Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7917

Search results for: channel partially filled with a porous material

7917 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy


The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation

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7916 Temperature Fields in a Channel Partially-Filled by Porous Material with Internal Heat Generations: On Exact Solution

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi


The present work examines analytically the effect internal heat generation on temperature fields in a channel partially-filled with a porous under local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The Darcy-Brinkman model is used to represent the fluid transport through the porous material. Two fundamental models (models A and B) represent the thermal boundary conditions at the interface between the porous medium and the clear region. The governing equations of the problem are manipulated, and for each interface model, exact solutions for the solid and fluid temperature fields are developed. These solutions incorporate the porous material thickness, Biot number, fluid to solid thermal conductivity ratio Darcy number, as the non-dimensional energy terms in fluid and solid as parameters. Results show that considering any of the two models and under zero or negative heat generation (heat sink) and for any Darcy number, an increase in the porous thickness increases the amount of heat flux transferred to the porous region. The obtained results are applicable to the analysis of complex porous media incorporating internal heat generation, such as heat transfer enhancement (THE), tumor ablation in biological tissues and porous radiant burners (PRBs).

Keywords: porous media, local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection, heat transfer, exact solution, internal heat generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
7915 Convective Brinkman-Forchiemer Extended Flow through Channel Filled with Porous Material: An Approximate Analytical Approach

Authors: Basant K. Jha, M. L. Kaurangini


An approximate analytical solution is presented for convective flow in a horizontal channel filled with porous material. The Brinkman-Forchheimer extension of Darcy equation is utilized to model the fluid flow while the energy equation is utilized to model temperature distribution in the channel. The solutions were obtained utilizing the newly suggested technique and compared with those obtained from an implicit finite-difference solution.

Keywords: approximate analytical, convective flow, porous material, Brinkman-Forchiemer

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
7914 Thermal Analysis of a Channel Partially Filled with Porous Media Using Asymmetric Boundary Conditions and LTNE Model

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Kaili Zhang


This work considers forced convection in a channel partially filled with porous media from local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) point of view. The channel is heated with constant heat flux from the lower side and is isolated on the top side. The wall heat flux is considered to be divided between the solid and fluid phases based on their temperature gradients and effective thermal conductivities. The general forms of the velocity and temperature fields are analytically obtained. To obtain the constant parameters for temperature equations, a numerical solution is considered. Using different thermophysical parameters, both velocity and temperature fields are comprehensively illustrated. Discussions regarding bifurcation phenomenon are provided. Since this geometry has not been considered yet, the present analysis is a useful addition to the literature on thermal performance of porous systems from LTNE perspective.

Keywords: local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection, thermal bifurcation, porous-fluid interface, combined analytical-numerical solution

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7913 Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium

Authors: Hamid Maidat, Khedidja Bouhadef, Djamel Eddine Ameziani, Azzedine Abdedou


This work consists of a numerical simulation of convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio and the volumetric heat generation. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.

Keywords: local thermal non equilibrium model, mixed convection, porous medium, power generation

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7912 Unsteady Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Partially Filled with Porous Media Using a Thermal Non-Equilibrium Model

Authors: Ammar Alsabery, Habibis Saleh, Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim


Unsteady natural convection and heat transfer in a square cavity partially filled with porous media using a thermal non-equilibrium model is studied in this paper. The left vertical wall is maintained at a constant hot temperature and the right vertical wall is maintained at a constant cold temperature, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing equations are obtained by applying the Darcy model and Boussinesq approximation. COMSOL's finite element method is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations together with specified boundary conditions. The governing parameters of this study are the Rayleigh number, the modified thermal conductivity ratio, the inter-phase heat transfer coefficien and the time independent. The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines in both fluid/porous layer, isotherms of fluid and solid porous layer, isotherms of fluid layer, and average Nusselt number.

Keywords: unsteady natural convection, thermal non-equilibrium model, Darcy model

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7911 Numerical Investigation of Hybrid Ferrofluid Unsteady Flow through Porous Channel

Authors: Wajahat Hussain Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi


The viscous, two-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar time-dependent heat transfer flow through a ferromagnetic fluid is considered in this paper. Flow takes place in a channel between two porous walls under the influence of the magnetic field located beyond the channel. It is assumed that there are no electric field effects and the variation in the magnetic field vector that could occur within the F

Keywords: hybrid ferrofluid, heat transfer, magnetic field, porous channel

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7910 Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Effects on Micropolar-Newtonian Fluid Flow through a Composite Porous Channel

Authors: Satya Deo, Deepak Kumar Maurya


The present study investigates the ow of a Newtonian fluid sandwiched between two rectangular porous channels filled with micropolar fluid in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in a direction perpendicular to that of the fluid motion. The governing equations of micropolar fluid are modified by Nowacki's approach. For respective porous channels, expressions for velocity vectors, microrotations, stresses (shear and couple) are obtained analytically. Continuity of velocities, continuities of micro rotations and continuity of stresses are used at the porous interfaces; conditions of no-slip and no spin are applied at the impervious boundaries of the composite channel. Numerical values of flow rate, wall shear stresses and couple stresses at the porous interfaces are calculated for different values of various parameters. Graphs of the ow rate and fluid velocity are plotted and their behaviors are discussed.

Keywords: couple stress, flow rate, Hartmann number, micropolar fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
7909 Heat and Mass Transfer of an Oscillating Flow in a Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Zahra Neffah, Henda Kahalerras


A numerical study is made in a parallel-plate porous channel subjected to an oscillating flow and an exothermic chemical reaction on its walls. The flow field in the porous region is modeled by the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the modified Frank-Kamenetskii (FKm) and Damköhler (Dm) numbers, the amplitude of oscillation (A), and the Strouhal number (St) are examined. The main results show an increase of heat and mass transfer rates with A and St, and their decrease with FKm and Dm.

Keywords: chemical reaction, heat and mass transfer, oscillating flow, porous channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
7908 Linear Stability of Convection in an Inclined Channel with Nanofluid Saturated Porous Medium

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, Nidhi Humnekar


The goal of this research is to numerically investigate the convection of nanofluid flow in an inclined porous channel. Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted for by nanofluid. In addition, the flow in the porous region governs Brinkman’s equation. The perturbed state of the generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained using normal mode analysis, and Chebyshev spectral collocation was used to solve this problem. For various values of the governing parameters, the critical wavenumber and critical Rayleigh number are calculated, and preferred modes are identified.

Keywords: Brinkman model, inclined channel, nanofluid, linear stability, porous media

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7907 Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Partial Porous Channel Using LTNE and Exothermicity/Endothermicity Features

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Nader Karimi, Kaili Zhang


This work aims to provide a comprehensive study on the heat transfer and entropy generation rates of a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous medium which experiences internal heat generation or consumption due to exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction. The focus has been given to the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. The LTNE approach helps us to deliver more accurate data regarding temperature distribution within the system and accordingly to provide more accurate Nusselt number and entropy generation rates. Darcy-Brinkman model is used for the momentum equations, and constant heat flux is assumed for boundary conditions for both upper and lower surfaces. Analytical solutions have been provided for both velocity and temperature fields. By incorporating the investigated velocity and temperature formulas into the provided fundamental equations for the entropy generation, both local and total entropy generation rates are plotted for a number of cases. Bifurcation phenomena regarding temperature distribution and interface heat flux ratio are observed. It has been found that the exothermicity or endothermicity characteristic of the channel does have a considerable impact on the temperature fields and entropy generation rates.

Keywords: entropy generation, exothermicity or endothermicity, forced convection, local thermal non-equilibrium, analytical modelling

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7906 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Spongy-Porous Media

Authors: Zeinab Sayed Abdel Rehim, M. A. Ziada, H. Salwa El-Deeb


Numerical study of fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal energy storing or released in/from spongy-porous media to predict the thermal performance and characteristics of the porous media as packed bed system is presented in this work. This system is cylindrical channel filled with porous media (carbon foam). The system consists of working fluid (air) and spongy-porous medium; they act as the heat exchanger (heating or cooling modes) where thermal interaction occurs between the working fluid and the porous medium. The spongy-porous media are defined by the different type of porous medium employed in the storing or cooling modes. Two different porous media are considered in this study: Carbon foam, and Silicon rubber. The flow of the working fluid (air) is one dimensional in the axial direction from the top to downward and steady state conditions. The numerical results of transient temperature distribution for both working fluid and the spongy-porous medium phases and the amount of stored/realized heat inside/from the porous medium for each case with respect to the operating parameters and the spongy-porous media characteristics are illustrated.

Keywords: fluid flow, heat transfer, numerical analysis, spongy-porous media, thermal performance, transient conditions

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7905 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry, Mourad Magherbi


The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: entropy generation, porous media, heat transfer, mixed convection, numerical methods, darcy, brinkman

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7904 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Brahim Fersadou, Henda Kahalerras


This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: heat sources, magnetic field, mixed convection, porous channel

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7903 Sloshing Response of Liquid in Prismatic Container under Oscillation

Authors: P. R. Maiti, S. K. Bhattacharyya


Sloshing is a physical phenomenon characterized by the oscillation of unrestrained free surface of liquid in a partially liquid filled container subjected to external excitation. Determination of sloshing frequency in container is important to avoid resonance condition of the system. The complex behavior of the free surface movement and its combined mode of vibration make difficulty for exact analysis of sloshing. In the present study, numerical analysis is carried out for a partially liquid filled tank under external forces. Boundary element approach is used to formulate the sloshing problem in two -dimensional prismatic container with potential flow. Effort has been made to find slosh response for two dimensional problems in partially liquid filled prismatic container.

Keywords: sloshing, boundary element method, prismatic container, oscillation

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7902 Experimental Study of Flow Effects of Solid Particles’ Size in Porous Media

Authors: S. Akridiss, E. El Tabach, K. Chetehouna, N. Gascoin, M. S. Kadiri


Transpiration cooling combined to regenerative cooling is a technique that could be used to cool the porous walls of the future ramjet combustion chambers; it consists of using fuel that will flow through the pores of the porous material consisting of the chamber walls, as coolant. However, at high temperature, the fuel is pyrolysed and generates solid coke particles inside the porous materials. This phenomenon can lead to a significant decrease of the material permeability and can affect the efficiency of the cooling system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, an experimental laboratory study was undertaken to determine the transport and deposition of particles in a sintered porous material subjected to steady state flow. The test bench composed of a high-pressure autoclave is used to study the transport of different particle size (35

Keywords: experimental study, permeability, porous material, suspended particles

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7901 Opportunities and Challenges of Omni Channel Retailing in the Emerging Market

Authors: Salma Ahmed, Anil Kumar


This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the drivers and barriers for Omni-Channel retail. This study serves as one of the first attempt to empirically test the effect of various factors on Omni-channel retail. Omni-channel is relative new and evolving, we hypothesize three drivers: (1) Innovative sales and marketing opportunities, (2) channel migration, (3) Cross channel synergies; and three barriers: (1) Integrated sales and marketing operations, (2) Visibility and synchronization (3) Integration and Technology challenges. The findings from the study strongly support that Omni-channel effects exist between cross channel synergy and channel migration. However, it partially supports innovative sales and marketing operations. We also found the variables which we identified as barriers to Omni-channel retail have a strong impact on Omni-channel retail.

Keywords: retailing, multichannel, Omni-channel, emerging market

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7900 Poly(S/DVB)HIPE Filled with Cellulose from Water Hyacinth

Authors: Metinee Kawsomboon, Thanchanok Tulaphol, Manit Nithitanakul, Jitima Preechawong


PolyHIPE is a porous polymeric material from polymerization of high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) which contains 74% of internal phase (disperse phase) and 26 % of external phase (continues phase). Typically, polyHIPE was prepared from styrene (S) and divinylbenzene (DVB) and they were used in various kind of applications such as catalyst support, gas adsorption, separation membranes, and tissue engineering scaffolds due to high specific surface areas, high porousity, ability to adsorb large quantities of liquid. In this research, cellulose from water hyacinth (Eichornia Crassipes), an aquatic plant that grows and spread rapidly in rivers and waterways in Thailand was added into polyHIPE to increase mechanical property of polyHIPE. Addition of unmodified and modified cellulose to poly(S/DVB)HIPE resulting in a decrease in the surface area and thermal stability of the resulting materials. Mechanical properties of the resulting polyHIPEs filled with both unmodified and modified cellulose exhibited higher compressive strength and Young’s modulus by 146.3% and 162.5% respectively, compared to unfilled polyHIPEs. The water adsorption capacity of filled polyHIPE was also improved.

Keywords: porous polymer, PolyHIPE, cellulose, surface modification, water hyacinth

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7899 Terminal Ballistic Analysis of Non-Filled and Water-Filled Tank

Authors: M. R. Aziz, W. Kuntjoro, N. V. David


This paper presents the ballistic terminal study of the non-filled and water-filled aluminum tank. The objective was to determine the failure stages for both cases. The tank was impacted by fragment simulating projectile (FSP) with 260 m/s for non-filled and 972 m/s for water-filled. The aluminum tank was 3 mm thick, 150 mm wide and 750 mm long. The ends of the tank were closed with two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) windows. The test was conducted at the Science and Technology Research Institute for Defense (STRIDE) Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia. The results showed four main stages for non-filled tank, which were first contact between FSP and the tank, partially perforated, fully perforated with FSP and plug still intact and lastly fully perforated with FSP and plug separated. Meanwhile, for the water-filled tank, there were seven main stages, which were first contact between FSP and the tank, partial perforation, full perforation, drag phase, cavity phase, bounce wave event and the collapse of the cavity.

Keywords: fragment simulating projectile, high speed camera, tensile test, terminal ballistic

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7898 Finite Element Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Porous Material

Authors: V. D. Thi, M. Li, M. Khelifa, M. El Ganaoui, Y. Rogaume


This paper presents a two-dimensional model to study the heat and moisture transfer through porous building materials. Dynamic and static coupled models of heat and moisture transfer in porous material under low temperature are presented and the coupled models together with variable initial and boundary conditions have been considered in an analytical way and using the finite element method. The resulting coupled model is converted to two nonlinear partial differential equations, which is then numerically solved by an implicit iterative scheme. The numerical results of temperature and moisture potential changes are compared with the experimental measurements available in the literature. Predicted results demonstrate validation of the theoretical model and effectiveness of the developed numerical algorithms. It is expected to provide useful information for the porous building material design based on heat and moisture transfer model.

Keywords: finite element method, heat transfer, moisture transfer, porous materials, wood

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7897 Forced Heat Transfer Convection in a Porous Channel with an Oriented Confined Jet

Authors: Azzedine Abdedou, Khedidja Bouhadef


The present study is an analysis of the forced convection heat transfer in porous channel with an oriented jet at the inlet with uniform velocity and temperature distributions. The upper wall is insulated when the bottom one is kept at constant temperature higher than that of the fluid at the entrance. The dynamic field is analysed by the Brinkman-Forchheimer extended Darcy model and the thermal field is traduced by the energy one equation model. The numerical solution of the governing equations is obtained by using the finite volume method. The results mainly concern the effect of Reynolds number, jet angle and thermal conductivity ratio on the flow structure and local and average Nusselt numbers evolutions.

Keywords: forced convection, porous media, oriented confined jet, fluid mechanics

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7896 Numerical Prediction of Entropy Generation in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Nadia Allouache


The concept of second law is assumed to be important to optimize the energy losses in heat exchangers. The present study is devoted to the numerical prediction of entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction in a double tube heat exchanger partly or fully filled with a porous medium. The goal of this work is to find the optimal conditions that allow minimizing entropy generation. For this purpose, numerical modeling based on the control volume method is used to describe the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the fluid and the porous medium. Effects of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and the effective thermal conductivity have been investigated. Unexpectedly, the fully porous heat exchanger yields a lower entropy generation than the partly porous case or the fluid case even if the friction increases the entropy generation.

Keywords: heat exchangers, porous medium, second law approach, turbulent flow

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7895 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy


A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: compressible flow, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, porous media

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7894 Thermal Analysis for Darcy Forchheimer Effect with Hybrid Ferro Fluid Flow

Authors: Behzad Ali Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi


The article analyzes the Darcy Forchheimer 2D Hybrid ferrofluid. The flow of a Hybrid ferrofluid is made due to an unsteady porous channel. The classical liquid water is treated as a based liquid. The flow in the permeable region is characterized by the Darcy-Forchheimer relation. Heat transfer phenomena are studied during the flow. The transformation of a partial differential set of equations into a strong ordinary differential frame is formed through appropriate variables. The numerical Shooting Method is executed for solving the simplified set of equations. In addition, a numerical analysis (ND-Solve) is utilized for the convergence of the applied technique. The influence of some flow model quantities like Pr (Prandtle number), r (porous medium parameter), F (Darcy-porous medium parameter), Re (Reynolds number), Pe (Peclet number) on velocity and temperature field are scrutinized and studied through sketches. Certain physical factors like f ''(η) (skin friction coefficient) and θ^'(η) (rate of heat transfer) are first derived and then presented through tables.

Keywords: darcy forcheimer, hybrid ferro fluid, porous medium, porous channel

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7893 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris


In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number

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7892 Fabrication of Porous Materials for the Removal of Lead from Waste Water

Authors: Marcia Silva, Jayme Kolarik, Brennon Garthwait, William Lee, Hai-Feng Zhang


Adsorption of lead by a natural porous material was studied to establish a baseline for the removal of heavy metals from drinking and waste water. Samples were examined under different conditions such as solution pH, solution concentration, solution temperature, and exposure time. New materials with potentially enhanced adsorption properties were developed by functionalizing the surface of the natural porous material to fabricate graphene based coated and sulfide based treated porous material. The functionalized materials were characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Solution pH effect on removal efficiency has been investigated in acidic (pH = 4), neutral (pH = 6) and basic (pH = 10) pH levels. All adsorbent materials showed highest adsorption capacities at neutral pH levels. Batch experiment was employed to assess the efficacy for the removal of lead with the sorption kinetics and the adsorption isotherms being determined for the natural and treated porous materials. The addition of graphene-based and sulfide-based materials increased the lead removal capacity of the natural clean porous material. Theoretical calculations confirmed pseudo-second order model as kinetic mechanism for lead adsorption for all adsorbents.

Keywords: heavy metals, ion exchange, adsorption, water remediation

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7891 Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Transpiration on Transient/Steady Natural Convection Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid in a Vertical Channel Formed by Two Vertical Porous Plates

Authors: Ahmad K. Samaila, Basant K. Jha


This study is devoted to investigate the effect of transpiration on transient as well as steady-state natural convection flow of a reactive viscous fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite vertical parallel porous plates. The Boussinesq assumption is applied and the nonlinear governing equations of energy and momentum are developed. The problem is solved numerically using implicit finite difference method and analytically for steady-state case using perturbation method. Solutions are presented in graphical form for fluid temperature, velocity, and skin-friction and wall heat transfer rate for various parametric values. It is found that velocity, temperature, rate of heat transfer as well as skin-friction are strongly affected by mass leakage through the porous plates.

Keywords: transpiration, reactive viscous fluid, porous plates, natural convection, suction/injection

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7890 Formation of Round Channel for Microfluidic Applications

Authors: A. Zahra, G. de Cesare, D. Caputo, A. Nascetti


PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) polymer is a suitable material for biological and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) designers, because of its biocompatibility, transparency and high resistance under plasma treatment. PDMS round channel is always been of great interest due to its ability to confine the liquid with membrane type micro valves. In this paper we are presenting a very simple way to form round shape microfluidic channel, which is based on reflow of positive photoresist AZ® 40 XT. With this method, it is possible to obtain channel of different height simply by varying the spin coating parameters of photoresist.

Keywords: lab-on-chip, PDMS, reflow, round microfluidic channel

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7889 Evaluation of Sloshing in Process Equipment for Floating Cryogenic Application

Authors: Bo Jin


A variety of process equipment having flow in and out is widely used in industrial land-based cryogenic facilities. In some of this equipment, such as vapor-liquid separator, a liquid level is established during the steady operation. As the implementation of such industrial processes extends to off-shore floating facilities, it is important to investigate the effect of sea motion on the process equipment partially filled with liquid. One important aspect to consider is the occurrence of sloshing therein. The flow characteristics are different from the classical study of sloshing, where the fluid is enclosed inside a vessel (e.g., storage tank) with no flow in or out. Liquid inside process equipment continuously flows in and out of the system. To understand this key difference, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate the liquid motion inside a partially filled cylinder with and without continuous flow in and out. For a partially filled vertical cylinder without any continuous flow in and out, the CFD model is found to be able to capture the well-known sloshing behavior documented in the literature. For the cylinder with a continuous steady flow in and out, the CFD simulation results demonstrate that the continuous flow suppresses sloshing. Given typical cryogenic fluid has very low viscosity, an analysis based on potential flow theory is developed to explain why flow into and out of the cylinder changes the natural frequency of the system and thereby suppresses sloshing. This analysis further validates the CFD results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, cryogenic process equipment, off-shore floating processes, sloshing

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7888 Thermal Regulation of Channel Flows Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Kira Toxopeus, Kamran Siddiqui


Channel flows are common in a wide range of engineering applications. In some types of channel flows, particularly the ones involving chemical or biological processes, the control of the flow temperature is crucial to maintain the optimal conditions for the chemical reaction or to control the growth of biological species. This often becomes an issue when the flow experiences temperature fluctuations due to external conditions. While active heating and cooling could regulate the channel temperature, it may not be feasible logistically or economically and is also regarded as a non-sustainable option. Thermal energy storage utilizing phase change material (PCM) could provide the required thermal regulation sustainably by storing the excess heat from the channel and releasing it back as required, thus regulating the channel temperature within a range in the proximity of the PCM melting temperature. However, in designing such systems, the configuration of the PCM storage within the channel is critical as it could influence the channel flow dynamics, which would, in turn, affect the heat exchange between the channel fluid and the PCM. The present research is focused on the investigation of the flow dynamical behavior in the channel during heat transfer from the channel flow to the PCM thermal energy storage. Offset vertical columns in a narrow channel were used that contained the PCM. Two different column shapes, square and circular, were considered. Water was used as the channel fluid that entered the channel at a temperature higher than that of the PCM melting temperature. Hence, as the water was passing through the channel, the heat was being transferred from the water to the PCM, causing the PCM to store the heat through a phase transition from solid to liquid. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the two-dimensional velocity field of the channel flow as it flows between the PCM columns. Thermocouples were also attached to the PCM columns to measure the PCM temperature at three different heights. Three different water flow rates (0.5, 0.75 and 1.2 liters/min) were considered. At each flow rate, experiments were conducted at three different inlet water temperatures (28ᵒC, 33ᵒC and 38ᵒC). The results show that the flow rate and the inlet temperature influenced the flow behavior inside the channel.

Keywords: channel flow, phase change material, thermal energy storage, thermal regulation

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