostatic Filter as a Replacement for the Fly Ashes in Concrete

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Harald Garrecht

Abstract:

Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace Fly Ashes that would be unavailable in a few years as an element that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such component is clear - it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. Wood Ashes from electrostatic filter can be used as a valuable substitute in concrete. The laboratory investigations showed that the wood ash concrete had a compressive strength comparable to coal fly ash concrete. These results indicate that wood ash can be used to manufacture normal concrete.

Keywords: wood ashes, fly ashes, electric filter, replacement, concrete technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
260 Digital Planet: Readying for the Rise of the E-Consumer

Authors: Bhaskar Chakravorti, Christopher Tunnard, Ravi Shankar Chaturvedi

Abstract:

This report introduces the Digital Evolution Index (DEI) as a way to gauge the transformation of economies in the advanced and developing world from traditional brick-and-mortar to digitally enabled. The DEI measures the digital trajectories of 50 countries to provide actionable, data-informed insights for businesses, investors and policymakers. Created by The Fletcher School, in collaboration with MasterCard Worldwide and DataCash, the DEI analyzes the key underlying drivers and barriers that govern a country’s evolution into a digital economy: Demand, Supply, Institutional Environment and Innovation. A longitudinal analysis of these four drivers during the years 2008 to 2013 reveals both the current state of a country’s digital economy, as well as changes over time. Combining these two measures allows us to assign each country to one of four Trajectory Zones: • Stand Out countries have shown high levels of digital development in the past and continue to remain on an upward trajectory. • Stall Out countries have achieved a high level of evolution in the past but are losing momentum and risk falling behind. • Break Out countries have the potential to develop strong digital economies. Though their overall score is still low, they are moving upward and are poised to become Stand Out countries in the future. • Watch Out countries face significant opportunities and challenges, with low scores on both current level and upward motion of their DEI. Some may be able to overcome limitations with clever innovations and stopgap measures, while others seem to be stuck.

Keywords: e-commerce, digital evolution, digital commerce ecosystems, e-consumer

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
259 Classification of Manufacturing Data for Efficient Processing on an Edge-Cloud Network

Authors: Onyedikachi Ulelu, Andrew P. Longstaff, Simon Fletcher, Simon Parkinson

Abstract:

The widespread interest in 'Industry 4.0' or 'digital manufacturing' has led to significant research requiring the acquisition of data from sensors, instruments, and machine signals. In-depth research then identifies methods of analysis of the massive amounts of data generated before and during manufacture to solve a particular problem. The ultimate goal is for industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) data to be processed automatically to assist with either visualisation or autonomous system decision-making. However, the collection and processing of data in an industrial environment come with a cost. Little research has been undertaken on how to specify optimally what data to capture, transmit, process, and store at various levels of an edge-cloud network. The first step in this specification is to categorise IIoT data for efficient and effective use. This paper proposes the required attributes and classification to take manufacturing digital data from various sources to determine the most suitable location for data processing on the edge-cloud network. The proposed classification framework will minimise overhead in terms of network bandwidth/cost and processing time of machine tool data via efficient decision making on which dataset should be processed at the ‘edge’ and what to send to a remote server (cloud). A fast-and-frugal heuristic method is implemented for this decision-making. The framework is tested using case studies from industrial machine tools for machine productivity and maintenance.

Keywords: data classification, decision making, edge computing, industrial IoT, industry 4.0

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
258 Using a Character’s Inner Monologue for Song Analysis

Authors: Robert Roznowski

Abstract:

The thought process of the character is never more evident than when singing alone onstage. The composer scores the emotional state and the lyricist voices the inner conflict as the character shares with an audience her or his deepest feelings. It is at these moments that a character may be thought of as voicing her or his inner monologue. Using examples from several musical theatre songs, this presentation will look at a codified approach to analyze a song from a more psychological perspective. Using the clues from the score, traditional character analysis and a psychological-based scoring method an actor may explore more fully inhabit and express the sung and unsung thoughts of the character. The approach yields a richer and more complex approach to acting the song.

Keywords: acting, analysis, musical theatre, psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
257 Reductions of Control Flow Graphs

Authors: Robert Gold

Abstract:

Control flow graphs are a well-known representation of the sequential control flow structure of programs with a multitude of applications. Not only single functions but also sets of functions or complete programs can be modelled by control flow graphs. In this case the size of the graphs can grow considerably and thus makes it difficult for software engineers to analyse the control flow. Graph reductions are helpful in this situation. In this paper we define reductions to subsets of nodes. Since executions of programs are represented by paths through the control flow graphs, paths should be preserved. Furthermore, the composition of reductions makes a stepwise analysis approach possible.

Keywords: control flow graph, graph reduction, software engineering, software applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
256 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime

Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela

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Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of self-sustain flight when a big Airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in airliner’s wake vortex. The paper presents results of climb analysis with a goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliner’s cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Then, flight performance of the UAV in the wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between the airliner and the UAV during the climb is determined. The results are encouraging, therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.

Keywords: flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortex

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255 Automatic Intelligent Analysis of Malware Behaviour

Authors: Hermann Dornhackl, Konstantin Kadletz, Robert Luh, Paul Tavolato

Abstract:

In this paper we describe the use of formal methods to model malware behaviour. The modelling of harmful behaviour rests upon syntactic structures that represent malicious procedures inside malware. The malicious activities are modelled by a formal grammar, where API calls’ components are the terminals and the set of API calls used in combination to achieve a goal are designated non-terminals. The combination of different non-terminals in various ways and tiers make up the attack vectors that are used by harmful software. Based on these syntactic structures a parser can be generated which takes execution traces as input for pattern recognition.

Keywords: malware behaviour, modelling, parsing, search, pattern matching

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254 Middle Ordovician (Llanvirnian) Relative Sea-Level Fluctuations

Authors: Ying Jia Teoh

Abstract:

The Canning Basin is located between the Kimberley and Pilbara Precambrian cratonic blocks. It is a large but relatively poorly explored Paleozoic basin in remote Western Australia. During the early Ordovician period, the Australian continent was located near the equator. Middle Ordovician age Nita and Goldwyer Formations in Canning Basin are therefore warm water carbonates. The Nita Formation carbonates are a regressive sequence which conformably overlies the Goldwyer Formation. It contains numerous progradational cycles of limestone, vuggy dolomitized carbonate beds and shale deposited in subtidal to supratidal environments. The Goldwyer Formation contains transgressive shale sequences and regressive carbonates deposited in shallow subtidal conditions. The shales contain oil-prone Gloeocapsormorpha prisca-bearing source rocks. Llanvirnian relative sea-level fluctuations were reconstructed by using Fischer plots methodology for three key wells (wells McLarty 1, Looma 1 and Robert 1) in Broome Platform and compared with INPEFA data. The Goldwyer lower shale (interval Or1000P) shows increasing relative sea-level and this matches with a transgressive systems tract. Goldwyer middle carbonate (interval Or2000) shows relative sea-level drop and this matches with a regressive systems tract. Goldwyer upper shale (interval Or2000P) shows relative sea-level drop and this matches with a transgressive systems tract. Nita Formation Leo Member (interval Or3000) shows a relative sea level drop and this matches with a regressive systems tract. The Nita Formation Cudalgarra Member (intervals Or3000P and Or4000) with transgressive systems tract then this is followed by a regressive systems tract. This pattern matches with the relative sea-level curves in wells McLarty 1 and Robert 1. The correlation is weak for parts of well Looma 1. This is probably influenced by the fact that the thickness of this section is quite small. As a conclusion, Fischer plots for the Llanvirnian Goldwyer and Nita Formations show good agreement with the third order global sea level cycles of Haq and others. Fischer plots are generally correlated well with trend and cyclicity determined by INPEFA curves and as a method of cross-checking INPEFA data and sea-level change.

Keywords: canning basin, Fischer plots, Llanvirnian, middle Ordovician, sea-level fluctuations, stratigraphy

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
253 The Environmental and Socio Economic Impacts of Mining on Local Livelihood in Cameroon: A Case Study in Bertoua

Authors: Fongang Robert Tichuck

Abstract:

This paper reports the findings of a study undertaken to assess the socio-economic and environmental impacts of mining in Bertoua Eastern Region of Cameroon. In addition to sampling community perceptions of mining activities, the study prescribes interventions that can assist in mitigating the negative impacts of mining. Marked environmental and interrelated socio-economic improvements can be achieved within regional artisanal gold mines if the government provides technical support to local operators, regulations are improved, and illegal mining activity is reduced.

Keywords: gold mining, socio-economic, mining activities, local people

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
252 Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Columnar-Structured Mn-Doped Bi26Mo10O69-d Electrolytes

Authors: Maria V. Morozova, Zoya A. Mikhaylovskaya, Elena S. Buyanova, Sofia A. Petrova, Ksenia V. Arishina, Robert G. Zaharov

Abstract:

The present work is devoted to the investigation of two series of doped bismuth molybdates: Bi₂₆-₂ₓMn₂ₓMo₁₀O₆₉-d and Bi₂₆Mo₁₀-₂yMn₂yO₆₉-d. Complex oxides were synthesized by conventional solid state technology and by co-precipitation method. The products were identified by powder diffraction. The powders and ceramic samples were examined by means of densitometry, laser diffraction, and electron microscopic methods. Porosity of the ceramic materials was estimated using the hydrostatic method. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out using impedance spectroscopy method.

Keywords: bismuth molybdate, columnar structures, impedance spectroscopy, oxygen ionic conductors

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
251 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Jana Petrů, Tomáš Zlámal, Robert Čep, Lenka Čepová

Abstract:

This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials -cermets- is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: coating, aerospace, plasma, grinding

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
250 Concept of a Low Cost Gait Rehabilitation Robot for Children with Neurological Dysfunction

Authors: Mariana Volpini, Volker Bartenbach, Marcos Pinotti, Robert Riener

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Restoration of gait ability is an important task in the rehabilitation of people with neurological disorders presenting a great impact in the quality of life of an individual. Based on the motor learning concept, robotic assisted treadmill training has been introduced and found to be a feasible and promising therapeutic option in neurological rehabilitation but unfortunately it is not available for most patients in developing countries due to the high cost. This paper presents the concept of a low cost rehabilitation robot to help consolidate the robotic-assisted gait training as a reality in clinical practice in most countries. This work indicates that it is possible to build a simpler rehabilitation device respecting the physiological trajectory of the ankle.

Keywords: bioengineering, gait therapy, low cost rehabilitation robot, rehabilitation robotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
249 Human Health Risks Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution in Romania

Authors: Katalin Bodor, Zsolt Bodor, Robert Szep

Abstract:

The particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 μm are less studied due to the limited availability of PM₂.₅, and less information is available on the health effects attributable to PM₁₀ in Central-Eastern Europe. The objective of the current study was to assess the human health risk and characterize the spatial and temporal variation of PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ in eight Romanian regions between the 2009-2018 and. The PM concentrations showed high variability over time and spatial distribution. The highest concentration was detected in the Bucharest region in the winter period, and the lowest was detected in West. The relative risk caused by the PM₁₀ for all-cause mortality varied between 1.017 (B) and 1.025 (W), with an average 1.020. The results demonstrate a positive relative risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer disease due to exposure to PM₂.₅ on the national average 1.26 ( ± 0.023) and 1.42 ( ± 0.037), respectively.

Keywords: PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, relative risk, health effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
248 Predicting the Product Life Cycle of Songs on Radio - How Record Labels Can Manage Product Portfolio and Prioritise Artists by Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Claus N. Holm, Oliver F. Grooss, Robert A. Alphinas

Abstract:

This research strives to predict the remaining product life cycle of a song on radio after it has been played for one or two months. The best results were achieved using a k-d tree to calculate the most similar songs to the test songs and use a Random Forest model to forecast radio plays. An 82.78% and 83.44% accuracy is achieved for the two time periods, respectively. This explorative research leads to over 4500 test metrics to find the best combination of models and pre-processing techniques. Other algorithms tested are KNN, MLP and CNN. The features only consist of daily radio plays and use no musical features.

Keywords: hit song science, product life cycle, machine learning, radio

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247 The Participation of Refugee Children with Disabilities in Educational Options in Turkey: A Systematic Review

Authors: Robert L. Williamson, Baris Çetin

Abstract:

Turkey, due to its geographic location, finds itself the world’s largest host to refugees worldwide, and this nation has done much to educate their refugee population. Turkey’s considerable experience can inform other nations educating refugee children. This systematic review of the literature examined the context, barriers, and responses to successfully educating refugee children in Turkey. Additionally, because some refugee children may have an identified or unidentified disability, the educational experiences of refugee children with disabilities in Turkey were an ancillary focus. Results indicated that while some educational challenges have been successfully met within Turkey, others remain. Additionally, the education of children with disabilities in Turkey is largely unexamined.

Keywords: disability, education, refugee, systematic review, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 156