Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4418

Search results for: beginners and primary schools

4418 Effective Strategies for Teaching English Language to Beginners in Primary Schools in Nigeria

Authors: Halima Musa Kamilu

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effective strategies for teaching English language to learners in primary schools in Nigeria. English language development is the systematic use of instructional strategies designed to promote the acquisition of English by pupils in primary schools whose primary language is not English. Learning a second language is through total immersion. These strategies support this learning method, allowing pupils to have the knowledge of English language in a pattern similar to the way they learned their native language through regular interaction with others who already know the language. The focus is on fluency and learning to speak English in a social context with native speakers. The strategies allow for effective acquisition. The paper also looked into the following areas: visuals that reinforce spoken or written words, employ gestures for added emphasis, adjusting of speech, stressing of high-frequency vocabulary words, use of fewer idioms and clarifying the meaning of words or phrases in context, stressing of participatory learning and maintaining a low anxiety level and boosting of enthusiasm. It recommended that the teacher include vocabulary words that will make the content more comprehensible to the learner.

Keywords: effective, strategies, teaching, beginners and primary schools

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4417 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph

Abstract:

This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: class-size, instructional materials, learning, academic achievement

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4416 Comparative Analysis of Teachers’ Performance in Private and Public Primary Schools in Oyo State

Authors: Babajide Solomon Faloore

Abstract:

This study on the comparative analysis of the performance of teachers in private and public schools was carried out in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. This study examined the justification for the claim that there is a difference in the performance of teachers in private and public primary schools and at the same time identified factors responsible for the difference in the performance of these teachers. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Data generated were analyzed using t-test and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there is significance difference in the performance of teachers in private and private primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State( t=64.09; df=459; p,.05). The findings also revealed that the method of teaching in private primary schools is significantly different from the method of teaching in public primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=73.08; df=459; p,.05). Findings revealed that school leadership and management have a significant contribution on the performance of private and public primary school teachers in Ibadan North West Local Area of Oyo State. Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made: Primary school teachers need to be motivated and rewarded for excellent performance. Primary schools should be properly equipped with teaching–aid facilities, laboratories, and libraries. The government should use the findings of this study to improve on teaching materials provided to the primary school teachers in Nigeria. Public primary schools should be designed by education planners, administrators, and government. Headmasters, proprietors, and teachers of primary schools should look inward and give a performance appraisal and evaluation of themselves from time to time based on the subject they taught. Finally, school administrators should be conscious of the way they manage the teachers in schools not only in informal situations but also in formal settings.

Keywords: private education, public education, school leadership, school management, teachers performance

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4415 Education for Sustainable Development and Primary Education in China: A Case Study

Authors: Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Abstract:

This research intends to explore the enactment of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), in term of the ESD concept, in primary schools in China, and investigate the factors that have positively or negatively impacted the outcome of ESD in urban primary schools in China. The proposed research question is: how is the ESD concept perceived and enacted by the local education stakeholders. This research is conducted in multiple primary schools in China and has questionnaired and interviewed multiple education stakeholders, including school principals, school teachers, and bureau from the municipal Ministry of Education. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and critical discourse analysis are adopted to interpret and analyze the data. The preliminary findings suggest that contested ESD definition, education system pressures, education policy enforcement, and power dynamics between stakeholders are the key factors that have determined to what degree is ESD enacted, and to what extent is ESD practiced in primary schools in China.

Keywords: education for sustainable development, China, primary education, case study

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4414 Comparative Analysis of Teachers’ Performance in Private and Public Primary Schools in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyetunji John Adenuga

Abstract:

This study on the comparative analysis of the performance of teachers in private and public schools was carried out in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. This study examined the justification for the claim that there is difference in the performance of teachers in private and public primary schools and at the same time identified factors responsible for the difference in the performance of these teachers. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Data generated were analysed using t-test and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the performance of teachers in private and private primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=64.09; df=459; p,.05). The findings also revealed that the method of teaching in private primary schools is significantly different from the method of teaching in public primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=73.08; df=459; p,.05). Findings revealed that school leadership and management have significant contribution on the performance of private and public primary school teachers in Ibadan North West Local Area of Oyo State. Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made: Primary school teachers need to be motivated and rewarded for excellent performance. Primary schools should be properly equipped with teaching-aid facilities, laboratories and libraries. Government should use the findings of this study to improve on teaching materials provided to the primary school teachers in Nigeria. Public primary schools should be designed by education planners, administrators and government. Headmasters, proprietors and teachers of primary schools should look inward and give a performance appraisal and evaluation of themselves form time to time based on subject they taught. Finally, school administrators should be conscious of the way they manage the teachers in schools not only in informal situations but also in formal settings.

Keywords: private education, public education, school leadership, school management, teachers performance

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4413 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen

Abstract:

This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-learning, science education, teacher' and students' perceptions, primary schools

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4412 Relationship between Readability of Paper-Based Braille and Character Spacing

Authors: T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto, T. Wada

Abstract:

The Number of people with acquired visual impairments has increased in recent years. In specialized courses at schools for the blind and in Braille lessons offered by social welfare organizations, many people with acquired visual impairments cannot learn to read adequately Braille. One of the reasons is that the common Braille patterns for people visual impairments who already has mature Braille reading skill being difficult to read for Braille reading beginners. In addition, there is the scanty knowledge of Braille book manufacturing companies regarding what Braille patterns would be easy to read for beginners. Therefore, it is required to investigate a suitable Braille patterns would be easy to read for beginners. In order to obtain knowledge regarding suitable Braille patterns for beginners, this study aimed to elucidate the relationship between readability of paper-based Braille and its patterns. This study focused on character spacing, which readily affects Braille reading ability, to determine a suitable character spacing ratio (ratio of character spacing to dot spacing) for beginners. Specifically, considering beginners with acquired visual impairments who are unfamiliar with reading Braille, we quantitatively evaluated the effect of character spacing ratio on Braille readability through an evaluation experiment using sighted subjects with no experience of reading Braille. In this experiment, ten sighted adults took the blindfold were asked to read test piece (three Braille characters). Braille used as test piece was composed of five dots. They were asked to touch the Braille by sliding their forefinger on the test piece immediately after the test examiner gave a signal to start the experiment. Then, they were required to release their forefinger from the test piece when they perceived the Braille characters. Seven conditions depended on character spacing ratio was held (i.e., 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2 [mm]), and the other four depended on the dot spacing (i.e., 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 [mm]). Ten trials were conducted for each conditions. The test pieces are created using by NISE Graphic could print Braille adjusted arbitrary value of character spacing and dot spacing with high accuracy. We adopted the evaluation indices for correct rate, reading time, and subjective readability to investigate how the character spacing ratio affects Braille readability. The results showed that Braille reading beginners could read Braille accurately and quickly, when character spacing ratio is more than 1.8 and dot spacing is more than 3.0 mm. Furthermore, it is difficult to read Braille accurately and quickly for beginners, when both character spacing and dot spacing are small. For this study, suitable character spacing ratio to make reading easy for Braille beginners is revealed.

Keywords: Braille, character spacing, people with visual impairments, readability

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4411 Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions on Water Quality in Primary Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Jamil Ahmed, Li P. Wong, Yan P. Chua

Abstract:

The United Nation's sustainable development goals include the target to ensure access to water and sanitation for all; however, very few studies have assessed school-based drinking water in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to characterize water quality in primary schools of Pakistan and to characterize how recent WASH interventions were associated with school water quality. We conducted a representative cross-sectional study of primary schools in the Sindh province of Pakistan. We used structured observations and structured interviews to ascertain the school’s WASH conditions. Our primary exposures of interest were the implementation of previous WASH interventions in the school and the water source type. Outcomes of interest included water quality (measured by various chemical and microbiological indicators) and water availability at the school’s primary drinking water source. We used log-binomial regression to characterize how WASH exposures were associated with water quality outcomes. We collected data from 256 schools. Groundwater was the primary drinking water source at most schools (87%). Water testing showed that 14% of the school’s water had arsenic above the WHO recommendations, and over 50% of the water samples exceeded recommendations for both lead and cadmium. A majority of the water sources (52%) had fecal coliform contamination. None of the schools had nitrate contamination (0%), and few had fluoride contamination (5%). Regression results indicated that having a recent WASH intervention at the school was not associated with either arsenic contamination (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95% CI: 0.46-2.1) or with fecal coliform contamination (PR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.67-1.17). Our assessment unveiled several water quality gaps that exist, including high heavy metal and fecal contamination. Our findings will help various stakeholders to take suitable action to improve water quality in Pakistani schools.

Keywords: WASH interventions, water quality, primary school children, heavy metals

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4410 Models of Bilingual Education in Majority Language Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Bilingual Programmes in Qatari Primary Schools

Authors: Fatma Al-Maadheed

Abstract:

Following an ethnographic approach this study explored bilingual programmes offered by two types of primary schools in Qatar: international and Independent schools. Qatar with its unique linguistic and socio-economic situation launched a new initiative for educatiobnal development in 2001 but with hardly any research linked to theses changes. The study reveals that the Qatari bilingual schools context was one of heteroglossia, with three codes in operation: Modern Standard Arabic, Colloquial Arabic dialects and English. The two schools adopted different models of bilingualism. The international school adopted a strict separation policy between the two languages following a monoglossic belief. The independent school was found to apply a flexible language policy. The study also highlighted the daily challnges produced from the diglossia situation in Qatar, the difference between students and teacher dialect as well as acquiring literacy in the formal language. In addition to an abscence of a clear language policy in Schools, the study brought attention to the instructional methods utilised in language teaching which are mostly associated with successful bilingual education.

Keywords: diglossia, instructional methods, language policy, qatari primary schools

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4409 A Conversation about Inclusive Education: Revelations from Namibian Primary School Teachers

Authors: M. D. Nghiteke, A. Mji, G. T. Molepo

Abstract:

Inclusive education stems from a philosophy and vision, which argues that all children should learn together at school. It is not only about treating all pupils in the same way. It is also about allowing all children to attend school without any restrictions. Ten primary school teachers in a circuit in Namibia volunteered to participate in face-to-face interviews about inclusive education. The teachers responded to three questions about their (i) understanding of inclusive education; (ii) whether inclusive education was implemented in primary schools; and (iii) whether they were able to work with learners with special needs. Findings indicated that teachers understood what inclusive education entailed; felt that inclusive education was not implemented in their primary schools, and they were unable to work with learners with special needs in their classrooms. Further, the teachers identified training and resources as important components of inclusive education. It is recommended that education authorities should perhaps verify the findings reported here as well as ensure that the concerns raised by the teachers are addressed.

Keywords: classrooms and schools, inclusive education, resources, training

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4408 General Awareness of Teenagers in Information Security

Authors: Magdaléna Náplavová, Tomáš Ludík, Petr Hrůza, František Božek

Abstract:

The use of IT equipment has become a part of every day. However, each device that is part of cyberspace should be secured against unauthorized use. It is very important to know the basics of these security devices, but also the basics of safe conduct their owners. This information should be part of every curriculum computer science education in primary and secondary schools. Therefore, the work focuses on the education of pupils in primary and secondary schools on the Internet. Analysis of the current state describes approaches to the education of pupils in security issues on the Internet. The paper presents a questionnaire-based survey which was carried out in the Czech Republic, whose task was to ascertain the level of opinion pupils in primary and secondary schools on the issue of communication in social networks. The research showed that awareness of socio-pathological phenomena on the Internet environment is very low. Based on the results it was proposed appropriate ways of teaching to this issue and its inclusion a proposal of curriculum for primary and secondary schools.

Keywords: information security, cyber space, general awareness, questionnaire, socio-pathological phenomena, educational system

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4407 Information Communication Technology in Early Childhood Education: An Assessment of the Quality of ICT in the New Mega Primary Schools in Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Oluyemi Christianah Ojo

Abstract:

This study seeks to investigate the quality of ICT provided in the new Caring Heart schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. The population for the study was all caring Heart Mega Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. Research questions were generated; two instruments CCCMS and TQCUC were used to elicit information from the schools and the teachers. The study adopts descriptive survey approach. The studies revealed and concluded that ICT components were available and adequate in these schools, Charts showing ICT components and other forms of computer devices used as instructional materials were available but were not adequate; teachers teaching computer studies are competent in the delivery of instructions and in handling computer gadgets in the laboratory. The study recommended the provision of steady electricity, uninterrupted internet facilities and provision of adequate ICT components and charts for effective teaching delivery and learning.

Keywords: facilities, information communication technology, mega primary school, primary education

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4406 Influence of Readability of Paper-Based Braille on Vertical and Horizontal Dot Spacing in Braille Beginners

Authors: K. Doi, T. Nishimura, H. Fujimoto

Abstract:

The number of people who become visually impaired and do not have sufficient tactile experiences has increased by various disease. Especially, many acquired visually impaired persons due to accidents, disorders, and aging cannot adequately read Braille. It is known that learning Braille requires a great deal of time and the acquisition of various skills. In our previous studies, we reported one of the problems in learning Braille. Concretely, the standard Braille size is too small for Braille beginners. And also we are short of the objective data regarding easily readable Braille size. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct various experiments for evaluating Braille size that would make learning easier for beginners. In this study, for the purpose of investigating easy-to-read conditions of vertical and horizontal dot spacing for beginners, we conducted one Braille reading experiment. In this our experiment, we prepared test pieces by use of our original Braille printer with controlling function of Braille size. We specifically considered Braille beginners with acquired visual impairments who were unfamiliar with Braille. Therefore, ten sighted subjects with no experience of reading Braille participated in this experiment. Size of vertical and horizontal dot spacing was following conditions. Each dot spacing was 2.0, 2.3, 2.5, 2.7, 2.9, 3.1mm. The subjects were asked to read one Braille character with controlled Braille size. The results of this experiment reveal that Braille beginners can read Braille accurately and quickly when both vertical and horizontal dot spacing are 3.1 mm or more. This knowledge will be helpful data in considering Braille size for acquired visually impaired persons.

Keywords: paper-based Braille, vertical and horizontal dot spacing, readability, acquired visual impairment, Braille beginner

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4405 The Attitude of Parents and Teachers towards Multilingual Medium of Instruction in Lower Primary School Classrooms: The Case of Kapiri District Schools of Zambia

Authors: E. Machinyise

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of parents and teachers towards multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary schools of Zambia. In 2013, the Government of Zambia formulated a language policy which stipulates that regional familiar languages should be used as the medium of instruction (MOI) from grade one to four in all public primary schools, while English is introduced as a subject in the second grade. This study investigated the views of parents and teachers on the use of multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary schools in order to accommodate learners who are not native speakers of regional familiar languages as well as the second languages which are official languages used in class. The study revealed that most parents suggested that teachers who teach lower primary school classes should be conversant with at least the four major local languages of Zambia (Bemba, Nyanja, Tonga and Lozi). In the same vain other parents felt that teachers teaching lower grades should not only be familiar with the regional official language but should be able to speak other dialects found in the region. Teachers teaching in lower primary grade felt that although it is difficult to speak all languages of learners in class, it is important for a teacher of lower grade class to try to accommodate children who are not speakers of the familiar languages by addressing them in the language they understand. Both teachers and parents highlighted a number of advantages of teaching children in their mother tongues. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the collection of data for this study. 30 teachers from selected public primary schools and 20 parents of Kapiri district and five lecturers of teacher training colleges in Central province were selected for this study. The researcher also observed class lessons in lower primary schools of Kapiri district. This study revealed that both parents and teachers are of the views that teachers teaching lower primary classes should use multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary classes so as to accommodated children of different linguistic backgrounds.

Keywords: familiar languages, medium of instruction, multilingual medium of instruction, native speakers

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4404 Health Status among Government and Private Primary School Children in the Central of Thailand

Authors: Petcharat Kerdonfag, Supunnee Thrakul

Abstract:

School health services through regular screening of school students’ health status have been the main responsibility for community or school health nurses. The purposes of these retrospective study were to assess and compare health problems between government and private primary school students in the central region of Thailand. The data were collected from the school health records in October at the end of the first semester in the academic year 2018. Two thousand and fifty primary school health records from government and private primary schools were gathered to assess health problems regarding anthropometric measurements, physical examination/personal hygiene, and clinical findings for this study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to be analyzed. The results revealed that health problems of all the school students remained high magnitude. The five top ranks for prevalence rate of health problems were dental caries (36.6%), visual acuity problem (27.7%), over-nutrition (16.8%), head lice (12.8%), and under-nutrition (6.8%), respectively. However, when compared between government and private schools among five health problems; dental caries (55.0% vs 19.9%), visual acuity problem (23.1% vs 31.9%), over-nutrition (20.2% vs 13.8%), head lice (26.5% vs 0.3%), and under-nutrition (10.6% vs 3.4%) with Chi-square analysis, there were significantly different (p < .001). The problem of visual acuity seems to be more serious in private schools while other health problems tend to be more critical in government schools. The findings have suggested that parents who have children in the private primary schools should pay more attention to visual health defects whereas parents with children in the government school should pay more vigilance regards to hygiene and health behavior problems.

Keywords: community health nursing, school health service, health status, primary school children

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4403 School Based Assessment Issues in Selected Malaysian Primary Schools

Authors: Nur Amalina Dayana Abd Aziz

Abstract:

Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning in any syllabus in the world. Recently, a new assessment system, School-Based Assessment (SBA) was introduced and implemented in the Malaysian education system to promote a more holistic, integrated and balanced assessment system. This effort is part of the reformation made in the Government Transformation Plan (GTP) to produce a world-class human capital as we are reaching and achieving the Vision 2020 in the near future. However, this new change has raised awareness and concerns from teachers, students, parents and non-profit organizations on how the new assessment is to be implemented and how it is affecting the students and teachers particularly. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the issues that teachers face in implementing SBA in primary schools, the measures taken to address the issues and to propose ways of managing school-based assessment. Five national primary schools focusing in the urban areas in the Selangor state are chosen for this study to carry out. Data for the study will be gathered from interviews with teachers from each school, surveys and classrooms observation will be conducted in each school, and relevant documents are collected from the selected schools. The findings of this study will present the current issues that teachers from various types of national primary schools are facing and what actions they took to overcome the problems in carrying out SBA. Suggestions on how to better manage school-based assessment for teachers are also provided in this paper.

Keywords: community of practice, curriculum, managing change, school-based assessment

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4402 Teachers Influence on Encouraging Physical Activity and Recreation in Township Schools in the City of Tshwane

Authors: Rapuane Eric Jan Pule

Abstract:

Sport participation plays a significant role in learners’ well-being and lifestyle. Learners spend most of their time in the school environment, where they are monitored, guided and advised by teachers. Teachers have a good relationship with the learners, therefore they can play a major role in promoting and influencing learners to participate in physical activities, both competitive and recreational purposes. Their influence and involvement could assist in increasing the number learners' involvement in physical activities, sport and recreation at Township schools. The national sport and recreation plan in South Africa, recommends that promotion of sport and physical activities at primary and secondary schools should play an important role in helping learners commit to a live-long participation in sport, recreational and physical activities. Schoolteachers could play an influential role in ensuring that learners spent their leisure time productively through physical and recreational activities. However, the role and the influence of teachers in promoting physical and recreational activities have been previously overlooked in the literature. Part of this study focuses on the in-depth challenges encountered by primary and secondary school teachers at Township schools in promoting and influencing learners’ involvement in sport, recreation and physical activities. 109 primary and secondary teachers at Township schools agreed to participate in the study through the provision of informed consent. The participants consisted of 49 primary school teachers and 60 secondary school teachers. Quantitative approach was followed using validated structured questionnaire comprising 12 close-ended items were used. Findings indicated that teachers' can play a significant role in influencing and encouraging learners to participate in sport, recreation or physical activities. Teachers view physical activity as an important developmental component for learners. Primary school teachers believe that they have a significant role to play in encouraging and promoting physical activities, sport and recreation, as compared to the secondary school teachers. Both group of teachers at primary and secondary schools, believe that infrastructure development, financial support, and extra incentives could motivate them to promote physical, recreational and sporting activities at schools. Teachers also acknowledge that schools are facing challenges in implementing and coordinating physical activities and recreational programmes as required by the Department of sport and recreation South Africa. It is recommended that the Department of Basic Education and Sport and Recreation South Africa revise their policies regarding the role of teachers in promoting and administering physical and recreational activities at schools.

Keywords: township, physical activities, sport and recreation participation, learners, teachers, primary and secondary schools, physical education

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4401 The Place of Instructional Materials in Quality Education at Primary School Level in Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Murtala Sale

Abstract:

The use of instructional materials is an indispensable tool that enhances qualitative teaching and learning especially at the primary level. Instructional materials are used to facilitate comprehension of ideas in the learners as well as ensure long term retention of ideas and topics taught to pupils. This study examined the relevance of using instructional materials in primary schools in Katsina State, Nigeria. It employed survey design using cluster sampling technique. The questionnaire was used to gather data for analysis, and statistical and frequency tables were used to analyze the data gathered. The results show that teachers and students alike have realized the effectiveness of modern instructional materials in teaching and learning for the attainment of set objectives in the basic primary education policy. It also discovered that reluctance in the use of instructional materials will hamper the achievement of qualitative primary education. The study therefore suggests that there should be the provision of adequate and up-to-date instructional materials to all primary schools in Katsina State for effective teaching and learning process.

Keywords: instructional materials, effective teaching, learning quality, indispensable aspect

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4400 Education for Sustainable Development and the Eco School Initiative in Two Primary Schools in The North East of England

Authors: Athanasia Chatzifotiou, Karen Tait

Abstract:

Eco-school is an international initiative that offers schools the opportunity to develop practices on education for sustainable development (EfSD). Such practices need to focus on nine areas, namely: energy, water, biodiversity, school grounds, healthy living, transport, litter, waste and global citizenship. Acquiring the green flag status is the ultimate stage (silver and bronze are the other two) that is awarded by a committee external to the school and it lasts for two years. Our project focused on two such primary schools that had acquired the green flag status. The aim of our project is to describe the schools’ approach of becoming an eco-school, the practitioners’ role in promoting the values and principles of such endeavors, thus identifying the impact of EfSD. We chose the eco-schools initiative as it gives a clear and straightforward way to identify a school with an interest in EfSD. The project is important because even though EfSD attracts high attention in rhetoric, there is evidence indicating that EfSD may be neglected in practice. This paper presents part of a bigger project that aims to compare how primary schools and early years settings have approached EfSD via the eco-school initiative in the North East of England. This is a qualitative project that used a case study design to focus on the practices of two particular primary schools to gain a green flag status. A semi-structured interview was used with the lead teachers/practitioners of the schools; an audit was also conducted as part of a tour of the schools’ premises highlighting the initiatives, curriculum work, projects undertaken as well as resources available to school. A content analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted with the creation of response categories and response narratives by the two researchers first working individually and then collaboratively; the findings of the project reflected issues that concerned: a) pupils’ cognitive, physical and socio-emotional development, b) the wider community and c) the lead practitioners’ role and status in school. In relation to EfSD, our findings indicated that its impact upon these two eco-schools was rather minimal; a mismatch was identified between the eco-school practices and a holistic understanding of issues that EfSD aims to achieve. This mismatch between eco-school practices and EfSD is discussed with regard to: a) pupils’ understanding of the sustainability dimension in the topics they addressed; and b) teachers’ knowledge of sustainability and willingness to keep on such work in schools.

Keywords: eco-schools, environment, primary schools, sustainability education

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4399 Comparing the Sequence and Effectiveness of Teaching the Four Basic Operations and Mathematics in Primary Schools

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah, Hassan Usman

Abstract:

The study compared the effectiveness of Audition, Multiplication, subtraction and Division (AMSD) and Addition, subtraction, Multiplication and Division (ASMD), sequence of teaching these four basic operations in mathematics to primary one pupil’s in Katsina Local Government, Katsina State. The study determined the sequence that was more effective and mostly adopted by teachers of the operations. One hundred (100) teachers and sixty pupils (60) from primary one were used for the study. The pupils were divided into two equal groups. The researcher taught these operations to each group separately for four weeks (4 weeks). Group one was taught using the ASMD sequence, while group two was taught using ASMD sequence. In order to generate the needed data for the study, questionnaires and tests were administered on the samples. Data collected were analyzed and major findings were arrived at: (i) Two primary mathematics text books were used in all the primary schools in the area; (ii) Each of the textbooks contained the ASMD sequence; (iii) 73% of the teachers sampled adopted the ASMD sequence of teaching these operations; and (iv) Group one of the pupils (taught using AMSD sequence) performed significantly better than their counter parts in group two (taught using AMSD sequence). On the basis of this, the researcher concluded that the AMSD sequence was more effective in teaching the operations than the ASMD sequence. Consequently, the researcher concluded that primary schools teachers, authors of primary mathematics textbooks, and curriculum planner should adopt the AMSD sequence of teaching these operations.

Keywords: matematic, high school, four basic operations, effectiveness of teaching

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4398 Effectiveness of the Model in the Development of Teaching Materials for Malay Language in Primary Schools in Singapore

Authors: Salha Mohamed Hussain

Abstract:

As part of the review on the Malay Language curriculum and pedagogy in Singapore conducted in 2010, some recommendations were made to nurture active learners who are able to use the Malay Language efficiently in their daily lives. In response to the review, a new Malay Language teaching and learning package for primary school, called CEKAP (Cungkil – Elicit; Eksplorasi – Exploration; Komunikasi – Communication; Aplikasi – Application; Penilaian – Assessment), was developed from 2012 and implemented for Primary 1 in all primary schools from 2015. Resources developed in this package include the text book, activity book, teacher’s guide, big books, small readers, picture cards, flash cards, a game kit and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources. The development of the CEKAP package is continuous until 2020. This paper will look at a model incorporated in the development of the teaching materials in the new Malay Language Curriculum for Primary Schools and the rationale for each phase of development to ensure that the resources meet the needs of every pupil in the teaching and learning of Malay Language in the primary schools. This paper will also focus on the preliminary findings of the effectiveness of the model based on the feedback given by members of the working and steering committees. These members are academicians and educators who were appointed by the Ministry of Education to provide professional input on the soundness of pedagogical approach proposed in the revised syllabus and to make recommendations on the content of the new instructional materials. Quantitative data is derived from the interviews held with these members to gather their input on the model. Preliminary findings showed that the members provided positive feedback on the model and that the comprehensive process has helped to develop good and effective instructional materials for the schools. Some recommendations were also gathered from the interview sessions. This research hopes to provide useful information to those involved in the planning of materials development for teaching and learning.

Keywords: Malay language, materials development, model, primary school

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4397 Examining the Influence of Organisational Culture on Middle Leadership in Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom

Authors: Saeed Musaid Alzahrani

Abstract:

Shared values, beliefs, norms and assumptions within the organisation can affect personal and team effectiveness. Organisational culture can also affect the performance of organisational members. The nature of middle leadership in a primary school is largely influenced by organizational culture. The effectiveness of middle leadership in primary schools and their performance is strongly determined by the circumstances in which they work and can be political or institutional. This study aims to examine the influence of organisational culture and government policy on the performance and effectiveness of middle managers, using the English and Saudi education systems as case studies. To examine how education policy conditions educational discourse, and answer the research questions, there is a need to collect qualitative data on middle manager’s perceptions and experiences in the English and Saudi Arabian contexts. The study involved a qualitative and interpretative approach. In-depth interviews with 6 middle managers and school supervisors in 3 English primary schools and 6 middle managers in 3 Saudi Arabian primary schools were conducted to answer the research questions. The study also included ethnographic tools such as observations of a sample of three primary schools in both England and Saudi Arabia where the researcher observed middle managers’ interactions with their peers. The sample of three enabled the study to identify trends and make comparisons between leadership approaches in both systems based on observations without the bias of prescriptions. The use of ethnographic tools not only makes the study empirical but also increases the reliability and validity of the findings by reducing prescriptive bias. The observations will be triangulated with the results of the interviews to draw comparisons and conclusions on whether middle managers act as leaders or as followers in their respective political contexts.

Keywords: education management, government education policies, middle managers, organisational culture

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4396 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Number and Its Effects on Pupils’ Achievement in Rational Numbers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers’ conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers and its effects on pupil’s achievement in rational numbers. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual knowledge about rational numbers, primary school teachers’ level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers, and the effects of teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge on their pupils understanding of rational numbers in primary schools is investigated. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in the Bauchi state of Nigeria. The design of the study was a multi-stage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test, post-test only quasi-experimental design. Two instruments were used for the data collection in the study. These were Conceptual and Procedural knowledge test (CPKT) and Rational number achievement test (RAT), the population of the study comprises of three (3) mathematics teachers’ holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and 210 pupils in their intact classes were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and t- test. The findings indicated that the pupils taught rational number by a teacher that has high conceptual and procedural knowledge understand and perform better than the pupil taught by a teacher who has low conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers in primary schools should be encouraged to enrich their conceptual knowledge of rational numbers. Also, the superiority performance of teachers in procedural knowledge in rational number should not become an obstruction of understanding. Teachers Conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers should be balanced so that primary school pupils will have a view of better teaching and learning of rational number in our contemporary schools.

Keywords: conceptual, procedural knowledge, rational number, pupils

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4395 A Mixed Methods Study to Examine Teachers’ Views towards Using Interactive White Boards (IWBs) in Tatweer Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Azzah Alghamdi

Abstract:

The Interactive White Boards (IWBs) as one of the innovative educational technologies have been extensively investigated in advanced countries such as the UK, US, and Australia. However, there is a significant lack of research studies, which mainly examine the use of IWBs in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the attitudes of primary teachers towards using IWBs in both the teaching and learning processes. Moreover, it aims to investigate if there is any significant difference between male teachers and females regarding their attitudes towards using this technology. This study concentrated on teachers in primary schools, which participated in Tatweer project in the city of Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. Mixed methods approach was employed in this study using a designed questionnaire, classroom observations, and a semi-structured interview. 587 teachers (286 men and 301 women) from Tatweer primary schools were completed the questionnaire as well as twenty teachers were interviewed including seven female teachers were observed in their classrooms. The findings of this study indicated that approximately 11% of the teachers within the sample (n=587) had negative attitudes towards the use of IWBs in the teaching and learning processes. However, the majority of them nearly 89% agreed about the benefits of using IWBs in their classrooms. Additionally, all the twenty teachers who were interviewed (including the seven observed female teachers) had positive attitudes towards the use of these technologies. Moreover, 87% of male teachers and 91% of female teachers who completed the questionnaire accepted the usefulness of using IWBs in improving their teaching and students' learning. Thus, this indicates that there was no significant difference between male and female teachers in Tatweer primary schools in terms of their views about using these innovative technologies in their lessons. The findings of the current study will help the Ministry of Education to improve the policies of using IWBs in Saudi Arabia. Indeed, examining teachers’ attitudes towards IWBs is a very important issue because they are the main users in classrooms. Hence, their views should be considered to addressing the powers and boundaries of using IWBs. Moreover, students will feel comfortable to use IWBs if their teachers accept and use them well.

Keywords: IWBs, Saudi teachers’ views, Tatweer schools, teachers' gender

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4394 Effective Verbal Disciplining Strategies to Deal with Classroom Misconduct in Primary Schools

Authors: Charity Okeke, Elizabeth Venter

Abstract:

Verbal discipline is one of the most regularly used disciplinary strategies to deal with classroom misconduct in schools globally. This study provides effective verbal discipline strategies to deal with classroom misconduct in primary schools. The study was qualitative research often teachers that took place in two South African primary schools. Data were collected through recorded semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interview recordings were transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Findings from the study show that talking to learners in a calm and polite manner, raising one’s voice occasionally to show seriousness and disapproval of misconduct, engaging misbehaved learners in private talk to understand the reasons behind their unruly actions, verbal praise and rewards are effective in dealing with classroom misconduct. The study recommends that teachers should avoid shouting at learners and talk to them politely to get them to behave well in class. Teachers should avoid embarrassing misbehaving learners in the classroom but engage them privately to understand the reasons behind their unruly activities. Teachers should also use verbal praise and rewards such as well-done stickers to motivate learners to keep behaving well, as reinforcement is very important in the classroom. The study concludes that the verbal disciplining strategies mentioned above are effective in achieving a conducive teaching and learning atmosphere in the classroom.

Keywords: classroom discipline, classroom misconduct, verbal discipline, verbal discipline strategies

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4393 Influence of Spelling Errors on English Language Performance among Learners with Dysgraphia in Public Primary Schools in Embu County, Kenya

Authors: Madrine King'endo

Abstract:

This study dealt with the influence of spelling errors on English language performance among learners with dysgraphia in public primary schools in West Embu, Embu County, Kenya. The study purposed to investigate the influence of spelling errors on the English language performance among the class three pupils with dysgraphia in public primary schools. The objectives of the study were to identify the spelling errors that learners with dysgraphia make when writing English words and classify the spelling errors they make. Further, the study will establish how the spelling errors affect the performance of the language among the study participants, and suggest the remediation strategies that teachers could use to address the errors. The study could provide the stakeholders with relevant information in writing skills that could help in developing a responsive curriculum to accommodate the teaching and learning needs of learners with dysgraphia, and probably ensure training of teachers in teacher training colleges is tailored within the writing needs of the pupils with dysgraphia. The study was carried out in Embu county because the researcher did not find any study in related literature review concerning the influence of spelling errors on English language performance among learners with dysgraphia in public primary schools done in the area. Moreover, besides being relatively populated enough for a sample population of the study, the area was fairly cosmopolitan to allow a generalization of the study findings. The study assumed the sampled schools will had class three pupils with dysgraphia who exhibited written spelling errors. The study was guided by two spelling approaches: the connectionist stimulation of spelling process and orthographic autonomy hypothesis with a view to explain how participants with learning disabilities spell written words. Data were collected through interviews, pupils’ exercise books, and progress records, and a spelling test made by the researcher based on the spelling scope set for class three pupils by the ministry of education in the primary education syllabus. The study relied on random sampling techniques in identifying general and specific participants. Since the study used children in schools as participants, voluntary consent was sought from themselves, their teachers and the school head teachers who were their caretakers in a school setting.

Keywords: dysgraphia, writing, language, performance

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4392 Systems Approach to Design and Production of Picture Books for the Pre-Primary Classes to Attain Educational Goals in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Azeez Ayodele Ayodele

Abstract:

This paper investigated the problem of picture books design and the quality of the pictures in picture books. The research surveyed nursery and primary schools in four major cities in southwest of Nigeria. The instruments including the descriptive survey questionnaire and a structured interview were developed, validated and administered for collection of relevant data. Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing the data. The result of the study revealed that there were poor quality of pictures in picture books and this is due to scarcity of trained graphic designers who understand systems approach to picture books design and production. There is thus a need for more qualified graphic designers, given in-service professional training as well as a refresher course as criteria for upgrading by the stakeholders.

Keywords: pictures, picture books, pre-primary schools, trained graphic designers

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4391 Comparison of Sign Language Skill and Academic Achievement of Deaf Students in Special and Inclusive Primary Schools of South Nation Nationalities People Region, Ethiopia

Authors: Tesfaye Basha

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the sign language and academic achievement of deaf students in special and inclusive primary schools of Southern Ethiopia. The study used a mixed-method to collect varied data. The study contained Signed Amharic and English skill tasks, questionnaire, 8th-grade Primary School Leaving Certificate Examination results, classroom observation, and interviews. For quantitative (n=70) deaf students and for qualitative data collection, 16 participants were involved. The finding revealed that the limitation of sign language is a problem in signing and academic achievements. This displays that schools are not linguistically rich to enable sign language achievement for deaf students. Moreover, the finding revealed that the contribution of Total Communication in the growth of natural sign language for deaf students was unsatisfactory. The results also indicated that special schools of deaf students performed better sign language skills and academic achievement than inclusive schools. In addition, the findings revealed that high signed skill group showed higher academic achievement than the low skill group. This displayed that sign language skill is highly associated with academic achievement. In addition, to qualify deaf students in sign language and academics, teacher institutions must produce competent teachers on how to teach deaf students with sign language and literacy skills.

Keywords: academic achievement, inclusive school, sign language, signed Amharic, signed English, special school, total communication

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4390 Factors Influencing the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Leaders in Saudi and English Primary Schools: A Comparative Critical Study

Authors: Saeed Musaid H. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The role of middle leaders, especially in primary schools, is a multi-faced role that has been subject to changes in nature over recent decades, with claims for more distributed leadership practices. This research examines the way 18 middle leaders in Saudi and English primary schools conceptualise their roles and responsibilities, and different factors influencing those roles and responsibilities. It begins from the premise that both the power of the role and the values of middle leaders are grounded in cultural and political bases, a belief held by the researcher as an 'insider' within the Saudi educational leadership context. The study consisted of a comparative analysis of the role and the responsibilities of middle leaders in Saudi primary schools and their equivalents in English primary schools. A purely qualitative methodological stance was adopted, using in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Middle leaders were asked to reflect deeply on their perceptions and understanding of their roles and explain what they thought influenced their daily practices and responsibilities. The findings suggest that the concept of middle leadership has been influenced by power imposed from above by political authority, via internal and external hierarchical structures, which shapes the nature of the role of the middle leaders and forces them to comply. Middle leaders seem to believe they have the power to make decisions and promote change, but these findings suggest that this is illusory. The power that keeps middle leaders performing is the power of their cultural and religious values. Those values are the resource to which they turn in their search for more energy when they lack support and are short of time taken. Middle leaders in Saudi, just like their equivalents in English schools must comply with the requirements of their role. However, Saudi middle leaders are given no leeway to make decisions or implement change, neither do they have the culture of collegiality that seems to give middle leaders in England more power over their resources and decisions. However, in neither educational setting have middle leaders been given the power to lead, so they remain managers rather than leaders. The findings of this research suggest that there are more similarities between the educational settings of Saudi and England than differences; and in the light of different factors identified in the study, suggest the establishment of a framework for middle leadership, in the hope of enhancing the way the role is practiced.

Keywords: middle leader, primary school, power, educational leadership, value, culture, model, Saudi Arabia, England

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4389 Predictors of School Safety Awareness among Malaysian Primary School Teachers

Authors: Ssekamanya, Mastura Badzis, Khamsiah Ismail, Dayang Shuzaidah Bt Abduludin

Abstract:

With rising incidents of school violence worldwide, educators and researchers are trying to understand and find ways to enhance the safety of children at school. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the demographic variables of gender, age, length of service, position, academic qualification, and school location predicted teachers’ awareness about school safety practices in Malaysian primary schools. A stratified random sample of 380 teachers was selected in the central Malaysian states of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that none of the factors was a good predictor of awareness about school safety training, delivery methods of school safety information, and available school safety programs. Awareness about school safety activities was significantly predicted by school location (whether the school was located in a rural or urban area). While these results may reflect a general lack of awareness about school safety among primary school teachers in the selected locations, a national study needs to be conducted for the whole country.

Keywords: school safety awareness, predictors of school safety, multiple regression analysis, malaysian primary schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 301