Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 150

Search results for: Halima Musa Kamilu

150 Effective Strategies for Teaching English Language to Beginners in Primary Schools in Nigeria

Authors: Halima Musa Kamilu

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effective strategies for teaching English language to learners in primary schools in Nigeria. English language development is the systematic use of instructional strategies designed to promote the acquisition of English by pupils in primary schools whose primary language is not English. Learning a second language is through total immersion. These strategies support this learning method, allowing pupils to have the knowledge of English language in a pattern similar to the way they learned their native language through regular interaction with others who already know the language. The focus is on fluency and learning to speak English in a social context with native speakers. The strategies allow for effective acquisition. The paper also looked into the following areas: visuals that reinforce spoken or written words, employ gestures for added emphasis, adjusting of speech, stressing of high-frequency vocabulary words, use of fewer idioms and clarifying the meaning of words or phrases in context, stressing of participatory learning and maintaining a low anxiety level and boosting of enthusiasm. It recommended that the teacher include vocabulary words that will make the content more comprehensible to the learner.

Keywords: effective, strategies, teaching, beginners and primary schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
149 Ex Situ Conservation of Neutraceutical Banana-Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan

Authors: V. Krishna, Shashikumar

Abstract:

Edible Bananas (Musa spp.) are the major staple food for rural and urban consumers in India and an important source of rural income. The cultivar Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan is an endemic cultivar of Malnad region of Karnataka and used as a glomolueroprotective neutraceutical to solve kidney problems. The protocol for mass multiplication of plantlets for this indigenous banana cultivar Karibale Monthan has not yet been standardized so far. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop high frequency in vitro regeneration protocol and evaluation of morphoagronomic characteristics in the farmyard. The high frequency shoot initiation (93.33 %) was recorded at the synergetic effect of BAP (2 to 8mg/L), TDZ (0.1 to 1.2mg/L) and coconut water (0.1 to 1.2ml/L). It was optimized at the concentration 5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.5 ml/l coconut water with 15.90 ± 1.66 frequency of shoots per propagule. Supplementation of 1.0 mg/l IBA induces 5.33 ± 1.21 numbers of roots with a mean root length of 7.50 ± 1.87 roots. 99% of plantlets with distinct roots and shoots were successfully acclimatized in the green house and transferred to the field to evaluate the agro-morphological variations. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher morphometric values for height of the plant (16.80±2.17), number of leaves (12.40±1.14), length of the bunch (56.20±2.17), weight of the bunch (13.60±1.14), number of hands in a bunch (11.40±1.14) and girth of the pseudostem (49.80±1.48) when compared with in vivo plants.

Keywords: banana cv. Karibale Monthan, neutraceutical, high-frequency regeneration, morphometric evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
148 Impact of Different Ripening Accelerators on the Microbial Load and Proximate Composition of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Banana (Musa sapientum), during the Ripening Process, and the Nutrition Implication for Food Security

Authors: Wisdom Robert Duruji, Oluwasegun Christopher Akinleye

Abstract:

This study reports on the impact of different ripening accelerators on the microbial load and proximate composition of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Banana (Musa sapientum) during the ripening process, and the nutrition implication for food security. The study comprised of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening accelerator was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating and enumerating their micro flora using pour plate method; and also, their proximate composition was determined using standard methods. The result indicated that the bacteria count of plantain increased from 3.25 ± 0.33 for unripe to 5.31 ± 0.30 log cfu/g for (treated) ripened, and that of banana increased from 3.69 ± 0.11 for unripe to 5.26 ± 0.21 log cfu/g for ripened. Also, the fungal count of plantain increased from 3.20 ± 0.16 for unripe to 4.88 ± 0.22 log sfu/g for ripened; and that of banana increased from 3.61 ± 0.19 for unripe to 5.43 ± 0.26 for ripened. Ripened plantain fingers without any ripening accelerator (control) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher values of crude protein 3.56 ± 0.06%, crude fat 0.42 ± 0.04%, total ash 2.74 ± 0.15 and carbohydrate 31.10 ± 0.20; but with significantly lower value of moisture 62.14 ± 0.07% when compared with treated plantain. The proximate composition trend of treated and banana fingers control is similar to that of treated and plantain control, except that higher moisture content of 75.11 ± 0.07% and lesser protein, crude fat, total ash and carbohydrate were obtained from treated and ripened banana control when the treatments were compared with that of plantain. The study concluded that plantain is more nutritious (mealy) than a banana; also, the ripening accelerators increased the microbial load and reduced the nutritional status of plantain and banana.

Keywords: food nutrition, calcium carbide, rvingia gabonensis, newbouldia laevis, plantain, banana

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
147 Inhibition of the Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme Present in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata by the Experimentally Identified Natural Anti-Browning Agents

Authors: Michelle Belinda S. Weerawardana, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Priyani A. Paranagama

Abstract:

Most of fresh vegetables and fruits available in the retail markets undergo a physiological disorder in its appearance and coloration, which indeed discourages consumer purchase. A loss of millions of dollars yearly to the food industry had been due to this pronounced color reaction called Enzymatic Browning which is driven due to the catalytic activity by an oxidoreductase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The enzyme oxidizes the phenolic compounds which are abundantly available in fruits and vegetables as substrates into quinones, which could react with proteins in its surrounding to generate black pigments, called melanins, which are highly UV-active compounds. Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains) is a fruit and a vegetable consumed by Sri Lankans widely due to their high nutritional values, medicinal properties and economical importance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and determine the effective natural anti-browning inhibitors that could prevent PPO activity in the selected fruit and vegetable. Enzyme extracts from Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains), were prepared by homogenizing with analytical grade acetone, and pH of each enzyme extract was maintained at 7.0 using a phosphate buffer. The extracts of inhibitors were prepared using powdered ginger rhizomes and essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Water extracts of ginger were prepared and the essential oil from Ceylon cinnamon bark was extracted using steam distillation method. Since the essential oil is not soluble in water, 0.1µl of cinnamon bark oil was mixed with 0.1µl of Triton X-100 emulsifier and 5.00 ml of water. The effect of each inhibitor on the PPO activity was investigated using catechol (0.1 mol dm-3) as the substrate and two samples of enzyme extracts prepared. The dosages of the prepared Cinnamon bark oil, and ginger (2 samples) which were used to measure the activity were 0.0035 g/ml, 0.091 g/ml and 0.087 g/ml respectively. The measurements of the inhibitory activity were obtained at a wavelength of 525 nm using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results evaluated thus revealed that % inhibition observed with cinnamon bark oil, and ginger for Annona muricata was 51.97%, and 60.90% respectively. The effects of cinnamon bark oil, and ginger extract on PPO activity of Musa acuminata were 49.51%, and 48.10%. The experimental findings thus revealed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil was a more effective inhibitor for PPO enzyme present in Musa acuminata and ginger was effective for PPO enzyme present in Annona muricata. Overall both the inhibitors were proven to be more effective towards the activities of PPO enzyme present in both samples. These inhibitors can thus be corroborated as effective, natural, non-toxic, anti-browning extracts, which when added to the above fruit and vegetable will increase the shelf life and also the acceptance of the product by the consumers.

Keywords: anti-browning agent, enzymatic browning, inhibitory activity, polyphenol oxidase

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
146 Effect of Using Different Packaging Materials on Quality of Minimally Process (Fresh-Cut) Banana (Musa acuminata balbisiana) Cultivar 'Nipah'

Authors: Nur Allisha Othman, Rosnah Shamsudin, Zaulia Othman, Siti Hajar Othman

Abstract:

Mitigating short storage life of fruit like banana uses minimally process or known as fresh cut can contribute to the growing demand especially in South East Asian countries. The effect of different types of packaging material on fresh-cut Nipah (Musa acuminata balbisiana) were studied. Fresh cut banana cultivar (cv) Nipah are packed in polypropylene plastic (PP), low density polypropylene plastic (LDPE), polymer plastic film (shrink wrap) and polypropylene container as control for 12 days at low temperature (4ᵒC). Quality of physical and chemical evaluation such as colour, texture, pH, TA, TSS, and vitamin C were examined every 2 days interval for 12 days at 4ᵒC. Result shows that the PP is the most suitable packaging for banana cv Nipah because it can reduce respiration and physicochemical quality changes of banana cv Nipah. Different types of packaging significantly affected quality of fresh-cut banana cv Nipah. PP bag was the most suitable packaging to maintain quality and prolong storage life of fresh-cut banana cv Nipah for 12 days at 4ᵒC.

Keywords: physicochemical, PP, LDPE, shrink wrap, browning, respiration

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
145 Survey of Web Service Composition

Authors: Wala Ben Messaoud, Khaled Ghedira, Youssef Ben Halima, Henda Ben Ghezala

Abstract:

A web service (WS) is called compound or composite when its execution involves interactions with other WS to use their features. The composition of WS specifies which services need to be invoked, in what order and how to handle exception conditions. This paper gives an overview of research efforts of WS composition. The approaches proposed in the literature are diverse, interesting and have opened important research areas. Based on many studies, we extracted the most important role of WS composition use in order to facilitate its introduction in WS concept.

Keywords: SOA, web services, composition approach, composite WS

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
144 Budget and the Performance of Public Enterprises: A Study of Selected Public Enterprises in Nasarawa State Nigeria (2009-2013)

Authors: Dalhatu, Musa Yusha’u, Shuaibu Sidi Safiyanu, Haliru Musa Hussaini

Abstract:

This study examined budget and performance of public enterprises in Nasarawa State, Nigeria in a period of 2009-2013. The study utilized secondary sources of data obtained from four selected parastatals’ budget allocation and revenue generation for the period under review. The simple correlation coefficient was used to analyze the extent of the relationship between budget allocation and revenue generation of the parastatals. Findings revealed varying results. There was positive (0.21) and weak correlation between expenditure and revenue of Nasarawa Investment and Property Development Company (NIPDC). However, the study further revealed that there was strong and weak negative relationship in the revenue and expenditure of the following parastatals over the period under review. Viz: Nasarawa State Water Board, -0.27 (weak), Nasarawa State Broadcasting Service, -0.52 (Strong) and Nasarawa State College of Agriculture, -0.36 (weak). The study therefore, recommends that government should increase its investments in NIPDC to enhance efficiency and profitability. It also recommends that government should strengthen its fiscal responsibility, accountability and transparency in public parastatals.

Keywords: budget, public enterprises, revenue, enterprise

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
143 Comparison Between the Radiation Resistance of n/p and p/n InP Solar Cell

Authors: Mazouz Halima, Belghachi Abdrahmane

Abstract:

Effects of electron irradiation-induced deep level defects have been studied on both n/p and p/n indium phosphide solar cells with very thin emitters. The simulation results show that n/p structure offers a somewhat better short circuit current but the p/n structure offers improved circuit voltage, not only before electron irradiation, but also after 1MeV electron irradiation with 5.1015 fluence. The simulation also shows that n/p solar cell structure is more resistant than that of p/n structure.

Keywords: InP solar cell, p/n and n/p structure, electron irradiation, output parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
142 Impact of the Action Antropic in the Desertification of Steppe in Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima

Abstract:

Stipa tenacissima is a plant with a big ecological value (against desertification) and economical stake (paper industry). It is important by its pastoral value due to the inflorescence. It occupied large areas between the Tellian atlas and the Saharian atlas, at the present, these areas of alfa have regressed a lot. This regression is estimated at 1% per year. The principal cause is a human responsibility. The drought is just an aggravating circumstance. The eradication of such a kind of species will have serious consequences upon the equilibrium of all the steppic ecosystem. Thus, we have thought necessary and urgent to know the alfa ecosystem, under all its aspects (climatic, floristic, and edaphic), this diagnostic could direct the fight actions against desertification

Keywords: desertification, anthropic action, soils, Stipa tenacissima

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
141 Securing Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Utilizing OPNET Simulator

Authors: Tariq A. El Shheibia, Halima Mohamed Belhamad

Abstract:

This paper is considered securing data based on multi-path protocol (SDMP) in mobile ad hoc network utilizing OPNET simulator modular 14.5, including the AODV routing protocol at the network as based multi-path algorithm for message security in MANETs. The main idea of this work is to present a way that is able to detect the attacker inside the MANETs. The detection for this attacker will be performed by adding some effective parameters to the network.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, malicious node, OPNET

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
140 Influence of Some Psychological Factors on the Learning Gains of Distance Learners in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeola Adejumo, Oluwole David Adebayo, Muraina Kamilu Olanrewaju

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of some psychological factors (i.e, school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the learning gains of university undergraduates in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred undergraduates who are on open distance learning education programme in the University of Ibadan and thirty mathematics lecturers constituted the study’s sample. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with relevant standardized instruments and the data obtained was analyzed using multiple regression statistical method. The instruments used were school climate scale, parental involvement scale and classroom interaction scale. Three research questions were answered in the study. The result showed that there was significant relationship between the three independent variables (school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the students’ learning gain in mathematics and that the independent variables both jointly and relatively contributed significantly to the prediction of students’ learning gain in mathematics. On the strength of these findings, the need to enhance the school climate, improve the parents’ involvement in the student’s education and encourage students’ classroom interaction were stressed and advocated.

Keywords: school climate, parental involvement, ODL, learning gains, mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
139 Hedonic Price Analysis of Consumer Preference for Musa spp in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Suleiman, S. A. Musa

Abstract:

The research was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of banana fruits that influenced consumer preferences for the fruit in Northern Nigeria. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were also identified. Simple descriptive statistics and Hedonic prices model were used to analyze the data collected for socio-economic and consumer preference respectively with the aid of 1000 structured questionnaires. The result revealed the value of R2 to be 0.633, meaning that, 63.3% of the variation in the banana price was brought about by the explanatory variables included in the model and the variables are: colour, size, degree of ripeness, softness, surface blemish, cleanliness of the fruits, weight, length, and cluster size of fruits. However, the remaining 36.7% could be attributed to the error term or random disturbance in the model. It could also be seen from the calculated result that the intercept was 1886.5 and was statistically significant (P < 0.01), meaning that about N1886.5 worth of banana fruits could be bought by consumers without considering the variables of banana included in the model. Moreover, consumers showed that they have significant preference for colours, size, degree of ripeness, softness, weight, length and cluster size of banana fruits and they were tested to be significant at either P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.1 . Moreover, the result also shows that consumers did not show significance preferences to surface blemish, cleanliness and variety of the banana fruit as all of them showed non-significance level with negative signs. Based on the findings of the research, it is hereby recommended that plant breeders and research institutes should concentrate on the production of banana fruits that have those physical characteristics that were found to be statistically significance like cluster size, degree of ripeness,’ softness, length, size, and skin colour.

Keywords: analysis, consumers, preference, variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
138 Performance of Exclosure in Restoring Arid Degraded Steppes of Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima, Amghar Fateh

Abstract:

Steppes of arid Mediterranean zones are deeply threatened by desertification. To stop or alleviate ecological and economic problems associated with this desertification, management actions have been implemented since the last three decades. The struggle against desertification has become a national priority in many countries. In Algeria, several management techniques have been used to cope with desertification. This study aims at investigating the effect of exclosure on floristic diversity and chemical soil properties after four years of implementation. 167 phyto-ecological samples have been studied, 122 inside the exclosure and 45 outside. Results showed that plant diversity, composition, vegetation cover, pastoral value and soil fertility were significantly higher in protected areas.

Keywords: desertification, arid, pastoral management, plant community soil fertility, gestation of environment, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
137 Contribution of Urban Wetlands to Livelihood in Tanzania

Authors: Halima Kilungu, Munishi P. K. T., Happiness Jackson Nko

Abstract:

Wetlands contribute significantly to the national economy. Nevertheless, urban wetlands in Tanzania have been taken for granted; many have been converted into waste disposal areas and settlements despite their substantial role in climate-change flood attenuation and livelihood. This is due to the lacking informing assessments from a socio-economic perspective. This study assesses the contribution of urban wetlands to the livelihood of marginalised communities in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Specifically, the study assesses the an extent and nature of change in wetlands in Dar es Salaam City for the past 30 years using the land-use land-cover change approach and the contribution of wetlands to livelihood using questionnaires. The results show that the loss of wetlands in Dar es Salaam is high to extent that will likely jeopardise their future contributions to livelihood. The results inform decision-makers on the importance of wise use of Urban Wetlands and conservation to improving livelihood for urban dwellers.

Keywords: wetlands, tanzania, dar es salaam, climate-change, and wetlands, livelihood

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
136 Influence of Different Ripening Agents on the Shelf-Life and Microbial Load of Organic and Inorganic Musaceae, during the Ripening Process, and the Health Implication for Food Security

Authors: Wisdom Robert Duruji

Abstract:

Local farmers and fruit processors in developing countries of West Africa use different ripening agents to accelerate the ripening process of plantain and banana. This study reports on the influence of different ripening agents on the shelf-life and microbial load of organic and inorganic plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening process and the health implication for food security in Nigeria. The experiment consisted of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening agent was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating their micro flora (Bacteria, Yeast and Mould) using pour plate method. Microbes present in the samples were enumerated, characterized and classified to genera and species. The result indicated that the microbial load of inorganic plantain from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 12.11 cfu/g for ripened; and the microbial load of organic plantain from Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching and Research Farm (OAUTRF) increased from 6.00 for unripe to 11.60 cfu/g for ripened. Also, the microbial load of inorganic banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 11.50 cfu/g for ripened; while the microbial load of organic banana from OAUTRF increased from 6.50 for unripe to 9.40 cfu/g for ripened. The microbial effects of the ripening agents increased from 10.00 for control to 16.00 cfu/g for treated (ripened) organic and inorganic plantain; while that of organic and inorganic banana increased from 7.50 for control to 14.50 cfu/g for ripened. Visual observation for the presence of fungal colonies and deterioration rates were monitored till seven days after the plantain and banana fingers have fully ripened. Inorganic plantain and banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife are more contaminated than organic plantain and banana fingers from OAUTRF. The ripening accelerators reduced the shelf life, increased senescence, and microbial load of plantain and banana. This study concluded that organic Agriculture is better and microbial friendlier than inorganic farming.

Keywords: organic agriculture, food security, Musaceae, calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis, Newbouldia laevis

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
135 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: Musa Momoh, A. U. Moreh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku

Abstract:

In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: zinc oxide, spray pyrolysis, rf sputtering, optical properties, electrical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
134 Socio-Religious Mythology of the Igala of Central Nigeria Area

Authors: Abdullahi Musa Yusuf

Abstract:

Culture and traditions are an embodiment of every society. In Africa, people are socialized into believing that the world is full of mysteries. Mysteries that can only be explain through the interpretation of some forces which are ordinarily beyond the comprehension of Man. These forces have the power and capability of influencing the lives of the living either benevolently or malevolently. To decipher these mysteries various religious and cultural practices were evolved. This paper is therefore an attempt to explain the traditional religious belief system and the relationship existing between the forces of the living and dead among the Igala people of the Central Nigeria Region.

Keywords: culture, tradition, mythology, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
133 Design and Optimization of a 6 Degrees of Freedom Co-Manipulated Parallel Robot for Prostate Brachytherapy

Authors: Aziza Ben Halima, Julien Bert, Dimitris Visvikis

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose designing and evaluating a parallel co-manipulated robot dedicated to low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. We developed 6 degrees of freedom compact and lightweight robot easy to install in the operating room thanks to its parallel design. This robotic system provides a co-manipulation allowing the surgeon to keep control of the needle’s insertion and consequently to improve the acceptability of the plan for the clinic. The best dimension’s configuration was solved by calculating the geometric model and using an optimization approach. The aim was to ensure the whole coverage of the prostate volume and consider the allowed free space around the patient that includes the ultrasound probe. The final robot dimensions fit in a cube of 300 300 300 mm³. A prototype was 3D printed, and the robot workspace was measured experimentally. The results show that the proposed robotic system satisfies the medical application requirements and permits the needle to reach any point within the prostate.

Keywords: medical robotics, co-manipulation, prostate brachytherapy, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
132 Abuse of Secretarial Profession by Employers of Labour

Authors: Musa Shu'aibu

Abstract:

This paper centered on the abuse of secretarial profession by employers of labour. The paper further explains vividly the meaning of secretarial profession and that of a secretary. The paper also makes an attempt to explain the training of a secretary, duties and business attributes of a secretary. It further highlighted the personal attributes of a secretary, prospects of secretaries/secretarial profession and some abuses of the secretarial profession were discussed. It concluded that the rapid advancement in technology has changed today's offices which resulted in changing in the requirement of today's secretarial posts. Finally, recommendations were provided.

Keywords: abuse, employers, labour, profession

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
131 Sociolinguistics and Language Change

Authors: Banazzouz Halima

Abstract:

Throughout the ages, language has been viewed not only as a simple code of communicating information but rather as the most powerful and versatile medium of maintaining relationships with other people. While,by the end of the 18th century, such matters of scientific investigation concerning the study of human language began to occur under the scope of “Linguistics” generally defined as the scientific study of language. Linguistics, thus, provides a growing body of scientific knowledge about language which can guide the activity of the language teacher and student as well. Moreover,as times passed, the linguistic development engaged language in a broadly practiced academic discipline having relationship with other sciences such as: psychology, sociology, anthropology etc. Therefore, “Sociolinguistics” was given birth during the 1960’s. In fact, the given abstract is mainly linguistic, inserted under the scope of “Sociolinguistics” and by far it highlights on the process of linguistic variation and language change to show that all languages change through time and linguistic systems may vary from one speech community to another providing there is a sense of vitality where people of different parts of the globe may mutually and intelligibly communicate and comprehend each other.

Keywords: language change-sociolinguistics, social context-speech community, vitality of language, linguistic variation, urban dialectology, urban dialectology

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
130 Effect of Coal on Engineering Properties in Building Materials: Opportunity to Manufacturing Insulating Bricks

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Halima Chemani

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of adding coal to obtain insulating ceramic product. The preparation of mixtures is achieved with 04 types of different masse compositions, consisting of gray and yellow clay, and coal. Analyses are performed on local raw materials by adding coal as additive. The coal content varies from 5 to 20 % in weight by varying the size of coal particles ranging from 0.25 mm to 1.60 mm. Initially, each natural moisture content of a raw material has been determined at the temperature of 105°C in a laboratory oven. The Influence of low-coal content on absorption, the apparent density, the contraction and the resistance during compression have been evaluated. The experimental results showed that the optimized composition could be obtained by adding 10% by weight of coal leading thus to insulating ceramic products with water absorption, a density and resistance to compression of 9.40 %, 1.88 g/cm3, 35.46 MPa, respectively. The results show that coal, when mixed with traditional raw materials, offers the conditions to be used as an additive in the production of lightweight ceramic products.

Keywords: clay, coal, resistance to compression, insulating bricks

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
129 Modeling of the Effect of Explosives, Geological and Geotechnical Parameters on the Stability of Rock Masses Case of Marrakech: Agadir Highway, Morocco

Authors: Taoufik Benchelha, Toufik Remmal, Rachid El Hamdouni, Hamou Mansouri, Houssein Ejjaouani, Halima Jounaid, Said Benchelha

Abstract:

During the earthworks for the construction of Marrakech-Agadir highway in southern Morocco, which crosses mountainous areas of the High Western Atlas, the main problem faced is the stability of the slopes. Indeed, the use of explosives as a means of excavation associated with the geological structure of the terrain encountered can trigger major ruptures and cause damage which depends on the intrinsic characteristics of the rock mass. The study consists of a geological and geotechnical analysis of several unstable zones located along the route, mobilizing millions of cubic meters of rock, with deduction of the parameters influencing slope stability. From this analysis, a predictive model for rock mass stability is carried out, based on a statistic method of logistic regression, in order to predict the geomechanical behavior of the rock slopes constrained by earthworks.

Keywords: explosive, logistic regression, rock mass, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
128 Morphological Parameters and Selection of Turkish Edible Seed Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) Germplasm

Authors: Onder Turkmen, Musa Seymen, Sali Fidan, Mustafa Paksoy

Abstract:

There is a requirement for registered edible seed pumpkin suitable for eating in Turkey. A total of 81 genotypes collected from the researchers in 2005 originated from Eskisehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Tekirdag, Sakarya, Kayseri and Kirsehir provinces were utilized. The used genetic materials were brought to S5 generation by the research groups among 2006 and 2010 years. In this research, S5 stage reached in the genotype given some of the morphological features, and selection of promising genotypes generated scale were made. Results showed that the A-1 (420), A-7 (410), A-8 (420), A-32 (420), B-17 (410), B-24 (410), B-25 (420), B-33 (400), C-24 (420), C-25 (410), C-26 (410) and C-30 (420) genotypes are expected to be promising varieties.

Keywords: candidate cultivar, edible seed pumpkin, morphologic parameters, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
127 Image Encryption Using Eureqa to Generate an Automated Mathematical Key

Authors: Halima Adel Halim Shnishah, David Mulvaney

Abstract:

Applying traditional symmetric cryptography algorithms while computing encryption and decryption provides immunity to secret keys against different attacks. One of the popular techniques generating automated secret keys is evolutionary computing by using Eureqa API tool, which got attention in 2013. In this paper, we are generating automated secret keys for image encryption and decryption using Eureqa API (tool which is used in evolutionary computing technique). Eureqa API models pseudo-random input data obtained from a suitable source to generate secret keys. The validation of generated secret keys is investigated by performing various statistical tests (histogram, chi-square, correlation of two adjacent pixels, correlation between original and encrypted images, entropy and key sensitivity). Experimental results obtained from methods including histogram analysis, correlation coefficient, entropy and key sensitivity, show that the proposed image encryption algorithms are secure and reliable, with the potential to be adapted for secure image communication applications.

Keywords: image encryption algorithms, Eureqa, statistical measurements, automated key generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
126 An intelligent Troubleshooting System and Performance Evaluator for Computer Network

Authors: Iliya Musa Adamu

Abstract:

This paper seeks to develop an expert system that would troubleshoot computer network and evaluate the network system performance so as to reduce the workload on technicians and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of solutions proffered to computer network problems. The platform of the system was developed using ASP.NET, whereas the codes are implemented in Visual Basic and integrated with SQL Server 2005. The knowledge base was represented using production rule, whereas the searching method that was used in developing the network troubleshooting expert system is the forward-chaining-rule-based-system. This software tool offers the advantage of providing an immediate solution to most computer network problems encountered by computer users.

Keywords: expert system, forward chaining rule based system, network, troubleshooting

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
125 British English vs. American English: A Comparative Study

Authors: Halima Benazzouz

Abstract:

It is often believed that British English and American English are the foremost varieties of the English Language serving as reference norms for other varieties;that is the reason why they have obviously been compared and contrasted.Meanwhile,the terms “British English” and “American English” are used differently by different people to refer to: 1) Two national varieties each subsuming regional and other sub-varieties standard and non-standard. 2) Two national standard varieties in which each one is only part of the range of English within its own state, but the most prestigious part. 3) Two international varieties, that is each is more than a national variety of the English Language. 4) Two international standard varieties that may or may not each subsume other standard varieties.Furthermore,each variety serves as a reference norm for users of the language elsewhere. Moreover, without a clear identification, as primarily belonging to one variety or the other, British English(Br.Eng) and American English (Am.Eng) are understood as national or international varieties. British English and American English are both “variants” and “varieties” of the English Language, more similar than different.In brief, the following may justify general categories of difference between Standard American English (S.Am.E) and Standard British English (S.Br.e) each having their own sociolectic value: A difference in pronunciation exists between the two foremost varieties, although it is the same spelling, by contrast, a divergence in spelling may be recognized, eventhough the same pronunciation. In such case, the same term is different but there is a similarity in spelling and pronunciation. Otherwise, grammar, syntax, and punctuation are distinctively used to distinguish the two varieties of the English Language. Beyond these differences, spelling is noted as one of the chief sources of variation.

Keywords: Greek, Latin, French pronunciation expert, varieties of English language

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
124 Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab Magaji Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

Abstract:

The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.

Keywords: validation, verification, formal, theorem prover

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
123 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt

Abstract:

Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
122 Design Channel Non Persistent CSMA MAC Protocol Model for Complex Wireless Systems Based on SoC

Authors: Ibrahim A. Aref, Tarek El-Mihoub, Khadiga Ben Musa

Abstract:

This paper presents Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) communication model based on SoC design methodology. Such model can be used to support the modelling of the complex wireless communication systems, therefore use of such communication model is an important technique in the construction of high performance communication. SystemC has been chosen because it provides a homogeneous design flow for complex designs (i.e. SoC and IP based design). We use a swarm system to validate CSMA designed model and to show how advantages of incorporating communication early in the design process. The wireless communication created through the modeling of CSMA protocol that can be used to achieve communication between all the agents and to coordinate access to the shared medium (channel).

Keywords: systemC, modelling, simulation, CSMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
121 Toxicological Analysis of Some Plant Combinations Used for the Treatment of Hypertension by Lay People in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Sandy Van Vuuren, Helene De Wet

Abstract:

The use of plant combinations to treat various medical conditions is not a new concept, and it is known that traditional people do not only rely on a single plant extract for efficacy but often combine various plant species for treatment. The knowledge of plant combinations is transferred from one generation to the other in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, decreases adverse effects, increase bioavailability and result in lower dosages. However, combination therapy may also be harmful when the interaction is antagonistic, since it may result in increasing toxicity. Although a fair amount of research has been done on the toxicity of medicinal plants, there is very little done on the toxicity of medicinal plants in combination. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity potential of 19 plant combinations which have been documented as treatments of hypertension in northern KwaZulu-Natal by lay people. The aqueous extracts were assessed using two assays; the Brine shrimp assay (Artemia franciscana) and the Ames test (Mutagenicity). Only one plant combination (Aloe marlothii with Hypoxis hemerocallidea) in the current study has been previously assessed for toxicity. With the Brine shrimp assay, the plant combinations were tested in two concentrations (2 and 4 mg/ml), while for mutagenicity tests, they were tested at 5 mg/ml. The results showed that in the Brine shrimp assay, six combinations were toxic at 4 mg/ml. The combinations were Albertisia delagoensis with Senecio serratuloides (57%), Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (98%), Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea (66%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (89%), Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (99%) and Aloe marlothii with Trichilia emetica and Hyphaene coriacea (50%). However when the concentration was reduced to 2 mg/ml, only three combinations were toxic which were Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (76%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (66%) and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (73%). For the mutagenicity assay, only the combinations between Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina were mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Most of the combinations which were toxic involve C. roseus which was also toxic when tested singularly. It is worth noting that C. roseus was one of the most frequently used plant species both to treat hypertension singularly and in combination and some of the individuals have been using this for the last 20 years. The mortality percentage of the Brine shrimp showed a significant correlation between dosage and toxicity thus toxicity was dosage dependant. A combination which is worth noting is the combination between A. delagoensis and S. serratuloides. Singularly these plants were non-toxic towards Brine shrimp, however their combination resulted in antagonism with the mortality rate of 57% at the total concentration of 4 mg/ml. Low toxicity was mostly observed, giving some validity to combined use, however the few combinations showing increased toxicity demonstrate the importance of analysing plant combinations.

Keywords: dosage, hypertension, plant combinations, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 233