Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 106

Search results for: gas bubbles

106 Forecast Financial Bubbles: Multidimensional Phenomenon

Authors: Zouari Ezzeddine, Ghraieb Ikram


From the results of the academic literature which evokes the limitations of previous studies, this article shows the reasons for multidimensionality Prediction of financial bubbles. A new framework for modeling study predicting financial bubbles by linking a set of variable presented on several dimensions dictating its multidimensional character. It takes into account the preferences of financial actors. A multicriteria anticipation of the appearance of bubbles in international financial markets helps to fight against a possible crisis.

Keywords: classical measures, predictions, financial bubbles, multidimensional, artificial neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
105 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian


In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux from q=20 kw/m2 to q=102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles.

Keywords: heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
104 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski


In waste water treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the waste water. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in waste water treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
103 Preference for Housing Services and Rational House Price Bubbles

Authors: Stefanie Jeanette Huber


This paper explores the relevance and implications of preferences for housing services on house price fluctuations through the lens of an overlapping generation’s model. The model implies that an economy whose agents have lower preferences for housing services is characterized with lower expenditure shares on housing services and will tend to experience more frequent and more volatile housing bubbles. These model predictions are tested empirically in the companion paper Housing Booms and Busts - Convergences and Divergences across OECD countries. Between 1970 - 2013, countries who spend less on housing services as a share of total income experienced significantly more housing cycles and the associated housing boom-bust cycles were more violent. Finally, the model is used to study the impact of rental subsidies and help-to-buy schemes on rational housing bubbles. Rental subsidies are found to contribute to the control of housing bubbles, whereas help-to- buy scheme makes the economy more bubble-prone.

Keywords: housing bubbles, housing booms and busts, preference for housing services, expenditure shares for housing services, rental and purchase subsidies

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
102 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr


Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: gas lift instability, bubbles forming, bubbles collapsing, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
101 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky


Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
100 Application of Neural Networks to Predict Changing the Diameters of Bubbles in Pool Boiling Distilled Water

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri


In this research, the capability of neural networks in modeling and learning complicated and nonlinear relations has been used to develop a model for the prediction of changes in the diameter of bubbles in pool boiling distilled water. The input parameters used in the development of this network include element temperature, heat flux, and retention time of bubbles. The test data obtained from the experiment of the pool boiling of distilled water, and the measurement of the bubbles form on the cylindrical element. The model was developed based on training algorithm, which is typologically of back-propagation type. Considering the correlation coefficient obtained from this model is 0.9633. This shows that this model can be trusted for the simulation and modeling of the size of bubble and thermal transfer of boiling.

Keywords: bubble diameter, heat flux, neural network, training algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
99 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation on Heat Transfer of Hot Air Bubble Injection into Water Column

Authors: Jae-Yeong Choi, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Jong-Chun Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Seok-Tae Yoon


When air flow is injected into water, bubbles are formed in various types inside the water pool along with the air flow rate. The bubbles are floated in equilibrium with forces such as buoyancy, surface tension and shear force. Single bubble generated at low flow rate maintains shape, but bubbles with high flow rate break up to make mixing and turbulence. In addition to this phenomenon, as the hot air bubbles are injected into the water, heat affects the interface of phases. Therefore, the main scope of the present work reveals how to proceed heat transfer between water and hot air bubbles injected into water. In the present study, a series of CFD simulation for the heat transfer of hot bubbles injected through a nozzle near the bottom in a cylindrical water column are performed using a commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+. The governing equations for incompressible and viscous flow are the continuous and the RaNS (Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes) equations and discretized by the FVM (Finite Volume Method) manner. For solving multi-phase flow, the Eulerian multiphase model is employed and the interface is defined by VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) technique. As a turbulence model, the SST k-w model considering the buoyancy effects is introduced. For spatial differencing the 3th-order MUSCL scheme is adopted and the 2nd-order implicit scheme for time integration. As the results, the dynamic behavior of the rising hot bubbles with the flow rate injected and regarding heat transfer mechanism are discussed based on the simulation results.

Keywords: heat transfer, hot bubble injection, eulerian multiphase model, flow rate, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
98 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi


An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single bubbles, electric field, boiling, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
97 Rising of Single and Double Bubbles during Boiling and Effect of Electric Field in This Process

Authors: Masoud Gholam Ale Mohammad, Mojtaba Hafezi Birgani


An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes in the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single and double bubbles, electric field, boiling, rising

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
96 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari


The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Cavitation Reactor, Fuel Oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
95 Energy Reclamation in Micro Cavitating Flow

Authors: Morteza Ghorbani, Reza Ghorbani


Cavitation phenomenon has attracted much attention in the mechanical and biomedical technologies. Despite the simplicity and mostly low cost of the devices generating cavitation bubbles, the physics behind the generation and collapse of these bubbles particularly in micro/nano scale has still not well understood. In the chemical industry, micro/nano bubble generation is expected to be applicable to the development of porous materials such as microcellular plastic foams. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the presence of micro/nano bubbles on a surface reduced the adsorption of proteins. Thus, the micro/nano bubbles could act as antifouling agents. Micro and nano bubbles were also employed in water purification, froth floatation, even in sonofusion, which was not completely validated. Small bubbles could also be generated using micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation. In this study, compared to the studies available in the literature, we are proposing a novel approach in micro scale utilizing the energy produced during the interaction of the spray affected by the hydrodynamic cavitating flow and a thin aluminum plate. With a decrease in the size, cavitation effects become significant. It is clearly shown that with the aid of hydrodynamic cavitation generated inside the micro/mini-channels in addition to the optimization of the distance between the tip of the microchannel configuration and the solid surface, surface temperatures can be increased up to 50C under the conditions of this study. The temperature rise on the surfaces near the collapsing small bubbles was exploited for energy harvesting in small scale, in such a way that miniature, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly energy-harvesting devices can be developed. Such devices will not require any external power and moving parts in contrast to common energy-harvesting devices, such as those involving piezoelectric materials and micro engine. Energy harvesting from thermal energy has been widely exploited to achieve energy savings and clean technologies. We are proposing a cost effective and environmentally friendly solution for the growing individual energy needs thanks to the energy application of cavitating flows. The necessary power for consumer devices, such as cell phones and laptops, can be provided using this approach. Thus, this approach has the potential for solving personal energy needs in an inexpensive and environmentally friendly manner and can trigger a shift of paradigm in energy harvesting.

Keywords: cavitation, energy, harvesting, micro scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
94 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo


This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
93 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe


It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: electroflotation, fine bubbles, pyrite, ultrafine particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
92 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: R. Ahmadi, A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi


The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: froth flotation, copper, water treatment, optimization, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
91 Analysis of the Homogeneous Turbulence Structure in Uniformly Sheared Bubbly Flow Using First and Second Order Turbulence Closures

Authors: Hela Ayeb Mrabtini, Ghazi Bellakhal, Jamel Chahed


The presence of the dispersed phase in gas-liquid bubbly flow considerably alters the liquid turbulence. The bubbles induce turbulent fluctuations that enhance the global liquid turbulence level and alter the mechanisms of turbulence. RANS modeling of uniformly sheared flows on an isolated sphere centered in a control volume is performed using first and second order turbulence closures. The sphere is placed in the production-dissipation equilibrium zone where the liquid velocity is set equal to the relative velocity of the bubbles. The void fraction is determined by the ratio between the sphere volume and the control volume. The analysis of the turbulence statistics on the control volume provides numerical results that are interpreted with regard to the effect of the bubbles wakes on the turbulence structure in uniformly sheared bubbly flow. We assumed for this purpose that at low void fraction where there is no hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles, the single-phase flow simulation on an isolated sphere is representative on statistical average of a sphere network. The numerical simulations were firstly validated against the experimental data of bubbly homogeneous turbulence with constant shear and then extended to produce numerical results for a wide range of shear rates from 0 to 10 s^-1. These results are compared with our turbulence closure proposed for gas-liquid bubbly flows. In this closure, the turbulent stress tensor in the liquid is split into a turbulent dissipative part produced by the gradient of the mean velocity which also contains the turbulence generated in the bubble wakes and a pseudo-turbulent non-dissipative part induced by the bubbles displacements. Each part is determined by a specific transport equation. The simulations of uniformly sheared flows on an isolated sphere reproduce the mechanisms related to the turbulent part, and the numerical results are in perfect accordance with the modeling of the transport equation of the turbulent part. The reduction of second order turbulence closure provides a description of the modification of turbulence structure by the bubbles presence using a dimensionless number expressed in terms of two-time scales characterizing the turbulence induced by the shear and that induced by bubbles displacements. The numerical simulations carried out in the framework of a comprehensive analysis reproduce particularly the attenuation of the turbulent friction showed in the experimental results of bubbly homogeneous turbulence subjected to a constant shear.

Keywords: gas-liquid bubbly flows, homogeneous turbulence, turbulence closure, uniform shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
90 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Analysis of Air Bubble Rising in a Column of Liquid

Authors: Baha-Aldeen S. Algmati, Ahmed R. Ballil


Multiphase flows occur widely in many engineering and industrial processes as well as in the environment we live in. In particular, bubbly flows are considered to be crucial phenomena in fluid flow applications and can be studied and analyzed experimentally, analytically, and computationally. In the present paper, the dynamic motion of an air bubble rising within a column of liquid is numerically simulated using an open-source CFD modeling tool 'OpenFOAM'. An interface tracking numerical algorithm called MULES algorithm, which is built-in OpenFOAM, is chosen to solve an appropriate mathematical model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) numerical method. The bubbles initially have a spherical shape and starting from rest in the stagnant column of liquid. The algorithm is initially verified against numerical results and is also validated against available experimental data. The comparison revealed that this algorithm provides results that are in a very good agreement with the 2D numerical data of other CFD codes. Also, the results of the bubble shape and terminal velocity obtained from the 3D numerical simulation showed a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The simulated rising bubbles yield a very small percentage of error in the bubble terminal velocity compared with the experimental data. The obtained results prove the capability of OpenFOAM as a powerful tool to predict the behavior of rising characteristics of the spherical bubbles in the stagnant column of liquid. This will pave the way for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of the rise of bubbles in liquids.

Keywords: CFD simulations, multiphase flows, OpenFOAM, rise of bubble, volume of fluid method, VOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
89 Integrated Design of Froth Flotation Process in Sludge Oil Recovery Using Cavitation Nanobubbles for Increase the Efficiency and High Viscose Compatibility

Authors: Yolla Miranda, Marini Altyra, Karina Kalmapuspita Imas


Oily sludge wastes always fill in upstream and downstream petroleum industry process. Sludge still contains oil that can use for energy storage. Recycling sludge is a method to handling it for reduce the toxicity and very probable to get the remaining oil around 20% from its volume. Froth flotation, a common method based on chemical unit for separate fine solid particles from an aqueous suspension. The basic composition of froth flotation is the capture of oil droplets or small solids by air bubbles in an aqueous slurry, followed by their levitation and collection in a froth layer. This method has been known as no intensive energy requirement and easy to apply. But the low efficiency and unable treat the high viscosity become the biggest problem in froth flotation unit. This study give the design to manage the high viscosity of sludge first and then entering the froth flotation including cavitation tube on it to change the bubbles into nano particles. The recovery in flotation starts with the collision and adhesion of hydrophobic particles to the air bubbles followed by transportation of the hydrophobic particle-bubble aggregate from the collection zone to the froth zone, drainage and enrichment of the froth, and finally by its overflow removal from the cell top. The effective particle separation by froth flotation relies on the efficient capture of hydrophobic particles by air bubbles in three steps. The important step is collision. Decreasing the bubble particles will increasing the collision effect. It cause the process more efficient. The pre-treatment, froth flotation, and cavitation tube integrated each other. The design shows the integrated unit and its process.

Keywords: sludge oil recovery, froth flotation, cavitation tube, nanobubbles, high viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
88 Effects of an Added Foaming Agent on Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Soil

Authors: Moez Selmi, Mariem Kacem, Mehrez Jamei, Philippe Dubujet


Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunnel boring machines are designed for digging in different types of soil, especially clay soils. This operation requires the treatment of soil by lubricants to facilitate the procedure of excavation. A possible use of this soil is limited by the effect of treatment on the hydro-mechanical properties of the soil. This work aims to study the effect of a foaming agent on the hydro-mechanical properties of clay soil. The injection of the foam agent in the soil leads to create a soil matrix in which they are incorporated gas bubbles. The state of the foam in the soil is scalable thanks to the degradation of the gas bubbles in the soil.

Keywords: EPB, clay soils, foam agent, hydro-mechanical properties, degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
87 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation of Transient Flow in a Rectangular Bubble Column Using a Coupled Discrete Phase Model (DPM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model

Authors: Sonia Besbes, Mahmoud El Hajem, Habib Ben Aissia, Jean Yves Champagne, Jacques Jay


In this work, we present a computational study for the characterization of the flow in a rectangular bubble column. To simulate the dynamic characteristics of the flow, a three-dimensional transient numerical simulations based on a coupled discrete phase model (DPM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) model are performed. Modeling of bubble column reactor is often carried out under the assumption of a flat liquid surface with a degassing boundary condition. However, the dynamic behavior of the top surface surmounting the liquid phase will to some extent influence the meandering oscillations of the bubble plume. Therefore it is important to capture the surface behavior, and the assumption of a flat surface may not be applicable. So, the modeling approach needs to account for a dynamic liquid surface induced by the rising bubble plume. The volume of fluid (VOF) model was applied for the liquid and top gas which both interacts with bubbles implemented with a discrete phase model. This model treats the bubbles as Lagrangian particles and the liquid and the top gas as Eulerian phases with a sharp interface. Two-way coupling between Eulerian phases and Lagrangian bubbles are accounted for in a single set continuous phase momentum equation for the mixture of the two Eulerian phases. The effect of gas flow rate on the dynamic and time-averaged flow properties was studied. The time averaged liquid velocity field predicted from simulations and from our previous PIV measurements shows that the liquid is entrained up flow in the wake of the bubbles and down flow near the walls. The simulated and measured vertical velocity profiles exhibit a reasonable agreement looking at the minimum velocity values near the walls and the maximum values at the column center.

Keywords: bubble column, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), coupled DPM and VOF model, hydrodynamics

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86 Analysis of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in a 3x3 Rod Bundle

Authors: Pei-Syuan Ruan, Ya-Chi Yu, Shao-Wen Chen, Jin-Der Lee, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih


This study investigated the void fraction characteristics under low superficial gas velocity (Jg) and low superficial fluid velocity (Jf) conditions in a 3x3 rod bundle geometry. Three arrangements of conductivity probes were set to measure the void fraction at various cross-sectional regions, including rod-gap, sub-channel and rod-wall regions. The experimental tests were performed under the flow conditions of Jg = 0-0.236 m/s and Jf = 0-0.142 m/s, and the time-averaged void fractions were recorded at each flow condition. It was observed that while the superficial gas velocity increases, the small bubbles started to cluster together and become big bubbles. As the superficial fluid velocity increases, the local void fractions of the three test regions will get closer and the bubble distribution will be more uniform across the cross section.

Keywords: conductivity probes, rod bundles, two-phase flow, void fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
85 Experimental and CFD Simulation of the Jet Pump for Air Bubbles Formation

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski


A jet pump is a type of pump that accelerates the flow of a secondary fluid (driven fluid) by introducing a motive fluid with high velocity into a converging-diverging nozzle. Jet pumps are also known as adductors or ejectors depending on the motivator phase. The ejector's motivator is of a gaseous nature, usually steam or air, while the educator's motivator is a liquid, usually water. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in wastewater treatment processes. In this work, we will discuss about the characteristics of the jet pump and the computational simulation of this device. To find the optimal angle and depth for the air pipe, so as to achieve the maximal air volumetric flow rate, an experimental apparatus was constructed to ascertain the best geometrical configuration for this new type of jet pump. By using 3D printing technology, a series of jet pumps was printed and tested whilst aspiring to maximize air flow rate dependent on angle and depth of the air pipe insertion. The experimental results show a major difference of up to 300% in performance between the different pumps (ratio of air flow rate to supplied power) where the optimal geometric model has an insertion angle of 600 and air pipe insertion depth ending at the center of the mixing chamber. The differences between the pumps were further explained by using CFD for better understanding the reasons that affect the airflow rate. The validity of the computational simulation and the corresponding assumptions have been proved experimentally. The present research showed high degree of congruence with the results of the laboratory tests. This study demonstrates the potential of using of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: air bubbles, CFD simulation, jet pump, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
84 A Wall Law for Two-Phase Turbulent Boundary Layers

Authors: Dhahri Maher, Aouinet Hana


The presence of bubbles in the boundary layer introduces corrections into the log law, which must be taken into account. In this work, a logarithmic wall law was presented for bubbly two phase flows. The wall law presented in this work was based on the postulation of additional turbulent viscosity associated with bubble wakes in the boundary layer. The presented wall law contained empirical constant accounting both for shear induced turbulence interaction and for non-linearity of bubble. This constant was deduced from experimental data. The wall friction prediction achieved with the wall law was compared to the experimental data, in the case of a turbulent boundary layer developing on a vertical flat plate in the presence of millimetric bubbles. A very good agreement between experimental and numerical wall friction prediction was verified. The agreement was especially noticeable for the low void fraction when bubble induced turbulence plays a significant role.

Keywords: bubbly flows, log law, boundary layer, CFD

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83 Effect of Irradiation on Nano-Indentation Properties and Microstructure of X-750 Ni-Based Superalloy

Authors: Pooyan Changizian, Zhongwen Yao


The purpose of current study is to make an excellent correlation between mechanical properties and microstructures of ion irradiated X-750 Ni-based superalloy. Towards this end, two different irradiation procedures were carried out, including single Ni ion irradiation and pre-helium implantation with subsequent Ni ion irradiation. Nano-indentation technique was employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated material. The nano-hardness measurements depict highly different results for two irradiation procedures. Single ion irradiated X-750 shows softening behavior; however, pre-helium implanted specimens present significant hardening compared to the un-irradiated material. Cross-section TEM examination demonstrates that softening is attributed to the γ׳-precipitate instability (disordering/dissolution) which overcomes the hardening effect of irradiation-induced defects. In contrast, the presence of cavities or helium bubbles is probably the main cause for irradiation-induced hardening of helium implanted samples.

Keywords: Inconel X-750, nanoindentation, helium bubbles, defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
82 Bubbling in Gas Solids Fluidization at a Strouhal Number Tuned for Low Energy Dissipation

Authors: Chenxi Zhang, Weizhong Qian, Fei Wei


Gas solids multiphase flow is common in many engineering and environmental applications. Turbulence and multiphase flows are two of the most challenging topics in fluid mechanics, and when combined they pose a formidable challenge, even in the dilute dispersed regime. Dimensionless numbers are important in mechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. In the fluid mechanics literature, the Strouhal number is usually associated with the dimensionless shedding frequency of a von Karman wake; here we introduce this dimensionless number to investigate bubbling in gas solids fluidization. St=fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). The bubble behavior in a large two-dimensional bubbling fluidized bed (500mm×30mm×6000mm) is investigated. Our result indicates that propulsive efficiency is high and energy dissipation is low over a narrow range of St and usually within the interval 0.2Keywords: bubbles, Strouhal number, two-phase flow, energy dissipation

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81 Examining Influence of The Ultrasonic Power and Frequency on Microbubbles Dynamics Using Real-Time Visualization of Synchrotron X-Ray Imaging: Application to Membrane Fouling Control

Authors: Masoume Ehsani, Ning Zhu, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi, Amira Abdelrasoul


Membrane fouling poses severe challenges in membrane-based wastewater treatment applications. Ultrasound (US) has been considered an effective fouling remediation technique in filtration processes. Bubble cavitation in the liquid medium results from the alternating rarefaction and compression cycles during the US irradiation at sufficiently high acoustic pressure. Cavitation microbubbles generated under US irradiation can cause eddy current and turbulent flow within the medium by either oscillating or discharging energy to the system through microbubble explosion. Turbulent flow regime and shear forces created close to the membrane surface cause disturbing the cake layer and dislodging the foulants, which in turn improve the cleaning efficiency and filtration performance. Therefore, the number, size, velocity, and oscillation pattern of the microbubbles created in the liquid medium play a crucial role in foulant detachment and permeate flux recovery. The goal of the current study is to gain in depth understanding of the influence of the US power intensity and frequency on the microbubble dynamics and its characteristics generated under US irradiation. In comparison with other imaging techniques, the synchrotron in-line Phase Contrast Imaging technique at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) allows in-situ observation and real-time visualization of microbubble dynamics. At CLS biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) polychromatic beamline, the effective parameters were optimized to enhance the contrast gas/liquid interface for the accuracy of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bubble cavitation within the system. With the high flux of photons and the high-speed camera, a typical high projection speed was achieved; and each projection of microbubbles in water was captured in 0.5 ms. ImageJ software was used for post-processing the raw images for the detailed quantitative analyses of microbubbles. The imaging has been performed under the US power intensity levels of 50 W, 60 W, and 100 W, in addition to the US frequency levels of 20 kHz, 28 kHz, and 40 kHz. For the duration of 2 seconds of imaging, the effect of the US power and frequency on the average number, size, and fraction of the area occupied by bubbles were analyzed. Microbubbles’ dynamics in terms of their velocity in water was also investigated. For the US power increase of 50 W to 100 W, the average bubble number and the average bubble diameter were increased from 746 to 880 and from 36.7 µm to 48.4 µm, respectively. In terms of the influence of US frequency, a fewer number of bubbles were created at 20 kHz (average of 176 bubbles rather than 808 bubbles at 40 kHz), while the average bubble size was significantly larger than that of 40 kHz (almost seven times). The majority of bubbles were captured close to the membrane surface in the filtration unit. According to the study observations, membrane cleaning efficiency is expected to be improved at higher US power and lower US frequency due to the higher energy release to the system by increasing the number of bubbles or growing their size during oscillation (optimum condition is expected to be at 20 kHz and 100 W).

Keywords: bubble dynamics, cavitational bubbles, membrane fouling, ultrasonic cleaning

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80 An Ultrasonic Approach to Investigate the Effect of Aeration on Rheological Properties of Soft Biological Materials with Bubbles Embedded

Authors: Hussein M. Elmehdi


In this paper, we present the results of our recent experiments done to examine the effect of air bubbles, which were introduced to bio-samples during preparation, on the rheological properties of soft biological materials. To effectively achieve this, we three samples each prepared with differently. Our soft biological systems comprised of three types of flour dough systems made from different flour varieties with variable protein concentrations. The samples were investigated using ultrasonic waves operated at low frequency in transmission mode. The sample investigated included dough made from bread flour, wheat flour and all-purpose flour. During mixing, the main ingredient of the samples (the flour) was transformed into cohesive dough comprised of the continuous dough matrix and air pebbles. The rheological properties of such materials determine the quality of the end cereal product. Two ultrasonic parameters, the longitudinal velocity and attenuation coefficient were found to be very sensitive to properties such as the size of the occluded bubbles, and hence have great potential of providing quantitative evaluation of the properties of such materials. The results showed that the magnitudes of the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation coefficient peaked at optimum mixing times; the latter of which is taken as an indication of the end of the mixing process. There was an agreement between the results obtained by conventional rheology and ultrasound measurements, thus showing the potential of the use of ultrasound as an on-line quality control technique for dough-based products. The results of this work are explained with respect to the molecular changes occurring in the dough system as the mixing process proceeds; particular emphasis is placed on the presence of free water and bound water.

Keywords: ultrasound, soft biological materials, velocity, attenuation

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79 CO2 Gas Solubility and Foam Generation

Authors: Chanmoly Or, Kyuro Sasaki, Yuichi Sugai, Masanori Nakano, Motonao Imai


Cold drainage mechanism of oil production is a complicated process which involves with solubility and foaming processes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane (as light oil) and the effect of depressurization processes on microbubble generation. The experimental study of sensitivity parameters of temperature and pressure on CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane was conducted at temperature of 20 °C and 50 °C and pressure ranged 2.0–7.0 MPa by using PVT (RUSKA Model 2370) apparatus. The experiments of foamy hexadecane were also prepared by depressurizing from saturated pressure of 6.4 MPa and temperature of 50 °C. The experimental results show the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane linearly increases with increasing pressure. At pressure 4.5 MPa, CO2 gas dissolved in hexadecane 2.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 50 °C and 3.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 20 °C. The bubbles of foamy hexadecane were observed that most of large bubbles were coalesced shortly whereas the small one keeps presence. The experimental result of foamy hexadecane indicated large depressurization step (∆P) produces high quality of foam with high microbubble distribution.

Keywords: CO2 gas solubility, depressurization process, foamy hexadecane, microbubble distribution

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78 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hong-Yih Cheng


This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: micro-bubble, oxygenator, nozzle, piezoelectric

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77 A Combined CFD Simulation of Plateau Borders including Films and Transitional Areas of Liquid Foams

Authors: Abdolhamid Anazadehsayed, Jamal Naser


An integrated computational fluid dynamics model is developed for a combined simulation of Plateau borders, films, and transitional areas between the film and the Plateau borders to reduce the simplifications and shortcomings of available models for foam drainage in micro-scale. Additionally, the counter-flow related to the Marangoni effect in the transitional area is investigated. The results of this combined model show the contribution of the films, the exterior Plateau borders, and Marangoni flow in the drainage process more accurately since the inter-influence of foam's elements is included in this study. The exterior Plateau borders flow rate can be four times larger than the interior ones. The exterior bubbles can be more prominent in the drainage process in cases where the number of the exterior Plateau borders increases due to the geometry of container. The ratio of the Marangoni counter-flow to the Plateau border flow increases drastically with an increase in the mobility of air-liquid interface. However, the exterior bubbles follow the same trend with much less intensity since typically, the flow is less dependent on the interface of air-liquid in the exterior bubbles. Moreover, the Marangoni counter-flow in a near-wall transition area is less important than an internal one. The influence of air-liquid interface mobility on the average velocity of interior foams is attained with more accuracy with more realistic boundary condition. Then it has been compared with other numerical and analytical results. The contribution of films in the drainage is significant for the mobile foams as the velocity of flow in the film has the same order of magnitude as the velocity in the Plateau border. Nevertheless, for foams with rigid interfaces, film's contribution in foam drainage is insignificant, particularly for the films near the wall of the container.

Keywords: foam, plateau border, film, Marangoni, CFD, bubble

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