Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 547

Search results for: blow-molding machines

547 A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications

Authors: Shahbaz Amin, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahib Khan

Abstract:

This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.

Keywords: axial flux machines, axial flux applications, coreless machines, PM machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
546 Comparisons of Individual and Group Replacement Policies for a Series Connection System with Two Machines

Authors: Wen Liang Chang, Mei Wei Wang, Ruey Huei Yeh

Abstract:

This paper studies the comparisons of individual and group replacement policies for a series connection system with two machines. Suppose that manufacturer’s production system is a series connection system which is combined by two machines. For two machines, when machines fail within the operating time, minimal repair is performed for machines by the manufacturer. The manufacturer plans to a preventive replacement for machines at a pre-specified time to maintain system normal operation. Under these maintenance policies, the maintenance cost rate models of individual and group replacement for a series connection system with two machines is derived and further, optimal preventive replacement time is obtained such that the expected total maintenance cost rate is minimized. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of individual and group replacement policies to the maintenance cost rate.

Keywords: individual replacement, group replacement, replacement time, two machines, series connection system

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
545 PM Electrical Machines Diagnostic: Methods Selected

Authors: M. Barański

Abstract:

This paper presents a several diagnostic methods designed to electrical machines especially for permanent magnets (PM) machines. Those machines are commonly used in small wind and water systems and vehicles drives. Those methods are preferred by the author in periodic diagnostic of electrical machines. The special attention should be paid to diagnostic method of turn-to-turn insulation and vibrations. Both of those methods were created in Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines Komel. The vibration diagnostic method is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation. This is method of determination the technical condition of PM electrical machine basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical machines with permanent magnets and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, generator, main insulation, permanent magnet, thermography, turn-to-traction drive, turn insulation, vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
544 Using Support Vector Machines for Measuring Democracy

Authors: Tommy Krieger, Klaus Gruendler

Abstract:

We present a novel approach for measuring democracy, which enables a very detailed and sensitive index. This method is based on Support Vector Machines, a mathematical algorithm for pattern recognition. Our implementation evaluates 188 countries in the period between 1981 and 2011. The Support Vector Machines Democracy Index (SVMDI) is continuously on the 0-1-Interval and robust to variations in the numerical process parameters. The algorithm introduced here can be used for every concept of democracy without additional adjustments, and due to its flexibility it is also a valuable tool for comparison studies.

Keywords: democracy, democracy index, machine learning, support vector machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
543 Predicting Machine-Down of Woodworking Industrial Machines

Authors: Matteo Calabrese, Martin Cimmino, Dimos Kapetis, Martina Manfrin, Donato Concilio, Giuseppe Toscano, Giovanni Ciandrini, Giancarlo Paccapeli, Gianluca Giarratana, Marco Siciliano, Andrea Forlani, Alberto Carrotta

Abstract:

In this paper we describe a machine learning methodology for Predictive Maintenance (PdM) applied on woodworking industrial machines. PdM is a prominent strategy consisting of all the operational techniques and actions required to ensure machine availability and to prevent a machine-down failure. One of the challenges with PdM approach is to design and develop of an embedded smart system to enable the health status of the machine. The proposed approach allows screening simultaneously multiple connected machines, thus providing real-time monitoring that can be adopted with maintenance management. This is achieved by applying temporal feature engineering techniques and training an ensemble of classification algorithms to predict Remaining Useful Lifetime of woodworking machines. The effectiveness of the methodology is demonstrated by testing an independent sample of additional woodworking machines without presenting machine down event.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, machine learning, connected machines, artificial intelligence

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542 Design Approach for the Development of Format-Flexible Packaging Machines

Authors: G. Götz, P. Stich, J. Backhaus, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The rising demand for format-flexible packaging machines is caused by current market changes. Increasing the formatflexibility is a new goal for the packaging machine manufacturers’ product development process. There are no methodical or designorientated tools for a comprehensive consideration of this target. This paper defines the term format-flexibility in the context of packaging machines and shows the state-of-the-art for improving the changeover of production machines. The requirements for a new approach and the concept itself will be introduced, and the method elements will be explained. Finally, the use of the concept and the result of the development of a format-flexible packaging machine will be shown.

Keywords: packaging machine, format-flexibility, changeover, design method

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
541 Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Fault Detectors

Authors: Seong Woo Kwak, Jung-Min Yang

Abstract:

A strategy of fault diagnosis and tolerance for asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. With no synchronizing clock, it is difficult to diagnose an occurrence of permanent or stuck-in faults in the operation of asynchronous machines. In this paper, we present a fault detector comprised of a timer and a set of static functions to determine the occurrence of faults. In order to realize immediate fault tolerance, corrective control theory is applied to designing a dynamic feedback controller. Existence conditions for an appropriate controller and its construction algorithm are presented in terms of reachability of the machine and the feature of fault occurrences.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, fault diagnosis and tolerance, fault detector

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
540 Finite Element Analysis of High Performance Synchronous Reluctance Machines

Authors: T. Mohanarajah, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial, A. Hellany

Abstract:

This paper analyses numerous features of the synchronous Reluctance Motor (Syn-RM) and propose a rotor for high electrical torque, power factor & efficiency using Finite Element Method (FEM). A comprehensive analysis completed on solid rotor structure while the total thickness of the flux guide kept constant. A number of tests carried out for nine different studies to find out optimum location of the flux guide, the optimum location of multiple flux guides & optimum wall thickness between flux guides for high-performance reluctance machines. The results are concluded with the aid of FEM simulation results, the saliency ratio and machine characteristics (location, a number of barriers & wall width) analysed.

Keywords: electrical machines, finite element method, synchronous reluctance machines, variable reluctance machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
539 The Analysis of Own Signals of PM Electrical Machines – Example of Eccentricity

Authors: Marcin Baranski

Abstract:

This article presents a vibration diagnostic method designed for permanent magnets (PM) traction motors. Those machines are commonly used in traction drives of electrical vehicles. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. This work presents: field-circuit model, results of static tests, results of calculations and simulations.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, permanent magnet, traction drive, vibrations, electrical machine, eccentricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
538 Methodology of Geometry Simplification for Conjugate Heat Transfer of Electrical Rotating Machines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sachin Aggarwal, Sarah Kassinger, Nicholas Hoffman

Abstract:

Geometry simplification is a key step in performing conjugate heat transfer analysis using CFD. This paper proposes a standard methodology for the geometry simplification of rotating machines, such as electrical generators and electrical motors (both air and liquid-cooled). These machines are extensively deployed throughout the aerospace and automotive industries, where optimization of weight, volume, and performance is paramount -especially given the current global transition to renewable energy sources and vehicle hybridization and electrification. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is an essential step in optimizing their complex design. This methodology will help in reducing convergence issues due to poor mesh quality, thus decreasing computational cost and overall analysis time.

Keywords: CFD, electrical machines, Geometry simplification, heat transfer

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537 Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

Solvability of the model matching problem for input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled switched machine can show the desired input/output behavior. A matrix expression is presented to address reachability of switched asynchronous sequential machines with output equivalence with respect to a model. The presented reachability condition for the controller design is validated in a simple example.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, model matching, input/output control

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
536 Communicative and Artistic Machines: A Survey of Models and Experiments on Artificial Agents

Authors: Artur Matuck, Guilherme F. Nobre

Abstract:

Machines can be either tool, media, or social agents. Advances in technology have been delivering machines capable of autonomous expression, both through communication and art. This paper deals with models (theoretical approach) and experiments (applied approach) related to artificial agents. On one hand it traces how social sciences' scholars have worked with topics such as text automatization, man-machine writing cooperation, and communication. On the other hand it covers how computer sciences' scholars have built communicative and artistic machines, including the programming of creativity. The aim is to present a brief survey on artificially intelligent communicators and artificially creative writers, and provide the basis to understand the meta-authorship and also to new and further man-machine co-authorship.

Keywords: artificial communication, artificial creativity, artificial writers, meta-authorship, robotic art

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
535 Feature of Employment Injuries and Maintenance Works of Construction Machinery

Authors: Naoko Kanazawa, Tran Thi Bich Nguyet, Yoshiyuki Higuchi, Hideki Hamada

Abstract:

Construction machines’ condition is maintained with the regularly inspections, preventive maintenance and repairs by skillful and qualified engineers. If an accident occurs, there will be enormous influence such as human injuries, delays in the term of construction. In this paper, we revealed the characteristics such as inspection, maintenance and repair works for construction machines, and we also clarified the trends of employment injuries based on actual data by simple and cross tabulation methods, and investigated the relation with their works, injured body parts and accident types.

Keywords: construction machines, employment injuries, maintenance and repair, safety and health

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
534 Comparison of Instantaneous Short Circuit versus Step DC Voltage to Determine PMG Inductances

Authors: Walter Evaldo Kuchenbecker, Julio Carlos Teixeira

Abstract:

Since efficiency became a challenge to reduce energy consumption of all electrical machines applications, the permanent magnet machine raises up as a better option, because its performance, robustness and simple control. Even though, the electrical machine was developed through analyses of magnetism effect, permanent magnet machines still not well dominated. As permanent magnet machines are becoming popular in most applications, the pressure to standardize this type of electrical machine increases. However, due limited domain, it is still nowadays without any standard to manufacture, test and application. In order to determine an inductance of the machine, a new method is proposed.

Keywords: permanent magnet generators (pmg), synchronous machine parameters, test procedures, inductances

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
533 Permanent Magnet Machine Can Be a Vibration Sensor for Itself

Authors: M. Barański

Abstract:

The article presents a new vibration diagnostic method designed to (PM) machines with permanent magnets. Those devices are commonly used in small wind and water systems or vehicles drives. The author’s method is very innovative and unique. Specific structural properties of PM machines are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical PM machines and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals. In this article, the method genesis, the similarity of machines with permanent magnet to vibration sensor and simulation and laboratory tests results will be discussed. The method of determination the technical condition of electrical machine with permanent magnets basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669, and it is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation.

Keywords: vibrations, generator, permanent magnet, traction drive, electrical vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
532 Inverse Dynamics of the Mould Base of Blow Molding Machines

Authors: Vigen Arakelian

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of devices for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines. The displacement of the mould in the studied case is carried out by a linear actuator, which ensures the descent of the mould base and by extension springs, which return the letter in the initial position. The aim of this paper is to study the inverse dynamics of the device for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines and to determine its optimum parameters for higher rate of production. In the other words, it is necessary to solve the inverse dynamic problem to find the equation of motion linking applied forces with displacements. This makes it possible to determine the stiffness coefficient of the spring to turn the mold base back to the initial position for a given time. The obtained results are illustrated by a numerical example. It is shown that applying a spring with stiffness returns the mould base of the blow molding machine into the initial position in 0.1 sec.

Keywords: design, mechanisms, dynamics, blow-molding machines

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531 Improvement on a CNC Gantry Machine Structure Design for Higher Machining Speed Capability

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, S. R. Besharaty, Javad Akbaria, M. Hamdi

Abstract:

The capability of CNC gantry milling machines in manufacturing long components has caused the expanded use of such machines. On the other hand, the machines’ gantry rigidity can reduce under severe loads or vibration during operation. Indeed, the quality of machining is dependent on the machine’s dynamic behavior throughout the operating process. For this reason, this type of machines has always been used prudently and are non efficient. Therefore, they can usually be employed for rough machining and may not produce adequate surface finishing. In this paper, a CNC gantry milling machine with the potential to produce good surface finish has been designed and analyzed. The lowest natural frequency of this machine is 202 Hz at all motion amplitudes with a full range of suitable frequency responses. Meanwhile, the maximum deformation under dead loads for the gantry machine is 0.565µm, indicating that this machine tool is capable of producing higher product quality.

Keywords: frequency response, finite element, gantry machine, gantry design, static and dynamic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
530 Control Methods Used to Minimize Losses in High-Speed Electrical Machines

Authors: Mohammad Hedar

Abstract:

This paper presents selected topics from the area of high-speed electrical machine control with a focus on loss minimization. It focuses on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) set-up in order to minimize the inrush current peak. An overview of these machines and the control topologies that have been used with these machines are reported. The critical problem that happens when controlling a high-speed electrical motor is the high current peak in the start-up process, which will cause high power-losses. The main goal of this paper is to clarify how the inrush current peak can be minimized in the start-up process. PAM control method is proposed to use in the frequency inverter, simulation results for PAM & PWM control method, and steps to improve the PAM control are reported. The simulations were performed with data for PMSM (nominal speed: 25 000 min-1, power: 3.1 kW, load: 1.2 Nm).

Keywords: control topology, frequency inverter, high-speed electrical machines, PAM, power losses, PWM

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529 Internet-Based Architecture for Machine-to-Machine Communication of a Public Security Network

Authors: Ogwueleka Francisca Nonyelum, Jiya Muhammad

Abstract:

Poor communication between the victims of the burglaries, road and fire accidents and the agencies, and lack of quick emergency response by the agencies is solved through Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. A distress caller is expected to make a call through a network to the respective agency for emergency response but due to some challenges, this often becomes arduous and futile. This research puts forth an Internet-based architecture for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication to enhance information dissemination in National Public Security Communication System (NPSCS) network. M2M enables the flow of data between machines and machines and ultimately machines and people with information flowing from a machine over a network, and then through a gateway to a system where it is reviewed and acted on. The research findings showed that Internet-based architecture for M2M communication is most suitable for deployment of a public security network which will allow machines to use Internet to talk to each other.

Keywords: machine-to-machine (M2M), internet-based architecture, network, gateway

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528 Conditions for Fault Recovery of Interconnected Asynchronous Sequential Machines with State Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, fault recovery for parallel interconnected asynchronous sequential machines is studied. An adversarial input can infiltrate into one of two submachines comprising parallel composition of the considered asynchronous sequential machine, causing an unauthorized state transition. The control objective is to elucidate the condition for the existence of a corrective controller that makes the closed-loop system immune against any occurrence of adversarial inputs. In particular, an efficient existence condition is presented that does not need the complete modeling of the interconnected asynchronous sequential machine.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, parallel composi-tion, corrective control, fault tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
527 Moral Brand Machines: Towards a Conceptual Framework

Authors: Khaled Ibrahim, Mathew Parackal, Damien Mather, Paul Hansen

Abstract:

The integration between marketing and technology has given brands unprecedented opportunities to reach accurate customer data and competence to change customers' behaviour. Technology has generated a transformation within brands from traditional branding to algorithmic branding. However, brands have utilised customer data in non-cognitive programmatic targeting. This algorithmic persuasion may be effective in reaching the targeted audience. But it may encounter a moral conflict simultaneously, as it might not consider our social principles. Moral branding is a critical topic; particularly, with the increasing interest in commercial settings to teaching machines human morals, e.g., autonomous vehicles and chatbots; however, it is understudied in the marketing literature. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the recent moral branding literature. Furthermore, applying human-like mind theory as initial framing to this paper explores a more comprehensive concept involving human morals, machine behaviour, and branding.

Keywords: brand machines, conceptual framework, moral branding, moral machines

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526 Road Accidents Bigdata Mining and Visualization Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Usha Lokala, Srinivas Nowduri, Prabhakar K. Sharma

Abstract:

Useful information has been extracted from the road accident data in United Kingdom (UK), using data analytics method, for avoiding possible accidents in rural and urban areas. This analysis make use of several methodologies such as data integration, support vector machines (SVM), correlation machines and multinomial goodness. The entire datasets have been imported from the traffic department of UK with due permission. The information extracted from these huge datasets forms a basis for several predictions, which in turn avoid unnecessary memory lapses. Since data is expected to grow continuously over a period of time, this work primarily proposes a new framework model which can be trained and adapt itself to new data and make accurate predictions. This work also throws some light on use of SVM’s methodology for text classifiers from the obtained traffic data. Finally, it emphasizes the uniqueness and adaptability of SVMs methodology appropriate for this kind of research work.

Keywords: support vector mechanism (SVM), machine learning (ML), support vector machines (SVM), department of transportation (DFT)

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525 The Lethal Autonomy and Military Targeting Process

Authors: Serdal Akyüz, Halit Turan, Mehmet Öztürk

Abstract:

The future security environment will have new battlefield and enemies. The boundaries of battlefield and the identity of enemies cannot be noticed easily. The politicians may not want to lose their soldiers in very risky operations. This approach will pave the way for smart machines like war robots and new drones. These machines will have the decision-making ability and act simultaneously. This ability can change the military targeting process. Military targeting process (MTP) benefits from a wide scope of lethal and non-lethal weapons to reach an intended end-state. This process is now managed by people but in the future smart machines can do it by themselves. At first sight, this development seems useful for humanity owing to decrease the casualties in war. Using robots -which can decide, detect, deliver and asses without human support- for homeland security and against terrorist has very crucial risks and threats. Besides, it can decrease the havoc but also increase the collateral damages. This paper examines the current use of smart war machines, military targeting process and presents a new approach to MTP from lethal autonomy concept's point of view.

Keywords: the autonomous weapon systems, the lethal autonomy, military targeting process (MTP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
524 Using New Machine Algorithms to Classify Iranian Musical Instruments According to Temporal, Spectral and Coefficient Features

Authors: Ronak Khosravi, Mahmood Abbasi Layegh, Siamak Haghipour, Avin Esmaili

Abstract:

In this paper, a study on classification of musical woodwind instruments using a small set of features selected from a broad range of extracted ones by the sequential forward selection method was carried out. Firstly, we extract 42 features for each record in the music database of 402 sound files belonging to five different groups of Flutes (end blown and internal duct), Single –reed, Double –reed (exposed and capped), Triple reed and Quadruple reed. Then, the sequential forward selection method is adopted to choose the best feature set in order to achieve very high classification accuracy. Two different classification techniques of support vector machines and relevance vector machines have been tested out and an accuracy of up to 96% can be achieved by using 21 time, frequency and coefficient features and relevance vector machine with the Gaussian kernel function.

Keywords: coefficient features, relevance vector machines, spectral features, support vector machines, temporal features

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523 On Fault Diagnosis of Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Parallel Composition

Authors: Jung-Min Yang

Abstract:

Fault diagnosis of composite asynchronous sequential machines with parallel composition is addressed in this paper. An adversarial input can infiltrate one of two submachines comprising the composite asynchronous machine, causing an unauthorized state transition. The objective is to characterize the condition under which the controller can diagnose any fault occurrence. Two control configurations, state feedback and output feedback, are considered in this paper. In the case of output feedback, the exact estimation of the state is impossible since the current state is inaccessible and the output feedback is given as the form of burst. A simple example is provided to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, parallel composition, fault diagnosis, corrective control

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522 SVM-Based Modeling of Mass Transfer Potential of Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: Surinder Deswal, Mahesh Pal

Abstract:

The paper investigates the potential of support vector machines based regression approach to model the mass transfer capacity of multiple plunging jets, both vertical (θ = 90°) and inclined (θ = 60°). The data set used in this study consists of four input parameters with a total of eighty eight cases. For testing, tenfold cross validation was used. Correlation coefficient values of 0.971 and 0.981 (root mean square error values of 0.0025 and 0.0020) were achieved by using polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based support vector regression respectively. Results suggest an improved performance by radial basis function in comparison to polynomial kernel based support vector machines. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient, by both the kernel functions, is in good agreement with actual experimental values (within a scatter of ±15 %); thereby suggesting the utility of support vector machines based regression approach.

Keywords: mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, support vector machines, ecological sciences

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521 Design of a Customized Freshly-Made Fruit Salad and Juices Vending Machine

Authors: María Laura Guevara Campos

Abstract:

The increasing number of vending machines makes it easy for people to find them more frequently in stores, universities, workplaces, and even hospitals. These machines usually offer products with high contents of sugar and fat, which, if consumed regularly, can result in serious health threats, as overweight and obesity. Additionally, the energy consumption of these machines tends to be high, which has an impact on the environment as well. In order to promote the consumption of healthy food, a vending machine was designed to give the customer the opportunity to choose between a customized fruit salad and a customized fruit juice, both of them prepared instantly with the ingredients selected by the customer. The main parameters considered to design the machine were: the storage of the preferred fruits in a salad and/or in a juice according to a survey, the size of the machine, the use of ecologic recipients, and the overall energy consumption. The methodology used for the design was the one proposed by the German Association of Engineers for mechatronics systems, which breaks the design process in several stages, from the elaboration of a list of requirements through the establishment of the working principles and the design concepts to the final design of the machine, which was done in a 3D modelling software. Finally, with the design of this machine, the aim is to contribute to the development and implementation of healthier vending machines that offer freshly-made products, which is not being widely attended at present.

Keywords: design, design methodology, mechatronics systems, vending machines

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520 Tolerating Input Faults in Asynchronous Sequential Machines

Authors: Jung-Min Yang

Abstract:

A method of tolerating input faults for input/state asynchronous sequential machines is proposed. A corrective controller is placed in front of the considered asynchronous machine to realize model matching with a reference model. The value of the external input transmitted to the closed-loop system may change by fault. We address the existence condition for the controller that can counteract adverse effects of any input fault while maintaining the objective of model matching. A design procedure for constructing the controller is outlined. The proposed reachability condition for the controller design is validated in an illustrative example.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, fault tolerance, input faults, model matching

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519 Experimental Investigation of Stain Removal Performance of Different Types of Top Load Washing Machines with Textile Mechanical Damage Consideration

Authors: Ehsan Tuzcuoğlu, Muhammed Emin Çoban, Songül Byraktar

Abstract:

One of the main targets of the washing machine is to remove any dirt and stains from the clothes. Especially, the stain removal is significantly important in the Far East market, where the high percentage of the consumers use the top load washing machines as washing appliance. They use all pretreatment methods (i.e. soaking, prewash, and heavy functions) to eliminate the stains from their clothes. Therefore, with this study it is aimed to study experimentally the stain removal performance of 3 different Top-Loading washing machines of the Far East market with 24 different types of stains which are mostly related to Far East culture. In the meanwhile, the mechanical damge on laundry is examined for each machine to see the mechanical effect of the related stain programs on the textile load of the machines. The test machines vary according to have a heater, moving part(s)on their impeller, and to be in different height/width ratio of the drum. The results indicate that decreasing the water level inside the washing machine might result in better soil removal as well as less textile damage. Beside this, the experimental results reveal that heating has the main effect on stain removal. Two-step (or delayed) heating and a lower amount of water can also be considered as the further parameters

Keywords: laundry, washing machine, top load washing machine, stain removal, textile damage, mechanical textile damage

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518 Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing: Machines Reflect Misogyny in Society

Authors: Irene Yi

Abstract:

Machine learning, natural language processing, and neural network models of language are becoming more and more prevalent in the fields of technology and linguistics today. Training data for machines are at best, large corpora of human literature and at worst, a reflection of the ugliness in society. Machines have been trained on millions of human books, only to find that in the course of human history, derogatory and sexist adjectives are used significantly more frequently when describing females in history and literature than when describing males. This is extremely problematic, both as training data, and as the outcome of natural language processing. As machines start to handle more responsibilities, it is crucial to ensure that they do not take with them historical sexist and misogynistic notions. This paper gathers data and algorithms from neural network models of language having to deal with syntax, semantics, sociolinguistics, and text classification. Results are significant in showing the existing intentional and unintentional misogynistic notions used to train machines, as well as in developing better technologies that take into account the semantics and syntax of text to be more mindful and reflect gender equality. Further, this paper deals with the idea of non-binary gender pronouns and how machines can process these pronouns correctly, given its semantic and syntactic context. This paper also delves into the implications of gendered grammar and its effect, cross-linguistically, on natural language processing. Languages such as French or Spanish not only have rigid gendered grammar rules, but also historically patriarchal societies. The progression of society comes hand in hand with not only its language, but how machines process those natural languages. These ideas are all extremely vital to the development of natural language models in technology, and they must be taken into account immediately.

Keywords: gendered grammar, misogynistic language, natural language processing, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 44