Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Babak Darvish Rouhani

65 Current Issues on Enterprise Architecture Implementation Evaluation

Authors: Fatemeh Nikpay, Babak Darvish Rouhani, Rodina Binti Ahmad

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is employed by enterprises for providing integrated Information Systems (ISs) in order to support alignment of their business and Information Technology (IT). Evaluation of EA implementation can support enterprise to reach intended goals. There are some problems in current evaluation methods of EA implementation that lead to ineffectiveness implementation of EA. This paper represents current issues on evaluation of EA implementation. In this regard, we set the framework in order to represent evaluation’s issues based on their functionality and structure. The results of this research not only increase the knowledge of evaluation, but also could be useful for both academics and practitioners in order to realize the current situation of evaluations.

Keywords: Evaluation, Enterprise Architecture‎, current issues on EA implementation evaluation, evaluation of enterprise architecture implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
64 A Framework for Evaluation of Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodologies

Authors: Fatemeh Nikpay, Babak Darvish Rouhani, Mohd Naz'ri Mahrin, Maryam Khanian Najafabadi

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) Implementation Methodologies have become an important part of EA projects. Several implementation methodologies have been proposed, as a theoretical and practical approach, to facilitate and support the development of EA within an enterprise. A significant question when facing the starting of EA implementation is deciding which methodology to utilize. In order to answer this question, a framework with several criteria is applied in this paper for the comparative analysis of existing EA implementation methodologies. Five EA implementation methodologies including: EAP, TOGAF, DODAF, Gartner, and FEA are selected in order to compare with proposed framework. The results of the comparison indicate that those methodologies have not reached a sufficient maturity as whole due to lack of consideration on requirement management, maintenance, continuum, and complexities in their process. The framework has also ability for the evaluation of any kind of EA implementation methodologies.

Keywords: Enterprise Architecture‎, enterprise architecture implementation methodology, EAIM, evaluating EAIM, framework for evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
63 Factors That Affect the Effectiveness of Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodology

Authors: Fatemeh Nikpay, Babak Darvish Rouhani, Maryam Khanian Najafabadi, Pourya Nikfard, Mohd Nazri Mahrin

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a strategy that is employed by enterprises in order to align their business and Information Technology (IT). EA is managed, developed, and maintained through Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodology (EAIM). The effectiveness of EA implementation is the degree in which EA helps to achieve the collective goals of the organization. This paper analyzes the results of a survey that aims to explore the factors that affect the effectiveness of EAIM and specifically the relationship between factors and effectiveness of the output and functionality of EA project. The exploratory factor analysis highlights a specific set of five factors: alignment, adaptiveness, support, binding, and innovation. The regression analysis shows that there is a statistically significant and positive relationship between each of the five factors and the effectiveness of EAIM. Consistent with theory and practice, the most prominent factor for developing an effective EAIM is innovation. The findings contribute to the measuring the effectiveness of EA implementation project by providing an indication of the measurement implementation approaches which is used by the Enterprise Architects, and developing an effective EAIM.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Enterprise Architecture‎, factors, enterprise architecture implementation methodology, implementation methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
62 Feasibility Study and Developing Appropriate Hybrid Energy Systems in Regional Level

Authors: Ahmad Rouhani

Abstract:

Iran has several potentials for using renewable energies, so use them could significantly contribute to energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential of the country and select the appropriate DG technologies with consideration the potential and primary energy resources in the regions. In this context, hybrid energy systems proportionate with the potential of different regions will be determined based on technical, economic, and environmental aspect. In the following, the proposed structure will be optimized in terms of size and cost. DG technologies used in this project include the photovoltaic system, wind turbine, diesel generator, and battery bank. The HOMER software is applied for choosing the appropriate structure and the optimization of system sizing. The results have been analyzed in terms of technical and economic. The performance and the cost of each project demonstrate the appropriate structure of hybrid energy system in that region.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Iran, feasibility, hybrid energy system

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
61 A Teaching Learning Based Optimization for Optimal Design of a Hybrid Energy System

Authors: Ahmad Rouhani, Sima Honarmand, Masood Jabbari

Abstract:

This paper introduces a method to optimal design of a hybrid Wind/Photovoltaic/Fuel cell generation system for a typical domestic load that is not located near the electricity grid. In this configuration the combination of a battery, an electrolyser, and a hydrogen storage tank are used as the energy storage system. The aim of this design is minimization of overall cost of generation scheme over 20 years of operation. The Matlab/Simulink is applied for choosing the appropriate structure and the optimization of system sizing. A teaching learning based optimization is used to optimize the cost function. An overall power management strategy is designed for the proposed system to manage power flows among the different energy sources and the storage unit in the system. The results have been analyzed in terms of technics and economics. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid system would be a feasible solution for stand-alone applications at remote locations.

Keywords: Power management, hybrid energy system, optimum sizing, TLBO

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
60 Report of Happiness in the Iranian Educational System: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Babak Shamshiri, Najme Dastouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the current situation of happiness in the Iranian educational system from the perspective of students, teachers and educational administrators. This research is done in qualitative paradigm. Data collection is done by in-depth interview method. Research participants were selected purposively according to sampling rules, with maximum variation and reaching the saturation point. According to most participants in this study, schools in Iran are not usually happy. This lack of happiness is associated with and related to the educational system, curriculum, teaching method, physical environment of schools and their facilities.

Keywords: Happiness, Iran, qualitative study, educational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
59 Integrated Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Procurement Considering Different Discount Options

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

On-time availability of materials in the construction sites plays an outstanding role in successful achievement of project’s deliverables. Thus, this paper has investigated formulation of project scheduling and material procurement at the same time, by a mixed-integer programming model, aiming to minimize/maximize penalty/reward to deliver the project and minimize material holding, ordering, and procurement costs, respectively. We have taken both all-units and incremental discount possibilities into consideration to address more flexibility from the procurement side with regard to real world conditions. Finally, the applicability and efficiency of the mathematical model is tested by different numerical examples.

Keywords: Project planning, Project Scheduling, discount strategies, material purchasing

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
58 An Improved GA to Address Integrated Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering with Discount Options

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of the resource constraint project scheduling and material ordering problems have received significant attention within the last decades. Hence, the issue has been investigated here with the aim to minimize total project costs. Furthermore, the presented model considers different discount options in order to approach the real world conditions. The incorporated alternatives consist of all-unit and incremental discount strategies. On the other hand, a modified version of the genetic algorithm is applied in order to solve the model for larger sizes, in particular. Finally, the applicability and efficiency of the given model is tested by different numerical instances.

Keywords: Project Management, Genetic Algorithm, Project Scheduling, material ordering

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
57 A Bi-Objective Model to Address Simultaneous Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering has been increasingly addressed within last decades as an approach to improve the project execution costs. Therefore, we have taken the problem into consideration in this paper, aiming to maximize schedules quality robustness, in addition to minimize the relevant costs. In this regard, a bi-objective mathematical model is developed to formulate the problem. Moreover, it is possible to utilize the all-unit discount for materials purchasing. The problem is then solved by the constraint method, and the Pareto front is obtained for a variety of robustness values. The applicability and efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different numerical instances, finally.

Keywords: Project Management, Project Scheduling, material ordering, e-constraint method

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
56 An Integrated Mixed-Integer Programming Model to Address Concurrent Project Scheduling and Material Ordering

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering can provide more flexibility to the project scheduling problem, as the project execution costs can be enhanced. Hence, the issue has been taken into account in this paper. To do so, a mixed-integer mathematical model is developed which considers the aforementioned flexibility, in addition to the materials quantity discount and space availability restrictions. Moreover, the activities duration has been treated as decision variables. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different instances. Additionally, the influence of the aforementioned parameters is investigated on the model performance.

Keywords: Project Scheduling, material ordering, quantity discount, space availability

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
55 Computer Fraud from the Perspective of Iran's Law and International Documents

Authors: Babak Pourghahramani

Abstract:

One of the modern crimes against property and ownership in the cyber-space is the computer fraud. Despite being modern, the aforementioned crime has its roots in the principles of religious jurisprudence. In some cases, this crime is compatible with the traditional regulations and that is when the computer is considered as a crime commitment device and also some computer frauds that take place in the context of electronic exchanges are considered as crime based on the E-commerce Law (approved in 2003) but the aforementioned regulations are flawed and until recent years there was no comprehensive law in this regard; yet after some years the Computer Crime Act was approved in 2009/26/5 and partly solved the problem of legal vacuum. The present study intends to investigate the computer fraud according to Iran's Computer Crime Act and by taking into consideration the international documents.

Keywords: Fraud, cyber fraud, computer fraud, classic fraud, computer crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
54 An Integrated Intuitionistic Fuzzy Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La REalite (IFELECTRE) Model

Authors: Babak Daneshvar Rouyendegh

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop and describe a new methodology for the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) problem using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La REalite (IFELECTRE) model. The proposed models enable Decision-Makers (DMs) on the assessment and use Intuitionistic Fuzzy numbers (IFN). A numerical example is provided to demonstrate and clarify the proposed analysis procedure. Also, an empirical experiment is conducted to validation the effectiveness.

Keywords: Decision-Makers (DMs), Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), Intuitionistic Fuzzy Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La REalite (IFELECTRE), Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers (IFN)

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53 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Leukemia, Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, Optical Emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
52 Effects of Magnetic Field Strength on Fluid Flow Behavior in a Constricted Channel

Authors: Ashkan Javadzadegan, Aitak Javadzadegan, Babak Fakhim

Abstract:

One of possible ways to retard movement of fluid is through applying an external magnetic field. In this regard, this study is focused on the effect of a uniform transverse magnetic field on fluid flow behavior inside a channel with a local symmetric constriction. Also, Ellis Non-Newtonian model is implemented to address the effects of shear-dependent viscosity. According to the results, the flow separation downstream of the constriction can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field and/or manipulating the shear-thinning degree of fluid. It is also demonstrated that pressure drop increases by an increase in the strength of the magnetic field.

Keywords: separation, Magnetic Field, non-Newtonian, shear thinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
51 Effect of IGF-I on Ovine Oocytes Maturation and Subsequent Embryo Development following in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Authors: babak Qasemi-Panahi, Gholamali Moghaddam, Seyed-Abbas Rafat, Hossein Daghigh Kia, Mansoureh Movahedin, Reza Hadavi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of IGF-I on ovine oocytes maturation and subsequent development of embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF). In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos was conducted with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. In the IGF-I treated group, mean percentage of oocyte maturation was significantly higher than the control group (57.67 ± 3.04 versus 49.81 ± 3.04%, respectively, P < 0.05). However, in comparison with control group, there was no significant effect of IGF-1 on rates of cleavage, morula, and blastocyst formation (85% versus 84%; 63% versus 65%, and 40% to 39%, respectively). These data demonstrate that IGF-I has a positive effect on ovine oocyte maturation rate, but it has not the significant outcome on embryo development.

Keywords: ovine, IVM, IGF-I, ICSI

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50 Fluorescence Quenching as an Efficient Tool for Sensing Application: Study on the Fluorescence Quenching of Naphthalimide Dye by Graphene Oxide

Authors: Shohre Rouhani, Sanaz Seraj

Abstract:

Recently, graphene has gained much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor, and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on these unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching, the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher which can be a substrate or biomolecule, and due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability, and large Stokes shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas, especially fluorescence sensors. Herein, the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for fluorescent dyes. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.

Keywords: Fluorescence, quenching, Graphene Oxide, naphthalimide dye

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
49 In situ High Temperature Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

Authors: M. Rouhani, F. C. N. Hong, Y. R. Jeng

Abstract:

The tribological performance of DLC films is limited by graphitization at elevated temperatures. Despite of numerous studies on the thermal stability of DLC films, a comprehensive in-situ characterization at elevated temperature is still lacking. In this study, DLC films were deposited using filtered cathodic arc vacuum method. Thermal stability of the films was characterized in-situally using a synchronized technique integrating Raman spectroscopy and depth-sensing measurements. Tests were performed in a high temperature chamber coupled with feedback control to make it possible to study the temperature effects in the range of 21 – 450 ̊C. Co-located SPM and Raman microscopy maps at different temperature over a specific area on the surface of the film were prepared. The results show that the thermal stability of the DLC films depends on their sp3 content. Films with lower sp3 content endure graphitization during the temperature-course used in this study. The graphitization is accompanied with significant changes in surface roughness and Raman spectrum of the film. Surface roughness of the films start to change even before graphitization transformation could be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Depth-sensing tests (nanoindentation, nano-scratch and wear) endorse the surface roughness change seen before graphitization occurrence. This in-situ study showed that the surface of the films is more sensitive to temperature rise compared to the bulk. We presume the changes observed in films hardness, surface roughness and scratch resistance with temperature rise, before graphitization occurrence, is due to surface relaxation.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Thermal Stability, Nanoindentation, DLC film

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
48 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi

Abstract:

There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Analytical Modeling, Haunch connection, unequal beam depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
47 Enhanced Cell Adhesion on PMMA by Radio Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatment

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Babak Shokri

Abstract:

In this study, PMMA films are modified by oxygen plasma treatment for biomedical applications. The plasma generator is capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) power source. The oxygen pressure and gas flow rate are kept constant at 40 mTorr and 30 sccm, respectively and samples are treated for 2 minutes. Hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of PMMA films are studied before and after treatments in different applied powers (10-80 W). In order to monitor the plasma process, the optical emission spectroscopy is used. The wettability and cellular response of samples are investigated by water contact angle (WCA) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. Also, surface free energy (SFE) variations are studied based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids. It is found that RF oxygen plasma treatment enhances the biocompatibility and also hydrophilicity of PMMA films.

Keywords: MTT assay, PMMA, cellular response, hydrophilicity, RF plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
46 Optimization the Conditions of Electrophoretic Deposition Fabrication of Graphene-Based Electrode to Consider Applications in Electro-Optical Sensors

Authors: Sepehr Lajevardi Esfahani, Shohre Rouhani, Zahra Ranjbar

Abstract:

Graphene has gained much attention owing to its unique optical and electrical properties. Charge carriers in graphene sheets (GS) carry out a linear dispersion relation near the Fermi energy and behave as massless Dirac fermions resulting in unusual attributes such as the quantum Hall effect and ambipolar electric field effect. It also exhibits nondispersive transport characteristics with an extremely high electron mobility (15000 cm2/(Vs)) at room temperature. Recently, several progresses have been achieved in the fabrication of single- or multilayer GS for functional device applications in the fields of optoelectronic such as field-effect transistors ultrasensitive sensors and organic photovoltaic cells. In addition to device applications, graphene also can serve as reinforcement to enhance mechanical, thermal, or electrical properties of composite materials. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for development of various coatings and films. It readily applied to any powdered solid that forms a stable suspension. The deposition parameters were controlled in various thicknesses. In this study, the graphene electrodeposition conditions were optimized. The results were obtained from SEM, Ohm resistance measuring technique and AFM characteristic tests. The minimum sheet resistance of electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide layers is achieved at conditions of 2 V in 10 s and it is annealed at 200 °C for 1 minute.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, electrophoretic deposition (EPD), graphene oxide (GO), electro-optical devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
45 Using Self Organizing Feature Maps for Classification in RGB Images

Authors: Ahad Salimi, Babak Gholami, Hassan Masoumi, Nazanin Barhemmat

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks have gained a lot of interest as empirical models for their powerful representational capacity, multi input and output mapping characteristics. In fact, most feed-forward networks with nonlinear nodal functions have been proved to be universal approximates. In this paper, we propose a new supervised method for color image classification based on self organizing feature maps (SOFM). This algorithm is based on competitive learning. The method partitions the input space using self-organizing feature maps to introduce the concept of local neighborhoods. Our image classification system entered into RGB image. Experiments with simulated data showed that separability of classes increased when increasing training time. In additional, the result shows proposed algorithms are effective for color image classification.

Keywords: Neural Network, classification, Neighborhood, SOFM algorithm, RGB image

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
44 X-Bracing Configuration and Seismic Response

Authors: Saeed Rahjoo, Babak H. Mamaqani

Abstract:

Concentric bracing systems have been in practice for many years because of their effectiveness in reducing seismic response. Depending on concept, seismic design codes provide various response modification factors (R), which itself consists of different terms, for different types of lateral load bearing systems but configuration of these systems are often ignored in the proposed values. This study aims at considering the effect of different x-bracing diagonal configuration on values of ductility dependent term in R computation. 51 models were created and nonlinear push over analysis has been performed. The main variables of this study were the suitable location of X–bracing diagonal configurations, which establishes better nonlinear behavior in concentric braced steel frames. Results show that some x-bracing diagonal configurations improve the seismic performance of CBF significantly and explicit consideration of lateral load bearing systems seems necessary.

Keywords: response reduction factor, bracing configuration, concentrically braced frame (CBF), push over analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
43 Optimal Design of Redundant Hybrid Manipulator for Minimum Singularity

Authors: Babak Safaei, Ahmad Ghanbari, Arash Rahmani, Abbas Baghernezhad

Abstract:

In the design of parallel manipulators, usually mean value of a dexterity measure over the workspace volume is considered as the objective function to be used in optimization algorithms. The mentioned indexes in a hybrid parallel manipulator (HPM) are quite complicated to solve thanks to infinite solutions for every point within the workspace of the redundant manipulators. In this paper, spatial isotropic design axioms are extended as a well-known method for optimum design of manipulators. An upper limit for the isotropy measure of HPM is calculated and instead of computing and minimizing isotropy measure, minimizing the obtained limit is considered. To this end, two different objective functions are suggested which are obtained from objective functions of comprising modules. Finally, by using genetic algorithm (GA), the best geometric parameters for a specific hybrid parallel robot which is composed of two modified Gough-Stewart platforms (MGSP) are achieved.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimum Design, hybrid manipulator, spatial isotropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
42 Effect of Crude oil Contamination on the Morphological Traits and Protein Content of Avicennia Marina

Authors: Babak Moradi, Hassan Zare-Maivan

Abstract:

A greenhouse investigation has been conducted to study the effect of crude oil on morphology and protein content of Avicennia marina plant. Avicennia marina seeds were sown in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 w/w). Controls and replicates were also set up. Morphological traits were recorded 4 months after plantation. Avicennia marina seedlings could tolerate up to 10% (w/w). Results demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Plant height, total leaf number and length reduced significantly with increase of crude oil contamination. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on protein content of the roots of the experimental plant. Protein content of roots grown in different concentrations of crude oil were more than those of the control plant. Further, results also showed that protein content was increased with increased concentration of crude oil.

Keywords: Morphology, oil contamination, protein content, Avicennia marina

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
41 Teenagers’ Decisions to Undergo Orthodontic Treatment: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Babak Nematshahrbabaki, Fallahi Arezoo

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe teenagers’ decisions to undergo orthodontic treatment through a qualitative study. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients (12 girls), aged 12–18 years, at a dental clinic in Sanandaj the western part of Iran participated. Face-to-face and semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions were held to gather data. Data analyzed by the grounded theory method. Results: ‘Decision-making’ was the core category. During the data analysis four main themes were developed: ‘being like everyone else’, ‘being diagnosed’, ‘maintaining the mouth’ and ‘cultural-social and environmental factors’. Conclusions: cultural- social and environmental factors have crucial role in decision-making to undergo orthodontic treatment. The teenagers were not fully conscious of these external influences. They thought their decision to undergo orthodontic treatment is independent while it is related to cultural- social and environmental factors.

Keywords: Decision-making, orthodontic treatment, qualitative study, teenager

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
40 Removal of Acetaminophen with Chitosan-Nano Activated Carbon Beads from Aqueous Sources

Authors: Parisa Amouzgar, Chan Eng Seng, Babak Salamatinia

Abstract:

Pharmaceutical products are being increasingly detected in the environment. However, conventional treatment systems do not provide an adequate treatment for pharmaceutical drug elimination and still there is not a regulated standard for their limitation in water. Since decades before, pharmaceuticals have been in the water but only recently, their levels in the environment have been recognized and quantified as potentially hazardous to ecosystems. In this study chitosan with a bio-based NAC (Ct-NAC) were made as beads with extrusion dripping method and investigated for acetaminophen removal from water. The effects of beading parameters such as flow rate in dripping, the distance from dipping tip to the solution surface, concentration of chitosan and percentage of NAC were analyzed to find the optimum condition. Based on the results, the overall adsorption rate and removal efficiency increased during the time till the equilibrium rate which was 80% removal of acetaminophen. The maximum adsorption belonged to the beads with 1.75% chitosan, 60% NAC, flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min while the distance of dripping was 22.5 cm.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, Water Treatment, acetaminophen, chitosan nano activated carbon beads

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39 Investigating the Effect of Height on Essential Oils of Urtica diocia L.: Case Study of Ramsar, Mazandaran, Iran

Authors: Khalil Pourshamsian, Keivan Saeb, Azade Kakouei, Razieh Jafari Hajati, Babak Babakhani

Abstract:

Urtica Diocia L. from the Urticaceae family is a plant of herbal value and of a noticeable distribution in the north of Iran. The growth of different plants in various natural environments and ecosystems seems to be affected by factors such as the height (from sea surface).To investigate the effect of height on Urtica Diocia L. medicine compounds in its natural environment, three areas with the height of zero, 800 and 1800m were selected.The samples were randomly gathered three times and were dried; also, their compounds was extracted using the Clivenger with the water-distilling method. To determine the medicine compounds, the GC-MS as well as the GC machines were used. The analysis of variance was done in the form of the random-full-block design. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the percent of EOs in the selected heights; however, such difference was not significant within each height. From among the eight flavors of the study, the phytol compound was more in terms of percentage. By increasing the height the percent of EOs would decrease. lower heights could be considered most appropriate for producing the studied effective materials despite of the moistened climate and soil there.

Keywords: Medicine, EoS, Urtica diocia L, height

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38 Modeling the Risk Perception of Pedestrians Using a Nested Logit Structure

Authors: Babak Mirbaha, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Atieh Asgari Toorzani

Abstract:

Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users since they do not have a protective shell. One of the most common collisions for them is pedestrian-vehicle at intersections. In order to develop appropriate countermeasures to improve safety for them, researches have to be conducted to identify the factors that affect the risk of getting involved in such collisions. More specifically, this study investigates factors such as the influence of walking alone or having a baby while crossing the street, the observable age of pedestrian, the speed of pedestrians and the speed of approaching vehicles on risk perception of pedestrians. A nested logit model was used for modeling the behavioral structure of pedestrians. The results show that the presence of more lanes at intersections and not being alone especially having a baby while crossing, decrease the probability of taking a risk among pedestrians. Also, it seems that teenagers show more risky behaviors in crossing the street in comparison to other age groups. Also, the speed of approaching vehicles was considered significant. The probability of risk taking among pedestrians decreases by increasing the speed of approaching vehicle in both the first and the second lanes of crossings.

Keywords: Risk, intersection, pedestrians, nested logit

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37 CE Method for Development of Japan's Stochastic Earthquake Catalogue

Authors: Babak Kamrani, Nozar Kishi

Abstract:

Stochastic catalog represents the events module of the earthquake loss estimation models. It includes series of events with different magnitudes and corresponding frequencies/probabilities. For the development of the stochastic catalog, random or uniform sampling methods are used to sample the events from the seismicity model. For covering all the Magnitude Frequency Distribution (MFD), a huge number of events should be generated for the above-mentioned methods. Characteristic Event (CE) method chooses the events based on the interest of the insurance industry. We divide the MFD of each source into bins. We have chosen the bins based on the probability of the interest by the insurance industry. First, we have collected the information for the available seismic sources. Sources are divided into Fault sources, subduction, and events without specific fault source. We have developed the MFD for each of the individual and areal source based on the seismicity of the sources. Afterward, we have calculated the CE magnitudes based on the desired probability. To develop the stochastic catalog, we have introduced uncertainty to the location of the events too.

Keywords: Uncertainty, stochastic catalogue, earthquake loss, characteristic event

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
36 Evaluating the Methods of Retrofitting and Renovating the Masonry Schools of Ahvaz City

Authors: Navid Khayat, Babak Mombeni

Abstract:

This study investigates the retrofitting of schools in Ahvaz City. Three schools, namely, Enghelab, Sherafat, and Golchehreh, in Ahvaz City, are initially examined through Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic tests. Given the tests and controls on the structures of these schools, the methods are presented for their reconstruction. The plan is presented for each school by estimating the cost and generally the feasibility and estimated the duration of project reconstruction. After reconstruction, the mentioned tests are re-performed for rebuilt parts and the results indicate a significant improvement in performance of structure because of reconstruction. According to the results, despite the fact that the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for structure retrofitting is costly, due to the low executive costs and also other benefits of FRP, it is generally considered as one of the most effective ways of retrofitting. Building the concrete coating on walls is another effective method in retrofitting the buildings. According to this method, a grid of horizontal and vertical bars is installed on the wall and then the concrete is poured on it. The use of concrete coating on the concrete and brick structures leads to the useful results and the experience indicates that the poured concrete filled the joints well and provides the appropriate bonding and adhesion.

Keywords: Masonry structures, retrofitting, renovation, concrete coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 288