Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1740

Search results for: base of changes

1740 Cooperative Scheme Using Adjacent Base Stations in Wireless Communication

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Seung-Jun Yu, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In a wireless communication system, the failure of base station can result in a communication disruption in the cell. This paper proposes a way to deal with the failure of base station in a wireless communication system based on OFDM. Cooperative communication of the adjacent base stations can be a solution of the problem. High performance is obtained by the configuration of transmission signals which is applied CDD scheme in the cooperative communication. The Cooperative scheme can be a effective solution in case of the particular situation.

Keywords: base station, CDD, OFDM, diversity gain, MIMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1739 Effect of Base Coarse Layer on Load-Settlement Characteristics of Sandy Subgrade Using Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Nazeri, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Ghiasinejad

Abstract:

The present research has been performed to investigate the effect of base course application on load-settlement characteristics of sandy subgrade using plate load test. The main parameter investigated in this study was the subgrade reaction coefficient. The model tests were conducted in a 1.35 m long, 1 m wide, and 1 m deep steel test box of Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU Calibration Chamber). The base courses used in this research were in three different thicknesses of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm. The test results indicated that in the case of using base course over loose sandy subgrade, the values of subgrade reaction coefficient can be increased from 7  to 132 , 224 , and 396  in presence of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm base course, respectively.

Keywords: modulus of subgrade reaction, plate load test, base course, sandy subgrade

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
1738 Performance of Buildings with Base-Isolation System under Geometric Irregularities

Authors: Firoz Alam Faroque, Ankur Neog

Abstract:

Earthquake causes significant loss of lives and severe damage to infrastructure. Base isolator is one of the most suitable solutions to make a building earthquake resistant. Base isolation consists of installing an isolator along with the steel plates covered with pads of strong material like steel, rubber, etc. In our study, we have used lead rubber bearing (LRB). The basic idea of seismic isolation is based on the reduction of the earthquake-induced inertia forces by shifting the fundamental period of the structure out of dangerous resonance range, and concentration of the deformation and energy dissipation demands at the isolation and energy dissipation systems, which are designed for this purpose. In this paper, RC frame buildings have been modeled and analyzed by response spectrum method using ETABS software. The LRB used in the model is designed as per uniform building code (UBC) 97. It is found that time period for the base isolated structures are higher than that of the fixed base structure and the value of base shear significantly reduces in the case of base-isolated buildings. It has also been found that buildings with vertical irregularities give better performance as compared to building with plan irregularities using base isolators.

Keywords: base isolation, base shear, irregularities in buildings, lead rubber bearing (LRB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1737 Nonlinear Heat Transfer in a Spiral Fin with a Period Base Temperature

Authors: Kuo-Teng Tsai, You-Min Huang

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of a spiral fin with a period base temperature is analyzed by using the Adomian decomposition method. The Adomian decomposition method is a useful and practice method to solve the nonlinear energy equation which are associated with the heat radiation. The period base temperature is around a mean value. The results including the temperature distribution and the heat flux from the spiral fin base can be calculated directly. The results also discussed the effects of the dimensionless variables for the temperature variations and the total energy transferred from the spiral fin base.

Keywords: spiral fin, period, adomian decomposition method, nonlinear

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
1736 Numerical Study of Base Drag Reduction Using Locked Vortex Flow Management Technique for Lower Subsonic Regime

Authors: Kailas S. Jagtap, Karthik Sundarraj, Nirmal Kumar, S. Rajnarasimha, Prakash S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The issue of turbulence base streams and the drag related to it have been of important attention for rockets, missiles, and aircraft. Different techniques are used for base drag reduction. This paper presents the numerical study of numerous drag reduction technique. The base drag or afterbody drag of bluff bodies can be reduced easily using locked vortex drag reduction technique. For bluff bodies having a cylindrical shape, the base drag is much larger compared to streamlined bodies. For such bodies using splitter plates, the vortex can be trapped between the base and the plate, which results in smooth flow. Splitter plate with round and curved corner shapes has influence in drag reduction. In this paper, the comparison is done between single splitter plate as different positions and with the bluff body. Base drag for the speed of 30m/s can be reduced about 20% to 30% by using single splitter plate as compared to the bluff body.

Keywords: base drag, bluff body, splitter plate, vortex flow, ANSYS, fluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
1735 On the Solidness of the Polar of Recession Cones

Authors: Sima Hassankhali, Ildar Sadeqi

Abstract:

In the theory of Pareto efficient points, the existence of a bounded base for a cone K of a normed space X is so important. In this article, we study the geometric structure of a nonzero closed convex cone K with a bounded base. For this aim, we study the structure of the polar cone K# of K. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a nonempty closed convex set C so that its recession cone C∞ has a bounded base.

Keywords: solid cones, recession cones, polar cones, bounded base

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1734 Drag Reduction of Base Bleed at Various Flight Conditions

Authors: Man Chul Jeong, Hyoung Jin Lee, Sang Yoon Lee, Ji Hyun Park, Min Wook Chang, In-Seuck Jeung

Abstract:

This study focus on the drag reduction effect of the base bleed at supersonic flow. Base bleed is the method which bleeds the gas on the tail of the flight vehicle and reduces the base drag, which occupies over 50% of the total drag in any flight speed. Thus base bleed can reduce the total drag significantly, and enhance the total flight range. Drag reduction ratio of the base bleed is strongly related to the mass flow rate of the bleeding gas. Thus selecting appropriate mass flow rate is important. However, since the flight vehicle has various flight speed, same mass flow rate of the base bleed can have different drag reduction effect during the flight. Thus, this study investigates the effect of the drag reduction depending on the flight speed by numerical analysis using STAR-CCM+. The analysis model is 155mm diameter projectile with boat-tailed shape base. Angle of the boat-tail is chosen previously for minimum drag coefficient. Numerical analysis is conducted for Mach 2 and Mach 3, with various mass flow rate, or the injection parameter I, of the bleeding gas and the temperature of the bleeding gas, is fixed to 300K. The results showed that I=0.025 has the minimum drag at Mach 2, and I=0.014 has the minimum drag at Mach 3. Thus as the Mach number is higher, the lower mass flow rate of the base bleed has more effect on drag reduction.

Keywords: base bleed, supersonic, drag reduction, recirculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1733 Inverse Dynamics of the Mould Base of Blow Molding Machines

Authors: Vigen Arakelian

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of devices for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines. The displacement of the mould in the studied case is carried out by a linear actuator, which ensures the descent of the mould base and by extension springs, which return the letter in the initial position. The aim of this paper is to study the inverse dynamics of the device for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines and to determine its optimum parameters for higher rate of production. In the other words, it is necessary to solve the inverse dynamic problem to find the equation of motion linking applied forces with displacements. This makes it possible to determine the stiffness coefficient of the spring to turn the mold base back to the initial position for a given time. The obtained results are illustrated by a numerical example. It is shown that applying a spring with stiffness returns the mould base of the blow molding machine into the initial position in 0.1 sec.

Keywords: design, mechanisms, dynamics, blow-molding machines

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1732 Study on Moisture-Induced-Damage of Semi-Rigid Base under Hydrodynamic Pressure

Authors: Baofeng Pan, Heng Liu

Abstract:

Because of the high strength and large carrying capacity, the semi-rigid base is widely used in modern road engineering. However, hydrodynamic pressure, which is one of the main factors to cause early damage of semi-rigid base, cannot be avoided in the nature environment when pavement is subjected to some loadings such as the passing vehicles. In order to investigating how moisture-induced-damage of semi-rigid base influenced by hydrodynamic pressure, a new and effective experimental research method is provided in this paper. The results show that: (a) The washing action of high hydrodynamic pressure is the direct cause of strength reducing of road semi-rigid base. (b) The damage of high hydrodynamic pressure mainly occurs at the beginning of the scoring test and with the increasing of testing time the influence reduces. (c) Under the same hydrodynamic pressure, the longer the specimen health age, the stronger ability to resist moisture induced damage.

Keywords: semi-rigid base, hydrodynamic pressure, moisture-induced-damage, experimental research

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1731 Easily Memorable Strong Password Generation and Retrieval

Authors: Shatadru Das, Natarajan Vijayarangan

Abstract:

In this paper, a system and method for generating and recovering an authorization code has been designed and analyzed. The system creates an authorization code by accepting a base-sentence from a user. Based on the characters present in this base-sentence, the system computes a base-sentence matrix. The system also generates a plurality of patterns. The user can either select the pattern from the multiple patterns suggested by the system or can create his/her own pattern. The system then performs multiplications between the base-sentence matrix and the selected pattern matrix at different stages in the path forward, for obtaining a strong authorization code. In case the user forgets the base sentence, the system has a provision to manage and retrieve 'forgotten authorization code'. This is done by fragmenting the base sentence into different matrices and storing the fragmented matrices into a repository after computing matrix multiplication with a security question-answer approach and with a secret key provided by the user.

Keywords: easy authentication, key retrieval, memorable passwords, strong password generation

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1730 Preparation of Alumina (Al2O3) Particles and MMCS of (Al-7% Si– 0.45% Mg) Alloy Using Vortex Method

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to study the manner of alumina (Al2O3) particles dispersion with (2-10) mm size in (Al-7%Si-0.45% Mg) base of alloy melt employing of classical casting method. The mechanism of particles diffusions by melt turning and stirring that makes vortexes help the particles entrance in the matrix of base alloy also has been studied. The samples of metallic composites (MMCs) with dispersed particles percentages (4% - 6% - 8% - 10% - 15% and 20%) are prepared. The effect of the particles dispersion on the mechanical properties of produced samples were carried out by tension & hardness tests. It is found that the ultimate tensile strength of the produced composites can be increased by increasing the percentages of alumina particles in the matrix of the base alloy. It becomes (232 Mpa) at (20%) of added particles. The results showed that the average hardness of prepared samples increasing with increases the alumina content. Microstructure study of prepared samples was carried out. The results showed particles location and distribution of it in the matrix of base alloy. The dissolution of Alumina particles into liquid base alloy was clear in some cases.

Keywords: base alloy, matrix, hardness, thermal properties, base metal MMCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1729 Evaluation of the Inhibitive Effect of Novel Quinoline Schiff Base on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution

Authors: Smita Jauhari, Bhupendra Mistry

Abstract:

Schiff base (E)-2-methyl-N-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-ylmethylene)aniline (QMA) was synthesized, and its inhibitive effect for mild steel in 1M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurement and electrochemical tests.From the weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests, it was observed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the Schiff base concentration and reaches a maximum at the optimum concentration. This is further confirmed by the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that the system follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Schiff base, acid corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1728 Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties Study of New Magnetic Materials

Authors: Messai Amel, Badis Zakaria, Benali-Cherif Nourredine, Dominique Luneaub

Abstract:

We are interested in molecular polymetallic species having high spin and nuclearities in relation to the field of so call single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The goal is to find a way to synthesis metal clusters which may have application in magnetism and nano sciences. With this purpose, we decided to investigate the coordination chemistry of the Schiff base. Along this way we were able to create cubane-like complexes and elaborate new Single Molecule-Magnets. The idea was to use Schiff base ligands and different metals to generate high nuclear complexes. Complexation of Shiff base with copper (II) has been investigated. Tetra nuclear complex with a cubane like core have been synthesized with (Sciff base), with the same base and cobalt (II) we obtain an other single magnetic complex completely different. In this presentation, we report the synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the tetranuclear compound (Cu4 L4), and the tetranuclear compound. (Co4L4)

Keywords: cluster-assembled materials, magnetic compounds, Sciff base, cupper, cobalt

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1727 Synthesis of Biolubricant Base Stock from Palm Methyl Ester

Authors: Nur Sulihatimarsyila Abd Wafti, Harrison Lik Nang Lau, Nabilah Kamaliah Mustaffa, Nur Azreena Idris

Abstract:

The use of biolubricant has gained its popularity over the last decade. Base stock produced using methyl ester and trimethylolethane (TME) can be potentially used for biolubricant production due to its biodegradability, non-toxicity and good thermal stability. The synthesis of biolubricant base stock e.g. triester (TE) via transesterification of palm methyl ester and TME in the presence of sodium methoxide as the catalyst was conducted. Factors influencing the reaction conditions were investigated including reaction time, temperature and pressure. The palm-based biolubricant base stock produced was analysed for its monoester (ME), diester (DE) and TE contents using gas chromatography as well as its lubricating properties such as viscosity, viscosity index, oxidation stability, and density. The resulting base stock containing 90 wt% TE was successfully synthesized.

Keywords: biolubricant, methyl ester, triester transesterification, lubricating properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
1726 Developing an Online Library for Faster Retrieval of Mold Base and Standard Parts of Injection Molding

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Ricky N. Joevan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing a system to transfer mold base plates and standard parts faster during the stage of injection mold design. This system not only provides a way to compare the file version, but also it utilizes Siemens NX 10 to isolate the updated information into a single executable file (.dll), and then, the file can be transferred without the need of transferring the whole file. By this way, the system can help the user to download only necessary mold base plates and standard parts, and those parts downloaded are only the updated portions.

Keywords: CAD, injection molding, mold base, data retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1725 Challenges and Opportunities: One Stop Processing for the Automation of Indonesian Large-Scale Topographic Base Map Using Airborne LiDAR Data

Authors: Elyta Widyaningrum

Abstract:

The LiDAR data acquisition has been recognizable as one of the fastest solution to provide the basis data for topographic base mapping in Indonesia. The challenges to accelerate the provision of large-scale topographic base maps as a development plan basis gives the opportunity to implement the automated scheme in the map production process. The one stop processing will also contribute to accelerate the map provision especially to conform with the Indonesian fundamental spatial data catalog derived from ISO 19110 and geospatial database integration. Thus, the automated LiDAR classification, DTM generation and feature extraction will be conducted in one GIS-software environment to form all layers of topographic base maps. The quality of automated topographic base map will be assessed and analyzed based on its completeness, correctness, contiguity, consistency and possible customization.

Keywords: automation, GIS environment, LiDAR processing, map quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1724 DFT Study of Hoogsteen-Type Base Pairs

Authors: N. Amraoui, D. Hammoutene

Abstract:

We have performed a theoretical study using dispersion-corrected Density Functional Methods to evaluate a variety of artificial nucleobases as candidates for metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs. We focus on A-M-T Hoogsteen-type base pair with M=Co(II), Ru(I), Ni(I). All calculations are performed using (ADF 09) program. Metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs are studied as drug candidates, their geometry optimizations are performed at ZORA/TZ2P/BLYP-D level. The molecular geometries and different energies as total energies, coordination energies, Pauli interactions, orbital interactions and electrostatic energies are determined.

Keywords: chemistry, biology, density functional method, orbital interactions

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1723 Location Quotients Model in Turkey’s Provinces and Nuts II Regions

Authors: Semih Sözer

Abstract:

One of the most common issues in economic systems is understanding characteristics of economic activities in cities and regions. Although there are critics to economic base models in conceptual and empirical aspects, these models are useful tools to examining the economic structure of a nation, regions or cities. This paper uses one of the methodologies of economic base models namely the location quotients model. Data for this model includes employment numbers of provinces and NUTS II regions in Turkey. Time series of data covers the years of 1990, 2000, 2003, and 2009. Aim of this study is finding which sectors are export-base and which sectors are import-base in provinces and regions. Model results show that big provinces or powerful regions (population, size etc.) mostly have basic sectors in their economic system. However, interesting facts came from different sectors in different provinces and regions in the model results.

Keywords: economic base, location quotients model, regional economics, regional development

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1722 Seismic Response Mitigation of Structures Using Base Isolation System Considering Uncertain Parameters

Authors: Rama Debbarma

Abstract:

The present study deals with the performance of Linear base isolation system to mitigate seismic response of structures characterized by random system parameters. This involves optimization of the tuning ratio and damping properties of the base isolation system considering uncertain system parameters. However, the efficiency of base isolator may reduce if it is not tuned to the vibrating mode it is designed to suppress due to unavoidable presence of system parameters uncertainty. With the aid of matrix perturbation theory and first order Taylor series expansion, the total probability concept is used to evaluate the unconditional response of the primary structures considering random system parameters. For this, the conditional second order information of the response quantities are obtained in random vibration framework using state space formulation. Subsequently, the maximum unconditional root mean square displacement of the primary structures is used as the objective function to obtain optimum damping parameters Numerical study is performed to elucidate the effect of parameters uncertainties on the optimization of parameters of linear base isolator and system performance.

Keywords: linear base isolator, earthquake, optimization, uncertain parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1721 Effect of Chemical, Organic and Biological Nitrogen on Yield and Yield Components of Soybean Cultivars

Authors: Hamid Hatami

Abstract:

This experiment was included two cultivars i.e. Habbit and L17 (Main factor) with six fertilizer treatments i.e. control, seed inoculated with rhyzobium, base nitrogen + top-dress urea at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed inoculated with rhyzobium + top-dress nitrogen at R2 stage, seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage (sub factors ), as split-plot on the basis of RCBD with 3 replications at 2014. Treatment fertilizer of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top- dress humax at R2 stage and base nitrogen + top-dress urea in R2 stage had a significant superiority than the other fertilizer treatment in biological yield. L17 and Habbit with base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and yield economical 5600 and 5767 kg/ha respectively, showed the most economical yield and Habbit cultivar with control and economical yield 3085 kg/ha showed the least economical yield among all the treatments. Results showed that fertilizer treatment of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and Habbit variety were suitable in this study.

Keywords: soybean, humax, rhyzobium, habbit

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1720 The High Temperature Damage of DV–2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni–Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High-pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV–2 jet engines are made from Ni–base superalloy, a former Soviet Union production, specified as ŽS6K. For improving its high-temperature resistance are blades covered with Al–Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An over-crossing working temperature range causes degradation of protective alitize layer as well as base material–gamma matrix and gamma prime particles what decreases turbine blade lifetime. High-temperature degradation has mainly diffusion mechanism and causes coarsening of strengthening phase gamma prime and protective alitize layer thickness growing. All changes have a significant influence on high-temperature properties of base material.

Keywords: alitize layer, gamma prime phase, high-temperature degradation, Ni–base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
1719 Environmental Impact Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Mobile Base Station in Central Area of KSA

Authors: Mohammed Abdullah Alrajhi

Abstract:

The rapid growth in the number of mobile phone subscribers has resulted in an increased number of mobile base stations all over the world. Generally, mobile base stations are existing in huge numbers in populated areas than in non-populated ones to serve the largest number of users. The total number of mobile subscriptions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reached around 50 million at the end of 2014, with a penetration rate of 165.1% according to the quarterly electronic newsletter issued by the Communications and Information Technology Commission. The current investigation was conducted primarily to measure the level of electromagnetic fields emitted from 400 mobile base stations for the purpose of environmental safety and radiation protection in light of national guidelines for public exposure as well as the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The outcomes of this investigation provide valuable comments and recommendation for safety and protection of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile base stations.

Keywords: electromagnetic fields, mobile, safety, protection, ICNIRP

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1718 A New Floating Point Implementation of Base 2 Logarithm

Authors: Ahmed M. Mansour, Ali M. El-Sawy, Ahmed T. Sayed

Abstract:

Logarithms reduce products to sums and powers to products; they play an important role in signal processing, communication and information theory. They are primarily used for hardware calculations, handling multiplications, divisions, powers, and roots effectively. There are three commonly used bases for logarithms; the logarithm with base-10 is called the common logarithm, the natural logarithm with base-e and the binary logarithm with base-2. This paper demonstrates different methods of calculation for log2 showing the complexity of each and finds out the most accurate and efficient besides giving in- sights to their hardware design. We present a new method called Floor Shift for fast calculation of log2, and then we combine this algorithm with Taylor series to improve the accuracy of the output, we illustrate that by using two examples. We finally compare the algorithms and conclude with our remarks.

Keywords: logarithms, log2, floor, iterative, CORDIC, Taylor series

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1717 The Synthesis, Structure and Catalytic Activity of Iron(II) Complex with New N2O2 Donor Schiff Base Ligand

Authors: Neslihan Beyazit, Sahin Bayraktar, Cahit Demetgul

Abstract:

Transition metal ions have an important role in biochemistry and biomimetic systems and may provide the basis of models for active sites of biological targets. The presence of copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) is crucial in many biological processes. Tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands are well known to form stable transition metal complexes and these complexes have also applications in clinical and analytical fields. In this study, we present salient structural features and the details of cathecholase activity of Fe(II) complex of a new Schiff Base ligand. A new asymmetrical N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand and its Fe(II) complex were synthesized by condensation of 4-nitro-1,2 phenylenediamine with 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one and by using an appropriate Fe(II) salt, respectively. Schiff base ligand and its metal complex were characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis and magnetic susceptibility. In order to determine the kinetics parameters of catechol oxidase-like activity of Schiff base Fe(II) complex, the oxidation of the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) was measured at 25°C by monitoring the increase of the absorption band at 390-400 nm of the product 3,5-di-tert-butylcatequinone (3,5-DTBQ). The compatibility of catalytic reaction with Michaelis-Menten kinetics also investigated by the method of initial rates by monitoring the growth of the 390–400 nm band of 3,5-DTBQ as a function of time. Kinetic studies showed that Fe(II) complex of the new N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand was capable of acting as a model compound for simulating the catecholase properties of type-3 copper proteins.

Keywords: catecholase activity, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Schiff base, transition metals

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1716 Base Deficit Profiling in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury – Correlation with Severity and Outcomes

Authors: Shahan Waheed, Muhammad Waqas, Asher Feroz

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the utility of base deficit in traumatic brain injury in assessing the severity and to correlate with the conventional computed tomography scales in grading the severity of head injury. Methodology: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2012. All patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of the injury to the emergency department were included in the study. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale and base deficit values were taken at presentation, the patients were followed during their hospital stay and CT scan brain findings were recorded and graded as per the Rotterdam scale, the findings were cross-checked by a radiologist, Glasgow Outcome Scale was taken on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Continuous variables with normal and non-normal distributions are reported as mean ± SD. Categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages. Relationship of the base deficit with GCS, GOS, CT scan brain and length of stay was calculated using Spearman`s correlation. Results: 154 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients were 30 years and 137 were males. The severity of brain injuries as per the GCS was 34 moderate and 109 severe respectively. 34 percent of the total has an unfavorable outcome with a mean of 18±14. The correlation was significant at the 0.01 level with GCS on presentation and the base deficit 0.004. The correlation was not significant between the Rotterdam CT scan brain findings, length of stay and the base deficit. Conclusion: The base deficit was found to be a good predictor of severity of brain injury. There was no association of the severity of injuries on the CT scan brain as per the Rotterdam scale and the base deficit. Further studies with large sample size are needed to further evaluate the associations.

Keywords: base deficit, traumatic brain injury, Rotterdam, GCS

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1715 Seismic Behavior of a Jumbo Container Crane in the Low Seismicity Zone Using Time-History Analyses

Authors: Huy Q. Tran, Bac V. Nguyen, Choonghyun Kang, Jungwon Huh

Abstract:

Jumbo container crane is an important part of port structures that needs to be designed properly, even when the port locates in low seismicity zone such as in Korea. In this paper, 30 artificial ground motions derived from the elastic response spectra of Korean Building Code (2005) are used for time history analysis. It is found that the uplift might not occur in this analysis when the crane locates in the low seismic zone. Therefore, a selection of a pinned or a gap element for base supporting has not much effect on the determination of the total base shear. The relationships between the total base shear and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the relationships between the portal drift and the PGA are proposed in this study.

Keywords: jumbo container crane, portal drift, time history analysis, total base shear

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1714 A New Low Cost Seismic Response Controlling Structures with Semi Base Isolation Devices

Authors: M. Ezati Kooshki, A. Abbaszadeh Shahri

Abstract:

A number of devices used to control seismic structures have been developed during the past decades. One of the effective ways to reduce seismic forces transmitted to the buildings is through the base isolation systems, but the use of these devices is currently limited to large and expensive buildings. This study was an attempt to introduce an effective and low cost way to protect of structures against grand motions by a semi base isolation system. In this new way, structures were not completely decoupled of bases and the natural frequency of structures was changed due to earthquake by changing the horizontal stiffness; therefore, ground excitation energy was dissipated before entering the structures. For analyzing the dynamic behavior, the new method used finite element software (ABAQUS 6-10-1). This investigation introduced a new package of semi base isolation devices with a new material constitutive, but common in automobile industries, seeking to evaluate the effects of additional new devices on the seismic response when compared with structures without additional devises for different ground motions. The proposed semi base isolation devices were applied to a one story frame and the time history analysis was conducted on the record of Kobe earthquake (1995). The results showed that the efficiency reduced the floor acceleration and displacement, as well as velocity.

Keywords: semi base isolation system, finite element, natural frequency, horizontal stiffness

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1713 Characteristics Influencing Response of a Base Isolated Building

Authors: Ounis Hadj Mohamed, Ounis Abdelhafid

Abstract:

In order to illustrate the effect of damping on the response of a base-isolated building, a parametric study is led, taking into account the progressive variation of the damping ratio (10% to 30%) under different types of seismic excitations (near and far field). A time history analysis is used to determine the response of the structure in terms of relative displacement and understory drift at various levels of the building. Thus, the results show that the efficiency of the isolator increases with the assumed damping ratio, provided that this latter is less or equal to 20%. Beyond this value, the isolator becomes less convenient. Furthermore, a strong deviation of energy capacity by the LRB (Lead Rubber Bearing) system is recorded.

Keywords: damping, base isolation, LRB, seismic excitation, hysteresis

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1712 Antioxidant Activity Studies of Novel Schiff and Mannich Bases

Authors: D. J. Madhu Kumar, D. Jagadeesh Prasad, Sana Sheik, E. P. Rejeesh

Abstract:

A series of Mannich bases derived from 1,2,4-triazole(3a-k and 4a-k) are synthesized by treating a Schiff base with various substituted primary/secondary amines and formaldehyde. The Schiff base is prepared by treating 3-methyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of acid catalyst. The triazole is prepared by treating acetic acid with thiocarbohydrazide at reflux temperature. All the synthesized samples are characterised by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and LC-MASS spectral studies and screened for their anti-oxidant activity.

Keywords: mannich bases, anti-oxidant activity, schiff base, triazole

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1711 Survey of Potential Adverse Health Effects of Mobile Phones, and Wireless Base Stations in Nigeria

Authors: Nureni A. Yekini, Isaac T. Babalola, Edwin E. Aighokhan, Agnes K. Akinwole, N. Stephen Igwe

Abstract:

Survey was conducted to gather information on potential adverse health effects of Mobile Phones, and Telecommunication Tower Base Stations in Nigeria. Data was sourced from two sampled populations. Firstly from the people living in close proximity to base stations, and secondly from cell phone users. Questionnaire was used to gathered information from 574 people on thirteen non-specific health symptoms. Data obtained was presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that people living close to the based stations over a long period of time with or without cell phone, and also the heavy phone users with close proximity to the base stations are liable to have some potential health hazards, such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentrating, depression, memory loss, visual disruptions, irritability, hearing disruptions, skin problems, cardiovascular disorders, and dizziness.

Keywords: health hazards, wireless base stations, phone users, mobile phones, Nigeria

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