Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 169

Search results for: sucking pests

169 Evaluation of Neonicotinoids Against Sucking Insect Pests of Cotton in Laboratory and Field Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad D. Gogi, Muhammad Arshad, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) universally known as silver fiber and is one of the most important cash crop of Pakistan. A wide array of pests constraints cotton production among which sucking insect pests cause serious losses. Mostly new chemistry insecticides used to control a wide variety of insect pests including sucking insect pests. In the present study efficacy of different neonicotinoids was evaluated against sucking insect pests of cotton in the field and in laboratory for red and dusky cotton bug. The experiment was conducted at Entomology Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Confidence Ultra (Imidacloprid) 70% SL, Confidor (Imidacloprid) 20% SL, Kendo (Lambda cyhalothrin) 24.7 SC, Actara (Thiamethoxam) 25% WG, Forcast (Tebufenozide+ Emamectin benzoate) 8.8 EW and Timer (Emamectin benzoate) 1.9 EC at their recommended doses. The data was collected on per leaf basis of thrips, aphid, jassid and whitefly before 24 hours of spray. The post treatment data was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The fresh, non-infested and untreated cotton leaves was collected from the field and brought to the laboratory to assess the efficacy of neonicotinoids against red and dusky cotton bug. After data analysis all the insecticides were found effective against sucking pests. Confidence Ultra was highly effective against the aphid, jassid, and whitefly and gave maximum mortality, while showed non-significant results against thrips. In case of aphid plot which was treated with Kando 24.7 SC showed significant mortality after 72 hours of pesticide application. Similar trends were found in laboratory conditions with all these treatments by making different concentrations and had significant impact on dusky cotton bug and red cotton bug population after 24, 48 and 72 hours after application.

Keywords: cotton, laboratory and field conditions, neonicotinoids, sucking insect pests

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168 Bioefficacy of Novel Insecticide Flupyradifurone Sl 200 against Leaf Hoppers, Aphids and Whitefly in Cotton

Authors: N. V. V. S. D. Prasad

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India for two seasons during 2011-13 to evaluate the efficacy of flupyradifurone SL 200 a new class of insecticide in butenolide group against leaf hoppers, aphids and whitefly in Cotton. The test insecticide flupyradifurone 200 was evaluated at three doses @ 150, 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha along with imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha, acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha, thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g ai/ha and monocrotophos 36 SL @ 360 g ai/ha as standards. Flupyradifurone SL 200 even at lower dose of 150g ai/ha exhibited superior efficacy against cotton leafhopper, Amrasca devastans than the neonicotinoids which are widely used for control of sucking pests in cotton. Against cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii. Flupyradifurone SL 200 @ 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha was proved to be effective and the lower dose @ 150g ai/ha performed better than some of the neonicotinoids. The effect of flupyradifurone SL 200 on cotton against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was evident at higher doses of 200 and 250 g ai/ha and superior to all standard treatments, however, the lower dose is at par with neonicotinoids. The seed cotton yield of flupyradifurone 200 SL at all the doses tested was superior than imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha and acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha. There is no significant difference among the insecticidal treatments with regards to natural enemies. The results clearly suggest that flupyradifurone is a new tool to combat sucking pest problems in cotton and can well fit in IRM strategies in light of wide spread insecticide resistance in cotton sucking pests.

Keywords: cotton, flupyradifurone, neonicotinoids, sucking pests

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167 Circadian Rhythm of Blood-Sucking Behavior of Female Forcipomyia taiwana

Authors: Chang-Liang Shih, Kuei-Min Liao, Ya-Yuan Wang, Wu-Chun Tu

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Forcipomyia taiwana, an important vexing pest, influences the development of the industry of Taiwan tourism and the quality of country life. Using human-attractant method to investigate the blood-sucking behavior of Forcipomyia taiwana in three districts in Taichung, it revealed that female F. taiwana only exhibits blood-sucking behavior in daytime, not in nighttime. The blooding-sucking behavior of female F. taiwana was affected by some factors, i.e., season and atmospheric factors. During 2008 to 2010, our study revealed that blood-sucking behavior commenced from 7:00 to 8:00 in the spring equinox, the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox, but from 8:00 to 9:00 in the winter solstice. However, regardless of any seasons, it revealed that blood-sucking behavior reached the acme between 13:00 and 15:00, and then descending. In those four seasons, the summer solstice had longer lighting and higher temperature, the average sucking activity was around 12 hours, on the contrary, the winter solstice had shorter lighting and lower temperature, the average sucking activity bridled to around 8 hours whilst it retrenched to 11 hours in the spring equinox and the autumnal equinox. To analyze the correlation between blood-sucking behavior and atmospheric factors, it revealed that female blood-sucking behavior was correlated positively to temperature and lighting but negatively to humidity. In addition, our study also showed that there is no blood-sucking behavior under 18ºC.

Keywords: Forcipomyia taiwana, circadian rhythm, blood-sucking behavior, season

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
166 Spinetoram10% WG+Sulfoxaflor 30% WG: A Promising Green Chemistry to Manage Pest Complex in Bt Cotton

Authors: Siddharudha B. Patil

Abstract:

Cotton is a premier commercial fibre crop of India subjected to ravages of insect pests. Sucking pests viz thrips, Thrips tabaci,(lind) leaf hopper Amrsca devastance,(dist) miridbug, Poppiocapsidea beseratense (Dist) and bollworms continue to inflict damage Bt Cotton right from seeding stage. Their infestation impact cotton yield to an extent of 30-40 percent. Chemical control is still adoptable as one of the techniques for combating these pests. Presently, growers have many challenges in selecting effective chemicals which fit in with an integrated pest management. Spinetoram has broad spectrum with excellent insecticidal activity against both sucking pests and bollworms. Hence, it is expected to make a great contribution to stable production and quality improvement of agricultural products. Spinetoram is a derivative of biologically active substances (Spinosyns) produced by soil actinomycetes, Saccharopolypara spinosa which is semi synthetic active ingredient representing Spinosyn chemical class of insecticide and has demonstrated higher level of efficacy with reduced risk on beneficial arthropods. The efforts were made in the present study to test the efficacy of Spinetoram against sucking pests and bollworms in comparison with other insecticides in Bt Cotton under field condition. Field experiment was laid out during 2013-14 and 2014-15 at Agricultural Research station Dharwad (Karnataka-India) in a randomized block design comprising eight treatments and three replications. Bt cotton genotype, Bunny BG-II was sown in a plot size of 5.4 m x5.4 m. Recommend agronomical practices were followed. The Spinetoram 12% SC alone and incombination with sulfaxaflore with varied dosages against pest complex was tested. Performance was compared with Spinosad 45% SC and thiamethoxam 25% WG. The results of consecutive seasons revealed that nonsignificant difference in thrips and leafhopper population and varied significantly after 3 days of imposition. Among the treatments, combiproduct, Spinetoram 10%WG + Sulfoxaflor 30% [email protected] 140 gai/ha registered lowest population of thrips (3.91/3 leaves) and leaf hoppers (1.08/3 leaves) followed by its lower dosages viz 120 gai/ha (4.86/3 leaves and 1.14/3 leaves of thrips and leaf hoppers, respectively) and 100 gai/ha (6.02 and 1.23./3 leaves of thrips and leaf hoppers respectively) being at par, significantly superior to rest of the treatments. On the contrary, the population of thrips, leaf hopper and miridbugs in untreated control was on higher side. Similarly the higher dosage of Spinetoram 10% WG+ Sulfoxaflor 30% WG (140 gai/ha) proved its bioefficacy by registering lowest miridbug incidence of 1.70/25 squares, followed by its lower dosage (1.78 and 1.83/25 squares respectively) Further observation made on bollworms incidence revealed that the higher dosage of Spinetoram 10% WG+Sulfoxaflor 30% WG (140 gai/ha) registered lowest percentage of boll damage (7.22%), more number of good opened bolls (36.89/plant) and higher seed cotton yield (19.45q/ha) followed by rest of its lower dosages, Spinetoram 12% SC alone and Spinosad 45% SC being at par significantly superior to rest of the treatments. However, significantly higher boll damage (15.13%) and lower seed cotton yield (14.45 q/ha) was registered in untreated control. Thus Spinetoram10% WG+Sulfoxaflor 30% WG can be a promising option for pest management in Bt Cotton.

Keywords: Spinetoram10% WG+Sulfoxaflor 30% WG, sucking pests, bollworms, Bt cotton, management

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165 Major Sucking Pests of Rose and Their Seasonal Abundance in Bangladesh

Authors: Md Ruhul Amin

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This study was conducted in the experimental field of the Department of Entomology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2017 to May 2018 with a view to understanding the seasonal abundance of the major sucking pests namely thrips, aphid and red spider mite on rose. The findings showed that the thrips started to build up their population from the middle of January with abundance 1.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (2.6 leaf⁻¹) in the middle of February and then declined. Aphid started to build up their population from the second week of November with abundance 6.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.4 leaf⁻¹) in the last week of December and then declined. Mite started to build up their population from the first week of December with abundance 0.8 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.2 leaf⁻¹) in the second week of March and then declined. Thrips and mite prevailed until the last week of April, and aphid showed their abundance till last week of May. The daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with thrips and significant negative correlation with aphid abundance. The daily mean temperature had significant positive, relative humidity had an insignificant positive, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with mite abundance. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the weather parameters together contributed 38.1, 41.0 and 8.9% abundance on thrips, aphid and mite on rose, respectively and the equations were insignificant.

Keywords: aphid, mite, thrips, weather factors

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164 Date Palm Insects and Mite Pests at Biskra Oasis, South Algeria

Authors: N. Tarai, S. Seighi, S. Doumandji

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The date palm trees Phoenix dactylifera L. are subject to infestation with a variety of insect pests and mite associated, the Carob moth Ectomyelois ceatoniae (Zeller)(Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) is a key pest. Survey of the insect and mite pests associated with date palm trees in the seven stations at Biskra Oasis, throughout two successive years, from October 2011 until September 2012 revealed twelve insect pests belonging to ten families and six orders in addition to one mite belonging to one family from order Acari.

Keywords: date palm, insect, pests, infestation, mit, Biskra, Oasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
163 Diversity of Insect Pests of Paddy in Panhala Tehasil, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Manjiri A. More, Manisha M. Bhosale

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Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy and India is one of the world’s largest producers of Rice. Today, paddy crop is facing a severe problem of insect pests and is attacked by more than 100 species of insects, among those 20 species cause economic damage. Rice is the staple food of people of panhala tehasil, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. During June 2017 to September 2017 efforts were made to study the diversity of insect pests associated with the paddy crop in the study region. The collection and preservation of the specimens were done by following standard procedure and the identification was done with the help standard literature, taxonomic keys, and webography. In all, 6 species were recorded as pests of paddy in which order Lepidoptera was dominant with 2 species, while orders Diptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were represented by 1 species each respectively. The results of the present investigation will be helpful for formulating control strategies against these paddy pests.

Keywords: diversity, insect pests, Panhala, staple

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162 Insecticide Efficacy against Jassids in Egg Plants

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Farhan Ali, Muhammad Saeed-Ur-Rehman

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Jassids are considered as serious sucking pests in eggplants. Jassids can be controlled using imidacloprid, but it can also result in non-target ecological impacts on eco-system. It can also result in reduced population of predators of jassids in the field. An experiment was conducted on jassids, Amrasca sp. reared on eggplant leaves were treated with insecticide imidacloprid at lower, recommended and higher doses including 1L, 2L, 3L respectively. 3rd instar larvae and adults of jassids were exposed to lower, recommended, higher doses. Mortality tests were repeated three times for each dose and insect growth stage. Imidacloprid was sprayed on the leaves followed by drying. Data was recorded for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours after spraying insecticide on the leaves. Results showed that higher mortality was observed in higher and recommended doses, while slow mortality was observed in the case of lower dose. It can be asserted that higher and recommended doses causing immediate mortality of insects are better to control Amrasca sp. in the field, it will not cause immediate resistance development in insects against imidacloprid.

Keywords: Amrasca sp., imidacloprid, egg plant, efficacy

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161 Efficacy of Plant Extracts on Insect Pests of Watermelon and Their Effects on Nutritional Contents of the Fruits

Authors: Fatai Olaitan Alao, Thimoty Abiodun Adebayo, Oladele Abiodun Olaniran

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This experiment was conducted at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Teaching and Research farm during the major and minor planting season , 2017 to determine the effects of Annona squamosa (Linn.) and Moringa oleifera (Lam) extracts on insect pests of watermelon and their effects on nutritional contents of watermelon fruits. Synthetic insecticide and untreated plots were included in the treatments for comparison. Selected plants were prepared with cold water and each plant extracts was applied at three different concentrations (5,10 and 20% v/v). Data were collected on population density of insect pests, number of aborted fruits, number of defoliated flowers , the yield was calculated in t/ha, nutritional and fatty acid contents were determine using gas chromatography. The results show that the two major insects were observed - Diabrotica undicimpunctata and Dacus cucurbitea. The tested plant extracts had about 65% control of the observed insect pests when compared with the control and the two plant extracts had the same insecticidal efficacy. However, the applied plant extracts at 20% v/v had higher insecticidal effects than the other tested concentrations. Significant higher yield was observed on the plant extracts treated plants compared with untreated plants which had the least yield() but none of the plant extracts performed effectively as Lambdachyalothrin in the control of insect pests and yield. Meanwhile, the tested plant extracts significantly improved the proximate and fatty acid contents of watermelon fruits while Lambdachyalothrin contributed negatively to the nutritional contents of watermelon fruits. Therefore, A. squpmosa and M. oleifera can be used in the management of insect pests and to improve the nutritional contents of the watermelon especially in the organic farming system.

Keywords: Annona squamosa, Dacus cucubitea, Diabrotical undicimpunctata, Moringa oleifera, watermelon

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160 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Muhammad Arshad, Shahid Majeed

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Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.

Keywords: abundance, evenness, maize, richness

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159 Farmers Perception in Pesticide Usage in Curry Leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.))

Authors: Swarupa Shashi Senivarapu Vemuri

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Curry leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.)) exported from India had insecticide residues above maximum residue limits, which are hazardous to consumer health and caused rejection of the commodity at the point of entry in Europe and middle east resulting in a check on export of curry leaf. Hence to study current pesticide usage patterns in major curry leaf growing areas, a survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out in curry leaf growing areas in Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh during 2014-15, by interviewing farmers growing curry leaf utilizing the questionnaire to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of farmers are less, where 13.96 per cent were only high school educated, and 13.96% were illiterates. 18.60% farmers were found cultivating curry leaf crop in less than 1 acre of land, 32.56% in 2-5 acres, 20.93% in 5-10 acres and 27.91% of the farmers in more than 10 acres of land. Majority of the curry leaf farmers (93.03%) used pesticide mixtures rather than applying single pesticide at a time, basically to save time, labour, money and to combat two or more pests with single spray. About 53.48% of farmers applied pesticides at 2 days interval followed by 34.89% of the farmers at 4 days interval, and about 11.63% of the farmers sprayed at weekly intervals. Only 27.91% of farmers thought that the quantity of pesticides used at their farm is adequate, 90.69% of farmers had perception that pesticides are helpful in getting good returns. 83.72% of farmers felt that crop change is the only way to control sucking pests which damages whole crop. About 4.65% of the curry leaf farmers opined that integrated pest management practices are alternative to pesticides and only 11.63% of farmers felt natural control as an alternative to pesticides. About 65.12% of farmers had perception that high pesticide dose will give higher yields. However, in general, Curry leaf farmers preferred to contact pesticide dealers (100%) and were not interested in contacting either agricultural officer or a scientist. Farmers were aware of endosulfan ban 93.04%), in contrast, only 65.12, per cent of farmers knew about the ban of monocrotophos on vegetables. Very few farmers knew about pesticide residues and decontamination by washing. Extension educational interventions are necessary to produce fresh curry leaf free from pesticide residues.

Keywords: Curry leaf, decontamination, endosulfan, leaf roller, psyllids, tetranychid mite

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158 Determination of Harmful Important Mite (ACARI) and Nematoda Species, Their Distribution and Their Control Possibility on Garlic and Onion Growing Areas in Turkey

Authors: Cihan Cilbircioğlu

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Allium sativum L.(garlic) and Allium. cepa L. (onion) are the most common species of the Allium spp. and are produced at the very high rate all over the world. The yield loss caused by pests is the most important problem in the production of these crops. In the absence of control measures, yield loss would be around 35% on average. The yield loss sometimes depending on the pest species and population density can reach about 100%. Mites and nematodes are the most important pests of them. These pests that cause damage to A. sativum and A. cepa shows a wide range of taxonomic categories. The number of common pest mite and nematode species that cause damage to either A. sativum and A. cepa are over 20 species. In this study, detailed information on morphology, life cycle, management, and symptoms of the economically most important harmful important mite (acari) and nematode species of onion and garlic has been provided through careful survey of corresponding researches in Turkey and given information about new practices and approaches on their controls.

Keywords: onion, garlic, pest, acari, nematoda control methods, Turkey

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157 Records of Lepidopteron Borers (Lepidoptera) on Stored Seeds of Indian Himalayan Conifers

Authors: Pawan Kumar, Pitamber Singh Negi

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Many of the regeneration failures in conifers are often being attributed to heavy insect attack and pathogens during the period of seed formation and under storage conditions. Conifer berries and seed insects occur throughout the known range of the hosts and also limit the production of seed for nursery stock. On occasion, even entire seed crops are lost due to insect attacks. The berry and seeds of both the species have been found to be infected with insects. Recently, heavy damage to the berry and seeds of Juniper and Chilgoza Pine was observed in the field as well as in stored conditions, leading to reduction in the viability of seeds to germinate. Both the species are under great threat and regeneration of the species is very low. Due to lack of adequate literature, the study on the damage potential of seed insects was urgently required to know the exact status of the insect-pests attacking seeds/berries of both the pine species so as to develop pest management practices against the insect pests attack. As both the species are also under threat and are fighting for survival, so the study is important to develop management practices for the insect-pests of seeds/berries of Juniper and Chilgoza pine so as to evaluate in the nursery, as these species form major vegetation of their distribution zones. A six-year study on the management of insect pests of seeds of Chilgoza revealed that seeds of this species are prone to insect pests mainly borers. During present investigations, it was recorded that cones of are heavily attacked only by Dioryctria abietella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in natural conditions, but seeds which are economically important are heavily infected, (sometimes up to 100% damage was also recorded) by insect borer, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and is recorded for the first time ‘to author’s best knowledge’ infesting the stored Chilgoza seeds. Similarly, Juniper berries and seeds were heavily attacked only by a single borer, Homaloxestis cholopis (Lepidoptera: Lecithoceridae) recorded as a new report in natural habitat as well as in stored conditions. During the present investigation details of insect pest attack on Juniper and Chilgoza pine seeds and berries was observed and suitable management practices were also developed to contain the insect-pests attack.

Keywords: borer, chilgozapine, cones, conifer, Lepidoptera, juniper, management, seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
156 Efficiency of Lavandula angustifolia Mill and Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oils on nutritional indices of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Col.: Tenebrionidae)

Authors: Karim Saeidi

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One of the most important pests in the warehouses is the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Col.: Tenebrionidae). Regarding the high degree of damage of stored product pests and dangerous effects of the chemical control using plant extracts and their components are some of the best approaches to control these pests. Antifeedant activity of plant extracts from Lavandula angustifolia Mill and Zataria multiflora Boiss using hydro-distillation were tested against the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. The nutritional indices: relative growth rate (RGR), relative consumption rate (RCR), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and feeding deterrence index (FDI) were measured for adult insects. Treatments were evaluated using a flour disk bioassay in the dark; at 25±1ᵒC and 60±5% R. H. Concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, and 2 μl/disk were prepared from each essential oil. After 72 h, nutritional indices were calculated. L. angustifolia oils were more effective than Z. multiflora oils by significantly decreasing the RGR, RCR, and ECI. Feeding deterrence index (FDI) of L. angustifolia essential oil was increased significantly as essential oil concentration increased. The essential oil of L. angustifolia was more effective on FDI than Z. multiflora in some concentration.

Keywords: essential oil, nutritional indices, Tribolium confusum

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155 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon

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Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, insects, mango

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154 Investigations on Control Efficacy of Insecticides with Drone Application in Soybean Against Defoliator Insect Pests Under Field Condition

Authors: D. N. Kambrekar, C. P. Mallapur, Gurupad Balol, P. S. Tippannavar, Kartik Nidagundi

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In India, soybean has been the number one oilseed crop in terms of both area and production and has shown unparallel growth over the last few decades in terms of area and production. However, its continuous cultivation with simultaneous increase in the area has led to increase in insect pests incidence. Currently, soybean is severely attacked about a dozen of insect pest. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drone Technology) are a recently developed aerial spraying technology. However, the effect of spray volume variation on deposition and pesticides control efficacy is unknown. The effect of drone technology in terms of droplet deposition and soybean insect pest control efficiency was assessed in the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) during Kharif 2021. As a traditional method, Air Pressure Knapsack (APK) sprayer was used as a comparison. There was a significant difference in the spray deposition and control efficacy of insecticides with the drone technology and APK. The drone technology with ultra low volume spray (20 litres per hectare) with four finest droplet nozzles resulted in higher deposition of spray inside the crop canopy with 30-50 droplets/sq.cm and higher control efficacy of insect pests. High spray volume (500 litres per hectare) with knapsack sprayer led to better deposition only on the top crop canopy, but less percolation inside the crop resulted in poor control efficacy of the insecticides. The insecticide combi product, chlorantraniliprole 9.3% w/w + Lambda-cyhalothrin 4.6% w/w ZC (Ampligo 150 ZC) @ 200ml/ha sprayed with UAV at a spray volume of 20 litres per ha has recorded maximum protection of crop from defoliator insect pests in soybean (100 per cent control of defoliators viz., Spodoptera litura, and Thysanoplusia orichalcea at 24 hours after spraying) as compared to spraying of same insecticides with same dose with APK sprayer at the spray volume of 500 litres per ha (50 per cent control of defoliators at 24 hours after spraying). During the current year of investigation (Kharif 2021), there was a severe outbreak of S. litura in soybean, which was successfully managed with the drone application of insecticides with two sprays at a spray interval of 15 days. Further, chlorantraniliprole 9.3% w/w + Lambda cyhalothrin 4.6% w/w ZC at 200ml/ha has recorded highest grain yield of soybean compared to the application of same insecticide at the same dose with APK sprayer. This study clearly suggests the integration of drone technology in the management of insect pests very effectively.

Keywords: drone technology, control efficacy, insecticides, soybean, field condition

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153 Management of Insect Pests Using Baculovirus Based Biopesticides in India

Authors: Mudasir Gani, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Kamlesh Bali, Abdul Rouf Wani

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The gypsy moth (Lymantria obfuscata) and tent caterpillar (Malacosoma indicum) are serious pests that attack a wide range of fruit and forest trees in Jammu & Kashmir range of North-Western Himalayas in India. Investigations were carried out to isolate and bioprospect naturally occurring nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) as potent biopesticides against these pests. The biological and molecular characterization of NPV isolates from different ecosystems was conducted, and the polh, lef-8 and lef-9 genes were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The L. obfuscata NPV was more closely related to the L. dispar NPV, whereas M. indicum NPV was more closely related to the M. californicum NPV in the NCBI taxonomy database. Among different isolates, Bhaderwah isolates exhibited highest virus activity (LD₅₀ = 250 POBs/larvae) and speed of kill (ST₅₀ = 6.80 days) against L. obfuscata whereas Mahor isolates proved most virulent against M. indicum, with lowest LD₅₀ (257 POBs/larva) and ST₅₀ (6.80 days). The in vivo mass production for highest productivity and quality revealed that the optimum yield was obtained when 3rd instar larvae were inoculated with a viral dose of 1.44 × 105 POBs/larva and allowed to incubate for nine days for L. obfuscata. However, for M. indicum larvae, a viral dose of 2.88 × 10⁶ POBs/larva and incubation period of 10 days were found optimum. It was found that harvesting of moribund larvae yields good quality NPV. The field application of L. obfuscata NPV and M. indicum NPV against the respective host populations on apple and willow with the pre-standardized dosage of 1 × 10¹² POBs/acre reduced the larval population density up to 25-63%.

Keywords: baculoviruses, biopesticides, Lymantria obfuscata, Malacosoma indicum

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152 Solomon 300 OD (Betacyfluthrin+Imidacloprid): A Combi-Product for the Management of Insect-Pests of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

Authors: R. S. Giraddi, B. Thirupam Reddy, D. N. Kambrekar

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Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) an important commercial vegetable crop is ravaged by a number of insect-pests during both vegetative and reproductive phase resulting into significant crop loss.Thrips, Scirtothripsdorsalis, mite, Polyphagotarsonemuslatus and whitefly, Bemisiatabaci are the key sap feeding insects, their infestation leads to leaf curl, stunted growth and yield loss.During flowering and fruit formation stage, gall midge fly, Asphondyliacapparis (Rubsaaman) infesting flower buds and young fruits andHelicoverpaarmigera (Hubner) feeding on matured green fruits are the important insect pests causing significant crop loss.The pest is known to infest both flower buds and young fruits resulting into malformation of flower buds and twisting of fruits.In order to manage these insect-pests a combi product consisting of imidacloprid and betacyfluthrin (Soloman 300 OD) was evaluated for its bio-efficacy, phytotoxicity and effect on predator activity.Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide belonging to neo-nicotinoid group, is effective against insect pests such as aphids, whiteflies (sap feeders) and other insectsviz., termites and soil insects.Beta-Cyfluthrin is an insecticide of synthetic pyrethroid group which acts by contact action and ingestion. It acts on the insects' nervous system as sodium channel blocker consequently a disorder of the nervous system occurs leading finally to the death. The field experiments were taken up during 2015 and 2016 at the Main Agricultural Research Station of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.The trials were laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications using popular land race of Byadagi crop variety.Results indicated that the product at 21.6 + 50.4% gai/ha (240 ml/ha) and 27.9 + 65% gai/ha (310 ml/ha) was found quite effective in controlling thrips (0.00 to 0.66 thrips per six leaves) as against the standard check insecticide recommended for thrips by the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad wherein the density of thrips recorded was significantly higher (1.00 to 2.00 Nos./6 leaves). Similarly, the test insecticide was quite effective against other target insects, whiteflies, fruit borer and gall midge fly as indicated by lower insect population observed in the treatments as compared to standard insecticidal control. The predatory beetle activity was found to be normal in all experimental plots. Highest green fruit yield of 5100-5500 kg/ha was recorded in Soloman 300 OD applied crop at 310 ml/ha rate as compared to 4750 to 5050 kg/ha recorded in check. At present 6-8 sprays of insecticides are recommended for management of these insect-pests on the crop. If combi-products are used in pest management programmes, it is possible to reduce insecticide usages in crop ecosystem.

Keywords: Imidacloprid, Betacyfluthrin, gallmidge fly, thrips, chilli

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151 Elongation Factor 1 Alpha Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis for Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck

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Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major concern to fruit and vegetable production in the USA. Timely detection and identification of these agricultural pests facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. They spread primarily as larvae in infested fruits carried in commerce or personal baggage. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult but necessary to determine pest loads and their pathways into the USA. The main focus of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha. Many of its constituent taxa are pests of major economic importance. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed. Elongation factor 1 alpha sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level.

Keywords: anastrepha, diptera, elongation factor, fruit fly

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150 Interaction of Steinernema Glaseri, an Entomopathogenic Nematode with a Predatory Fungus Arthrobotrys Superba on Different Nutrient Media

Authors: Varsha Baweja

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Steinernema glaseri is known to be the most potent biocontrol agent against a number of insect pests of various orders and of diverse habitats under laboratory conditions. But in nature many micro pathogens may affect the efficacy of such entomopathogenic nematodes. Keeping this in view, the interaction of Steinernema glaseri with a predatory fungus Arthrobotrys superba was assessed on eight different nutrient media. The activity of A.superba was evaluated in terms of trap formation, conidiophore formation, and number of adhesive cells formed in the presence and absence of nematodes. The fungus failed to form any trap on any of the culture media in the absence of nematodes. However, in the presence of nematodes, the trap formation by the test fungus was increased but the number of conidiophores decreased with increase in dilution of Corn Meal Agar from 5% to 2%. Higher number of chlamydospores were observed in phenylalanine treated medium which indicates the inhibiting effect of phenylalanine on the growth of A. superba. Our results suggest that care should be taken during release of entomopathogenic nematodes in an agroecosystem for managing various insect pests in a more efficient manner.

Keywords: Entomopathogenic Nematode , Steinernema Glaseri, Predatory Fungus, Arthrobotrys Superba

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
149 Management of Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula on Date Palm Trees in UAE

Authors: Mohammad Ali Al-Deeb, Hamda Ateeq Al Dhaheri

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Insects cause major damage to crops and fruit trees worldwide. In the United Arab Emirates, the date palm tree is the most economically important tree which is used for date production as well as an ornamental tree. In 2002, the number of date palm trees in UAE was 40,700,000 and it is increasing over time. The longhorn stem borer (Jebusaea hammerschmidtii) and the lesser date month (Batrachedra amydraula) are important insect pests causing damage to date palm trees in UAE. Population dynamics of the Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula were studied by using light and pheromons traps, respectively in Al-Ain, UAE. The first trap catch of B. amydraula adults occurred on 19 April and the insect population peaked up on 26 April 2014. The first trap catch of J. hammerschmidtii occurred in April 2014. The numbers increased over time and the population peak occurred in June. The trapping was also done in 2015. The changes in insect numbers in relation to weather parameters are discussed. Also, the importance of the results on the management of these two pests is highlighted.

Keywords: date palm, integrated pest management, UAE, light trap, pheromone trap

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148 Efficacy of Defender 2% WS (Tebuconazole) and Imidal 70 WS (Imidacloprid) to Control Damping-Off Diseases and Early Insect Pests in Sesame in Rain Fed Areas, Sudan

Authors: Anas Fadlelmula, Elsafi M. M. Ahmed

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The efficacy of Defender 2% WS (tebuconazole) and Imidal 70 WS (imidacloprid) to control damping-off diseases and early insect pests in sesame crop under rain fed conditions at Damazine and Gedarif areas was evaluated. Defender 2% WS with dosage rates 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of seeds and Imidal 70 WS at 2.25, 3.0, and 3.75 g/ kg of seeds were tested singly and as a mixture during 2010/2011 and 2012/013. Sesame seeds treated with Defender at the rates of 0.5 g and 0.75 g/ kg of seeds gave a high significant increase in percent seedlings emergence (84% and 85%) respectively. Imidal 70 WS at rate of 3g/kg seed showed the least percent damaged leaves by sesame webworm (1.7%). However, the mixed Defender at rate 0.75g with Imidal at 3 g/kg seed, significantly gave a highest percentage of sesame seedling emergence (85.1%) and reduced the incidence of post-emergence damping off and percent damaged leaves to the least per cent (2.1% and 0.4% ) respectively, compared to other treatments. Consequently, the mixed treatment of 0.75 g of Defender + 3 g of Imidal improved the crop stand and significantly gave the highest yield (405.2 kg and 418.8 kg/fed) respectively in both sites compared to the other treatments.

Keywords: seed dressers, damage, daming off, insects

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147 [Keynote Talk]: The Challenges and Solutions for Developing Mobile Apps in a Small University

Authors: Greg Turner, Bin Lu, Cheer-Sun Yang

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As computing technology advances, smartphone applications can assist in student learning in a pervasive way. For example, the idea of using a mobile apps for the PA Common Trees, Pests, Pathogens, in the field as a reference tool allows middle school students to learn about trees and associated pests/pathogens without bringing a textbook. In the past, some researches study the mobile software Mobile Application Software Development Life Cycle (MADLC) including traditional models such as the waterfall model, or more recent Agile Methods. Others study the issues related to the software development process. Very little research is on the development of three heterogenous mobile systems simultaneously in a small university where the availability of developers is an issue. In this paper, we propose to use a hybride model of Waterfall Model and the Agile Model, known as the Relay Race Methodology (RRM) in practice, to reflect the concept of racing and relaying for scheduling. Based on the development project, we observe that the modeling of the transition between any two phases is manifested naturally. Thus, we claim that the RRM model can provide a de fecto rather than a de jure basis for the core concept in the MADLC. In this paper, the background of the project is introduced first. Then, the challenges are pointed out followed by our solutions. Finally, the experiences learned and the future work are presented.

Keywords: agile methods, mobile apps, software process model, waterfall model

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146 Study of Potato Cyst Nematodes (Globodera Rostochiensis, Globodera pallida) in Georgia

Authors: Ekatereine Abashidze, Nino Nazarashvili, Dali Gaganidze, Oleg Gorgadze, Mariam Aznarashvili, Eter Gvritishvili

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Potato is one of the leading agricultural crops in Georgia. Georgia produces early and late potato varieties in almost all regions. Potato production is equal to 25,000 ha and its average yield is 20-25 t/ha. Among the plant pests that limit potato production and quality, the potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida (Stone) Behrens and Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenveber) Behrens) are harmful around the world. PCN is among the most difficult plant pests to control. Cysts protected by a durable wall can survive for over 30 years . Control of PCN (G. pallida and G. rostochiensis) is regulated by Council Directive 2007/33/EE C. There was no legislative regulation of these pests in Georgia before 2016. By Resolution #302 from July 1, 2016, developed within the action plan of the DCFTA (Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area) the Government of Georgia established control over potato cyst nematodes. The Agreement about the legal acts approximation to EU legislation concerns the approval of rules of PCN control and research of these pests. Taking into consideration the above mentioned, it is necessary to study PCN (G. pallida and G. rostochiensis) in the potato-growing areas of Georgia. The aim of this research is to conduct survey of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) in two geographically distinct regions of Georgia - Samtskhe - Javakheti and Svanetii and to identify the species G. Rostochiensis and G. Pallida by the morphological - morphometric and molecular methods. Soil samples were taken in each village, in a zig-zag pattern on the potato fields of the private sector, using the Metlitsky method. Samples were taken also from infested potato plant roots. To extract nematode cysts from soil samples Fanwick can be used according to standard methods by EPPO. Cysts were measured under a stereoscopic microscope (Leica M50). Identification of the nematod species was carried out according to morphological and morphometric characteristics of the cysts and larvae using appropriate protocols EPPO. For molecular identification, a multiplex PCR test was performed by the universal ITS5 and cyst nematodes’ (G. pallida, G. rostochiensis) specific primers. To identify the species of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) in two regions (Samtskhe-Javakheti and Svaneti) were taken 200 samples, among them: 80 samples in Samtskhe-Javakheti region and 120 in Svaneti region. Cysts of Globiodera spp. were revealed in 50 samples obtained from Samtskhe-Javakheti and 80 samples from Svaneti regions. Morphological, morphometric and molecular analysis of two forms of PCN found in investigated regions of Georgia shows that one form of PCN belongs to G. rostoshiensi; the second form is the different species of Globodera sp.t is the subject of future research. Despite the different geographic locations, larvae and cysts of G. rostoshiensi were found in both regions. But cysts and larvae of G. pallida were not reported. Acknowledgement: The research has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation of Georgia: Project # FR17_235.

Keywords: cyst nematode, globodera rostochiensis, globodera pallida, morphologic-morphometric measurement

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145 Entomological Study of Pests of Olive Trees in the Region of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Smail Chafaa, Abdelkrim Si Bachir

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Our work aims to study the insect diversity based on bioclimatic levels of pests in olive cultures (Olea europea L.) in the area of Batna (arid and semi arid north eastern Algeria) during the period from January 2011 to May 2011. Several sampling techniques were used, those of hunting on sight, visual inspection, hatches traps, colored traps, Japanese umbrella and sweep net. We have identified in total, 2311 individuals with results in inventory 206 species divided to 74 families and 11 orders, including Coleoptera order is quantitatively the most represented with 47.1%. The most dominant diet in our inventory is the phytophagous. Between the herbivorous insects that we have listed and which are the main olive pest of olive cultivation; we quote the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), cochineal purple olive (Parlatoria oleae) the psyllid olive (Euphyllura olivina) and olive Trips (Liothrips oleae). The distribution of species between stations shows that Boumia resort with the most number of species (113) compared to other resorts and beetles are also better represented in three groves. Total wealth is high in Boumia station compared with the others stations. The values of (H') exceeding 3.9 bits for all the stations studied indicate a specific wealth and diversity of ecological nests in insect species. The values of equitability are near the unit; that suggests a balance between the numbers of insect populations sampled in the various stations.

Keywords: entomology, olive, grove, batna, Algeria

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144 Determination of Biological Efficiency Values of Some Pesticide Application Methods under Second Crop Maize Conditions

Authors: Ali Bolat, Ali Bayat, Mustafa Gullu

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Maize can be cultivated both under main and second crop conditions in Turkey. Main pests of maize under second crop conditions are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Aerial spraying applications to control these two main maize pests can be carried out until 2006 in Turkey before it was banned due to environmental concerns like drifting of sprayed pestisides and low biological efficiency. In this context, pulverizers which can spray tall maize plants ( > 175 cm) from the ground have begun to be used. However, the biological efficiency of these sprayers is unknown. Some methods have been tested to increase the success of ground spraying in field experiments conducted in second crop maize in 2008 and 2009. For this aim, 6 spraying methods (air assisted spraying with TX cone jet, domestic cone nozzles, twinjet nozzles, air induction nozzles, standard domestic cone nozzles and tail booms) were used at two application rates (150 and 300 l.ha-1) by a sprayer. In the study, biological efficacy evaluations of each methods were measured in each parcel. Biological efficacy evaluations included counts of number of insect damaged plants, number of holes in stems and live larvae and pupa in stems of selected plants. As a result, the highest biological efficacy value (close to 70%) was obtained from Air Assisted Spraying method at 300 l / ha application volume.

Keywords: air assisted sprayer, drift nozzles, biological efficiency, maize plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
143 Extension Services' Needs of Small Farmers in Biliran Province, Philippines

Authors: Mario C. Nierras

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This study aimed to determine the extension services’ needs of small farmers in Biliran province, Philippines. It also sought to find out other issues/concerns of the small farmers. Extension services’ needs of small farmers were gathered through personal interviewing and observational analysis of randomly-selected small farmers in Biliran, Philippines. Biliran small farmers extension services’ needs include: raising fruits, raising legumes, raising vegetables, raising swine, raising cattle, and raising chicken (as priority broad skills). For the specific skills, diagnosing symptoms on fertilizer deficiencies, controlling plant pests and diseases, diagnosing signs on specific pest and disease damage, controlling animal pests and diseases, and doing artificial insemination were the priority skills. They considered an on-farm trial of new technology as most needed to be coupled with industry and quality-orientedness, as positive behaviors needed in farming success. The farmers still adhere to the so-called wait-and-see attitude, thus they are more convinced to follow a particular technology if they see a concrete result of the introduced changes. Technical needs prioritization of Biliran small farmers showed that they have a real need for crop and animal production skills to include the other issues/concerns. Extension service program planning for small farmers should be patterned after their technical needs giving due attention to some issues/concerns so that extension work could deliver the right skills for the right needs of the farmers.

Keywords: extension, extension service, extension service needs, extension service program, farmers, small farmers, marginal farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
142 Alkaloid Levels in Experimental Lines of Ryegrass in Southtern Chile

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz

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One of the most important factors in beef and dairy production in the world as well as also in Chile, is related to the correct choice of cultivars or mixtures of forage grasses and legumes to ensure high yields and quality of grassland. However, a great problem is the persistence of the grasses as a result of the action of different hypogeous as epigean pests. The complex insect pests associated with grassland include white grubs (Hylamorpha elegans, Phytoloema herrmanni), blackworm (Dalaca pallens) and Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). In Chile, the principal strategy utilized for controlling this pest is chemical control, through the use of synthetic insecticides, however, underground feeding habits of larval and flight activity of adults makes this uneconomic method. Furthermore, due to problems including environmental degradation, development of resistance and chemical residues, there is a worldwide interest in the use of alternative environmentally friendly pest control methods. In this sense, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in determining the role of endophyte fungi in controlling epigean and hypogeous pest. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces a “cocktail of alkaloids” where peramine is the main toxic substance present in endophyte of ryegrass and responsible for damage reduction of L. bonariensis. In the last decade, few studies have been developed on the effectiveness of new ryegrass cultivars carriers of endophyte in controlling insect pests. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide knowledge concerning to evaluate the alkaloid content, such as peramine and Lolitrem B, present in new experimental lines of ryegrass and feasible to be used in grasslands of southern Chile. For this, during 2016, ryegrass plants of six experimental lines and two commercial cultivars sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carrillanca (Vilcún, Chile) were collected and subjected to a process of chemical extraction to identify and quantify the presence of peramine and lolitrem B by the technique of liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results indicated that the experimental lines EL-1 and EL-3 had high content of peramine (0.25 and 0.43 ppm, respectively) than with lolitrem B (0.061 and 0.19 ppm, respectively). Furthermore, the higher contents of lolitrem B were detected in the EL-4 and commercial cultivar Alto (positive control) with 0.08 and 0.17 ppm, respectively. Peramine and lolitrem B were not detected in the cultivar Jumbo (negative control). These results suggest that EL-3 would have potential as future cultivate because it has high content of peramine, alkaloid responsible for controlling insect pest. However, their current role on the complex insects attacking ryegrass grasslands should be evaluated. The information obtained in this research could be used to improve control strategies against hypogeous and epigean pests of grassland in southern Chile and also to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.

Keywords: HPLC, Lolitrem B, peramine, pest

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
141 Wireworms under the Sword of Damocles: Attraction to Maize Root Volatiles

Authors: Diana La Forgia, Jean Baptiste Thibord, François Verheggen

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Volatiles Organic Compound (VOCs) are one of the many features of defense used by plants in their eternal fight against pests. Their main role is to attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. But on another hand, they can be used by the same herbivores to locate plants while foraging. In an attempt to fill a gap of knowledge in a complex web of interactions, we focused on wireworms (Coleoptera:Elateridae). Wireworms whose larvae feed on roots are one of the most spread pests of valuable crops such as maize and potatoes, causing important economical damage. Little is known about the root compounds that are playing a role in the attraction of the larvae. In order to know more about these compounds, we compared four different maize varieties (Zea mays mays) that are known to have different levels of attraction, from weak to strong, for wireworms in fields. We tested the attraction of larvae in laboratory conditions in dual-choice olfactometer assays where they were offered all possible combinations of the four maize varieties. Contemporary, we collected the VOCs of each variety during 24h using a push-and-pull system. The collected samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to identify their molecular profiles. The choice of the larvae was dependent on the offered combination and some varieties were preferred to others. Differences were also observed in terms of quantitative and qualitative emissions of volatile profiles between the maize varieties. Our aim is to develop traps based on VOCs from maize roots to open a new frontier in wireworms management.

Keywords: integrated pest management, maize roots, plant defense, volatile organic compounds, wireworms

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140 A Review on Silicon Based Induced Resistance in Plants against Insect Pests

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Kamran, Iqra

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Development of resistance in insect pests against various groups of insecticides has prompted the use of alternative integrated pest management approaches. Among these induced host plant resistance represents an important strategy as it offers a practical, cheap and long lasting solution to keep pests populations below economic threshold level (ETL). Silicon (Si) has a major role in regulating plant eco-relationship by providing strength to the plant in the form of anti-stress mechanism which was utilized in coping with the environmental extremes to get a better yield and quality end produce. Among biotic stresses, insect herbivore signifies one class against which Si provide defense. Silicon in its neutral form (H₄SiO₄) is absorbed by the plants via roots through an active process accompanied by the help of different transporters which were located in the plasma membrane of root cells or by a passive process mostly regulated by transpiration stream, which occurs via the xylem cells along with the water. Plants tissues mainly the epidermal cell walls are the sinks of absorbed silicon where it polymerizes in the form of amorphous silica or monosilicic acid. The noteworthy function of this absorbed silicon is to provide structural rigidity to the tissues and strength to the cell walls. Silicon has both direct and indirect effects on insect herbivores. Increased abrasiveness and hardness of epidermal plant tissues and reduced digestibility as a result of deposition of Si primarily as phytoliths within cuticle layer is now the most authenticated mechanisms of Si in enhancing plant resistance to insect herbivores. Moreover, increased Si content in the diet also impedes the efficiency by which insects transformed consumed food into the body mass. The palatability of food material has also been changed by Si application, and it also deters herbivore feeding for food. The production of defensive compounds of plants like silica and phenols have also been amplified by the exogenous application of silicon sources which results in reduction of the probing time of certain insects. Some studies also highlighted the role of silicon at the third trophic level as it also attracts natural enemies of insects attacking the crop. Hence, the inclusion of Si in pest management approaches can be a healthy and eco-friendly tool in future.

Keywords: defensive, phytoliths, resistance, stresses

Procedia PDF Downloads 84