Search results for: apparent mass
3609 Design and Development of the Force Plate for the Study of Driving-Point Biodynamic Responses
Authors: Vikas Kumar, V. H. Saran, Arpit Mathur, Avik Kathuria
Abstract:The evaluation of biodynamic responses of the human body to whole body vibration exposure is necessary to quantify the exposure effects. A force plate model has been designed with the help of CAD software, which was investigated by performing the modal, stress and strain analysis using finite element approach in the software. The results of the modal, stress and strain analysis were under the limits for measurements of biodynamic responses to whole body vibration. The physical model of the force plate was manufactured and fixed to the vibration simulator and further used in the experimentation for the evaluation of apparent mass responses of the ten recruited subjects standing in an erect posture exposed to vertical whole body vibration. The platform was excited with sinusoidal vibration at vibration magnitude: 1.0 and 1.5 m/s2 rms at different frequency of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12.5, 16 and 20 Hz. The results of magnitude of normalised apparent mass have shown the trend observed in the many past studies. The peak in the normalised apparent mass has been observed at 4 & 5 Hz frequency of vertical whole body vibration. The nonlinearity with respect to vibration magnitude has been also observed in the normalised apparent mass responses.
Keywords: whole body vibration, apparent mass, modeling, force plateProcedia PDF Downloads 336
3608 Optimization and Vibration Suppression of Double Tuned Inertial Mass Damper of Damped System
Authors: Chaozhi Yang, Xinzhong Chen, Guoqing Huang
Abstract:Inerter is a two-terminal inertial element that can produce apparent mass far larger than its physical mass. A double tuned inertial mass damper (DTIMD) is developed by combining a spring with an inerter and a dashpot in series to replace the viscous damper of a tuned mass damper (TMD), and its performance is investigated. Firstly, the DTIMD is optimized numerically with H∞ and H2 methods considering the system’s damping based on the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF)-DTIMD system, and the optimal structural parameters are obtained. Then, compared with a TMD, the control effect of the DTIMD with the optimal structural parameters on wind-induced vibration of a wind turbine in downwind direction under the shutdown condition is studied. The results demonstrate that the vibration suppression of the DTIMD is superior than that of a TMD at the same mass ratio. And at the identical vibration suppression, the tuned mass of the DTIMD can be reduced by up to 40% compared with a TMD.
Keywords: wind-induced vibration, vibration control, inerter, tuned mass damper, damped systemProcedia PDF Downloads 36
3607 Evaluation of Mixing and Oxygen Transfer Performances for a Stirred Bioreactor Containing P. chrysogenum Broths
Authors: A. C. Blaga, A. Cârlescu, M. Turnea, A. I. Galaction, D. Caşcaval
Abstract:The performance of an aerobic stirred bioreactor for fungal fermentation was analyzed on the basis of mixing time and oxygen mass transfer coefficient, by quantifying the influence of some specific geometrical and operational parameters of the bioreactor, as well as the rheological behavior of Penicillium chrysogenum broth (free mycelia and mycelia aggregates). The rheological properties of the fungus broth, controlled by the biomass concentration, its growth rate, and morphology strongly affect the performance of the bioreactor. Experimental data showed that for both morphological structures the accumulation of fungus biomass induces a significant increase of broths viscosity and modifies the rheological behavior. For lower P. chrysogenum concentrations (both morphological conformations), the mixing time initially increases with aeration rate, reaches a maximum value and decreases. This variation can be explained by the formation of small bubbles, due to the presence of solid phase which hinders the bubbles coalescence, the rising velocity of bubbles being reduced by the high apparent viscosity of fungus broths. By biomass accumulation, the variation of mixing time with aeration rate is gradually changed, the continuous reduction of mixing time with air input flow increase being obtained for 33.5 g/l d.w. P. chrysogenum. Owing to the superior apparent viscosity, which reduces considerably the relative contribution of mechanical agitation to the broths mixing, these phenomena are more pronounced for P. chrysogenum free mycelia. Due to the increase of broth apparent viscosity, the biomass accumulation induces two significant effects on oxygen transfer rate: the diminution of turbulence and perturbation of bubbles dispersion - coalescence equilibrium. The increase of P. chrysogenum free mycelia concentration leads to the decrease of kla values. Thus, for the considered variation domain of the main parameters taken into account, namely air superficial velocity from 8.36 10-4 to 5.02 10-3 m/s and specific power input from 100 to 500 W/m3, kla was reduced for 3.7 times for biomass concentration increase from 4 to 36.5 g/l d.w. The broth containing P. crysogenum mycelia aggregates exhibits a particular behavior from the point of view of oxygen transfer. Regardless of bioreactor operating conditions, the increase of biomass concentration leads initially to the increase of oxygen mass transfer rate, the phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of pellets with bubbles. The results are in relation with the increase of apparent viscosity of broths corresponding to the variation of biomass concentration between the mentioned limits. Thus, the apparent viscosity of the suspension of fungus mycelia aggregates increased for 44.2 times and fungus free mycelia for 63.9 times for CX increase from 4 to 36.5 g/l d.w. By means of the experimental data, some mathematical correlations describing the influences of the considered factors on mixing time and kla have been proposed. The proposed correlations can be used in bioreactor performance evaluation, optimization, and scaling-up.
Keywords: biomass concentration, mixing time, oxygen mass transfer, P. chrysogenum broth, stirred bioreactorProcedia PDF Downloads 261
3606 Apparent Ileal and Excreta Digestibility of Protein Poultry By-Product Meal in 21 to 28 Days of Age Broiler Chicken
Authors: N. Mahmoudnia, M. Khormali
Abstract:This experiment was conducted to determine the apparent protein digestibility of poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) from two industrial poultry slaughter-houses on Ross 308 male broiler chickens in independent comparisons. The experiment consisted of seven dietary treatments and three replicates per treatment with three broiler chickens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control corn- soybean diet, and levels 3, 6, and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter-house 1 and levels 3, 6, and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter house 2. Chromic oxide was added to the experimental diets as an indigestible marker. The apparent protein digestibility of each diet were determined with two methods of sample collection of ileum and excreta in 21-28 d of age. The results this experiment showed that use of PBPM had no significant effect on the performance of broiler chicks during period of experiments. The apparent protein digestibility of PBPM groups was significantly higher than control group by excreta sampling procedure (P<0.05). Using of PBPM 2 significantly (P<0.05) decreased the apparent protein digestibility values based on ileum sampling procedure vs control (85.21 vs. 90.14).Based results of this experiment,it is possible to use of PBPM 1 in broiler chicken.
Keywords: poultry by-product meal, apparent protein digestibility, independed comparison, broiler chickenProcedia PDF Downloads 424
3605 Schrödinger Equation with Position-Dependent Mass: Staggered Mass Distributions
Authors: J. J. Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo, L. Arcos-Díaz
Abstract:The Point canonical transformation method is applied for solving the Schrödinger equation with position-dependent mass. This class of problem has been solved for continuous mass distributions. In this work, a staggered mass distribution for the case of a free particle in an infinite square well potential has been proposed. The continuity conditions as well as normalization for the wave function are also considered. The proposal can be used for dealing with other kind of staggered mass distributions in the Schrödinger equation with different quantum potentials.
Keywords: free particle, point canonical transformation method, position-dependent mass, staggered mass distributionProcedia PDF Downloads 266
3604 Calculation of the Added Mass of a Submerged Object with Variable Sizes at Different Distances from the Wall via Lattice Boltzmann Simulations
Authors: Nastaran Ahmadpour Samani, Shahram Talebi
Abstract:Added mass is an important quantity in analysis of the motion of a submerged object ,which can be calculated by solving the equation of potential flow around the object . Here, we consider systems in which a square object is submerged in a channel of fluid and moves parallel to the wall. The corresponding added mass at a given distance from the wall d and for the object size s (which is the side of square object) is calculated via lattice Blotzmann simulation . By changing d and s separately, their effect on the added mass is studied systematically. The simulation results reveal that for the systems in which d > 4s, the distance does not influence the added mass any more. The added mass increases when the object approaches the wall and reaches its maximum value as it moves on the wall (d -- > 0). In this case, the added mass is about 73% larger than which of the case d=4s. In addition, it is observed that the added mass increases by increasing of the object size s and vice versa.
Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann simulation , added mass, square, variable sizeProcedia PDF Downloads 386
3603 Comparison Ileal and Excreta Digestibility of Protein Poultry by-Product Meal in 21 to 28 Days of Age Broiler Chicken
Authors: N. Mahmoudnia, M. Khormali
Abstract:This experiment was conducted to determine the apparent protein digestibility of poultry by- product meal (PBPM) from two industrial poultry slaughter houses on Ross 308 male broiler chickens in independed comparisons. The experiment consisted of seven dietary treatments and three replicates per treatment with three broiler chickens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control corn- soybean diet, and levels 3, 6 and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter house 1 and levels 3, 6 and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter house 2. Chromic oxide was added to the experimental diets as indigestible marker. The apparent protein digestibility of each diet were determined with two methods of sample collection of ileum and excreta in 21-28 d of age. The results this experiment showed that use of PBPM had no significantly effect on performance of broiler chicks during period of experiments. The apparent protein digestibility of PBPM groups was significantly higher than control group by excreta sampling procedure (P<0.05). Using of PBPM 2 significantly (P<0.05) decreased the apparent protein digestibility values based on ileum sampling procedure vs control ( 85.21 vs 90.14).Based results of this experiment,it is possible to use of PBPM 1 in broiler chicken.
Keywords: poultry by-product meal, apparent protein digestibility, independed comparison, broiler chickenProcedia PDF Downloads 536
3602 Apparent Temperature Distribution on Scaffoldings during Construction Works
Authors: I. Szer, J. Szer, K. Czarnocki, E. Błazik-Borowa
Abstract:People on construction scaffoldings work in dynamically changing, often unfavourable climate. Additionally, this kind of work is performed on low stiffness structures at high altitude, which increases the risk of accidents. It is therefore desirable to define the parameters of the work environment that contribute to increasing the construction worker occupational safety level. The aim of this article is to present how changes in microclimate parameters on scaffolding can impact the development of dangerous situations and accidents. For this purpose, indicators based on the human thermal balance were used. However, use of this model under construction conditions is often burdened by significant errors or even impossible to implement due to the lack of precise data. Thus, in the target model, the modified parameter was used – apparent environmental temperature. Apparent temperature in the proposed Scaffold Use Risk Assessment Model has been a perceived outdoor temperature, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, radiative temperature, relative humidity and wind speed (wind chill index, heat index). In the paper, correlations between component factors and apparent temperature for facade scaffolding with a width of 24.5 m and a height of 42.3 m, located at south-west side of building are presented. The distribution of factors on the scaffolding has been used to evaluate fitting of the microclimate model. The results of the studies indicate that observed ranges of apparent temperature on the scaffolds frequently results in a worker’s inability to adapt. This leads to reduced concentration and increased fatigue, adversely affects health, and consequently increases the risk of dangerous situations and accidental injuries
Keywords: apparent temperature, health, safety work, scaffoldingsProcedia PDF Downloads 118
3601 Electromagnetic Tuned Mass Damper Approach for Regenerative Suspension
Authors: S. Kopylov, C. Z. Bo
Abstract:This study is aimed at exploring the possibility of energy recovery through the suppression of vibrations. The article describes design of electromagnetic dynamic damper. The magnetic part of the device performs the function of a tuned mass damper, thereby providing both energy regeneration and damping properties to the protected mass. According to the theory of tuned mass damper, equations of mathematical models were obtained. Then, under given properties of current system, amplitude frequency response was investigated. Therefore, main ideas and methods for further research were defined.
Keywords: electromagnetic damper, oscillations with two degrees of freedom, regeneration systems, tuned mass damperProcedia PDF Downloads 145
3600 Effect of High Temperature on Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Brick Aggregate Concrete
Authors: Samia Hachemi, Abdelhafid Ounis, W. Heriheri
Abstract:This paper presents an experimental investigation of high temperatures applied to normal and high performance concrete made with natural coarse aggregates. The experimental results of physical and mechanical properties were compared with those obtained with recycled brick aggregates produced by replacing 30% of natural coarse aggregates by recycled brick aggregates. The following parameters: compressive strength, concrete mass loss, apparent density and water porosity were examined in this experiment. The results show that concrete could be produced by using recycled brick aggregates and reveals that at high temperatures recycled aggregate concrete preformed similar or even better than natural aggregate concrete.
Keywords: high temperature, compressive strength, mass loss, recycled brick aggregateProcedia PDF Downloads 186
3599 Multiple Linear Regression for Rapid Estimation of Subsurface Resistivity from Apparent Resistivity Measurements
Authors: Sabiu Bala Muhammad, Rosli Saad
Abstract:Multiple linear regression (MLR) models for fast estimation of true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity field measurements are developed and assessed in this study. The parameters investigated were apparent resistivity (ρₐ), horizontal location (X) and depth (Z) of measurement as the independent variables; and true resistivity (ρₜ) as the dependent variable. To achieve linearity in both resistivity variables, datasets were first transformed into logarithmic domain following diagnostic checks of normality of the dependent variable and heteroscedasticity to ensure accurate models. Four MLR models were developed based on hierarchical combination of the independent variables. The generated MLR coefficients were applied to another data set to estimate ρₜ values for validation. Contours of the estimated ρₜ values were plotted and compared to the observed data plots at the colour scale and blanking for visual assessment. The accuracy of the models was assessed using coefficient of determination (R²), standard error (SE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE). It is concluded that the MLR models can estimate ρₜ for with high level of accuracy.
Keywords: apparent resistivity, depth, horizontal location, multiple linear regression, true resistivityProcedia PDF Downloads 215
3598 Influence of Initial Curing Time, Water Content and Apparent Water Content on Geopolymer Modified Sludge Generated in Landslide Area
Authors: Minh Chien Vu, Tomoaki Satomi, Hiroshi Takahashi
Abstract:As being lack of sufficient strength to support the loading of construction as well as service life cause the clay content and clay mineralogy, soft and highly compressible soils (sludge) constitute a major problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Geopolymer, a kind of inorganic polymer, is a promising material with a wide range of applications and offers a lower level of CO₂ emissions than conventional Portland cement. However, the feasibility of geopolymer in term of modified the soft and highly compressible soil has not been received much attention due to the requirement of heat treatment for activating the fly ash component and the existence of high content of clay-size particles in the composition of sludge that affected on the efficiency of the reaction. On the other hand, the geopolymer modified sludge could be affected by other important factors such as initial curing time, initial water content and apparent water content. Therefore, this paper describes a different potential application of geopolymer: soil stabilization in landslide areas to adapt to the technical properties of sludge so that heavy machines can move on. Sludge condition process is utilized to demonstrate the possibility for stabilizing sludge using fly ash-based geopolymer at ambient curing condition ( ± 20 °C) in term of failure strength, strain and bulk density. Sludge conditioning is a process whereby sludge is treated with chemicals or various other means to improve the dewatering characteristics of sludge before applying in the construction area. The effect of initial curing time, water content and apparent water content on the modification of sludge are the main focus of this study. Test results indicate that the initial curing time has potential for improving failure strain and strength of modified sludge with the specific condition of soft soil. The result further shows that the initial water content over than 50% total mass of sludge could significantly lead to a decrease of strength performance of geopolymer-based modified sludge. The optimum apparent water content of geopolymer modified sludge is strongly influenced by the amount of geopolymer content and initial water content of sludge. The solution to minimize the effect of high initial water content will be considered deeper in the future.
Keywords: landslide, sludge, fly ash, geopolymer, sludge conditioningProcedia PDF Downloads 60
3597 Lean Mass and Fat Mass Distribution in Ukrainian Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Овesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Authors: V. V. Povoroznyuk, Lar. P. Martynyuk, N. I. Dzerovych, Lil. P. Martyntyuk
Abstract:Objective: Menopause-related changes in female body are associated with the greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension. The aim of our study was to reveal peculiarities of fat and lean mass distribution between postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity and with MS. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 43 postmenopausal 60 – 69 years old women (age: mean = 64,8; S.D. = 0,4); duration of menopause: mean = 14,5; S.D.= 0,9). The diagnosis of MS was considered according to IDF (2005 yr) criteria. Lean and fat mass distrubution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absortiometry, and were compared for the cohorts with and without MS. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package 6.0 (Statsoft). Results: Findings revealed that 24 (55,8 %) of postmenopausal women had MS. In patients with and without MS compared, fat mass was higher in the former group (41248,25±2263,89 and 29817,68±2397,78 respectively; F=11,9; p=0,001) and at different body regions also: gynoid fat (6563,72±348,19 and 5115,21±392,43 respectively; F=7,6; p=0,008), android fat (3815,45±200,8128 and 2798,15±282,79 respectively; F=9,06; p=0,004. Lean mass comparing didn’t show significant differences in female with and without MS (42548,0±1239,18 and 40667,53±1223,78 respectively; F=1,1; p=0,29) and at different body regions also. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in postmenopausal women with MS there is prevalence of fat mass without increasing of lean mass quantity in compare to female with abdominal obesity without MS.
Keywords: lean mass, fat mass, овesity, metabolic syndrome, women, postmenopausal periodProcedia PDF Downloads 403
3596 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?
Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui
Abstract:The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one-step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55 g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.
Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 319
3595 Impact of Mass Customization for 3D Geographic Information Systems under Turbulent Environments
Authors: Abdo Shabah
Abstract:Mass customization aims to produce customized goods (allowing economies of scope) at lower cost (to achieve economies of scale) using multiple strategies (modularization and postponement). Through a simulation experiment of organizations under turbulent environment, we aim to compare standardization and mass customization of services and assess the impact of different forms of mass customization (early and late postponement) on performance, quality and consumer satisfaction, on the use of modular dynamic 3D Geographic Information System. Our hypothesis is that mass customization performs better and achieves better quality in turbulent environment than standardization, but only when using early postponement strategies. Using mixed methods study, we try to confirm our hypothesis.
Keywords: mass customization, postponement, experiment, performance, quality, satisfaction, 3D GISProcedia PDF Downloads 398
3594 Association of Geomagnetic Storms with Coronal Mass Ejections during 1997-2012
Authors: O. P. Tripathi, P. L. Verma
Abstract:Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are mostly reached on Earth from 1 to 5 days from the Sun. As a consequence, slow CMEs are accelerated toward the speed of solar wind and fast CMEs are decelerated toward the speed of the solar wind. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are bursts of solar material i.e. clouds of plasma and magnetic fields that shoot off the sun’s surface. Other solar events include solar wind streams that come from the coronal holes on the Sun and solar energetic particles that are primarily released by CMEs. We have studied geomagnetic storms (DST ≤ - 80nT) during 1997-2012 with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections and found that 73.28% CMEs (halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections) are associated with geomagnetic storms. The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 67.06% and 32.94% with geomagnetic storms respectively. We have also determined positive co-relation between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and speed of coronal mass ejection with correlation co-efficient 0.23.
Keywords: geomagnetic storms, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), disturbance storm time (Dst), interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)Procedia PDF Downloads 439
3593 Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin Bangkok Mass Transit System Station
Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julian Dewancker
Abstract:Thailand facing the transportation issue because of the rapid economic development. The big issue is the traffic jam, especially in Bangkok. However, recently years Bangkok has operated urban mass transit system for solved transportation problem. The Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) skytrain is being operated by the BTS Company Limited under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The passenger satisfaction is a major cause for concern due to the commercial nature. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the passenger satisfaction at the mass transit node by questionnaires survey. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes. The result shows several important factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and the passenger’s opinion.
Keywords: urban transportation, user satisfaction, accessibility, Bangkok mass transitProcedia PDF Downloads 178
3592 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials
Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell
Abstract:The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.
Keywords: bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulusProcedia PDF Downloads 100
3591 Modeling Drying and Pyrolysis of Moist Wood Particles at Slow Heating Rates
Authors: Avdhesh K. Sharma
Abstract:Formulation for drying and pyrolysis process in packed beds at slow heating rates is presented. Drying of biomass particles bed is described by mass diffusion equation and local moisture-vapour-equilibrium relations. In gasifiers, volatilization rate during pyrolysis of biomass is modeled by using apparent kinetic rate expression, while product compositions at slow heating rates is modeled using empirical fitted mass ratios (i.e., CO/CO2, ME/CO2, H2O/CO2) in terms of pyrolysis temperature. The drying module is validated fairly with available chemical kinetics scheme and found that the testing zone in gasifier bed constituted of relatively smaller particles having high airflow with high isothermal temperature expedite the drying process. Further, volatile releases more quickly within the shorter zone height at high temperatures (isothermal). Both, moisture loss and volatile release profiles are found to be sensitive to temperature, although the influence of initial moisture content on volatile release profile is not so sensitive.
Keywords: modeling downdraft gasifier, drying, pyrolysis, moist woody biomassProcedia PDF Downloads 62
3590 Gravitationally Confined Relativistic Neutrinos and Mathematical Modeling of the Structure of Pions
Authors: Constantinos Vayenas, Athanasios Fokas, Dimitrios Grigoriou
Abstract:We use special relativity to compute the inertial and thus gravitational mass of relativistic electron and muon neutrinos, and we find that, for neutrino kinetic energies above 150 MeV/c2, these masses are in the Planck mass range. Consequently, we develop a simple Bohr-type model using gravitational rather than electrostatic forces between the rotating neutrinos as the centripetal force in order to examine the bound rotational states formed by two or three such relativistic neutrinos. We find that the masses of the composite rotational structures formed, are in the meson and baryon mass ranges, respectively. These models contain no adjustable parameters and by comparing their predictions with the experimental values of the masses of protons and pions, we compute a mass of 0.0437 eV/c2 for the heaviest electron neutrino mass and of 1.1 x10-3 eV/c2 for the heaviest muon neutrino mass.
Keywords: geons, gravitational confinement, neutrino masses, special relativityProcedia PDF Downloads 204
3589 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen
Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying
Abstract:One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.
Keywords: reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reformingProcedia PDF Downloads 160
3588 4P-Model of Information Terrorism
Authors: Nataliya Venelinova
Abstract:The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary model of reconsidering the role of mass communication effects by coverage of terrorism. The idea of 4P model is based on the synergy, created by the information strategy of threat, predominantly used by terrorist groups, the effects of mediating the symbolic action of the terrorist attacks or the taking of responsibility of any attacks, and the reshaped public perception for security after the attacks being mass communicated. The paper defines the mass communication cycle of terrorism, which leads not only to re-agenda setting of the societies, but also spirally amplifying the effect of propagating fears by over-informing on terrorism attacks. This finally results in the outlining of the so called 4P-model of information terrorism: mass propaganda, panic, paranoia and pandemic.
Keywords: information terrorism, mass communication cycle, public perception, securityProcedia PDF Downloads 86
3587 A Fine String between Weaving the Text and Patching It: Reading beyond the Hidden Symbols and Antithetical Relationships in the Classical and Modern Arabic Poetry
Authors: Rima Abu Jaber-Bransi, Rawya Jarjoura Burbara
Abstract:This study reveals the extension and continuity between the classical Arabic poetry and modern Arabic poetry through investigation of its ambiguity, symbolism, and antithetical relationships. The significance of this study lies in its exploration and discovering of a new method of reading classical and modern Arabic poetry. The study deals with the Fatimid poetry and discovers a new method to read it. It also deals with the relationship between the apparent and the hidden meanings of words through focusing on how the paradoxical antithetical relationships change the meaning of the whole poem and give it a different dimension through the use of Oxymorons. In our unprecedented research on Oxymoron, we found out that the words in modern Arabic poetry are used in unusual combinations that convey apparent and hidden meanings. In some cases, the poet introduces an image with a symbol of a certain thing, but the reader soon discovers that the symbol includes its opposite, too. The question is: How does the reader find that hidden harmony in that apparent disharmony? The first and most important conclusion of this study is that the Fatimid poetry was written for two types of readers: religious readers who know the religious symbols and the hidden secret meanings behind the words, and ordinary readers who understand the apparent literal meaning of the words. Consequently, the interpretation of the poem is subject to the type of reading. In Fatimid poetry we found out that the hunting-journey is a journey of hidden esoteric knowledge; the Horse is al-Naqib, a religious rank of the investigator and missionary; the Lion is Ali Ibn Abi Talib. The words black and white, day and night, bird, death and murder have different meanings and indications. Our study points out the importance of reading certain poems in certain periods in two different ways: the first depends on a doctrinal interpretation that transforms the external apparent (ẓāher) meanings into internal inner hidden esoteric (bāṭen) ones; the second depends on the interpretation of antithetical relationships between the words in order to reveal meanings that the poet hid for a reader who participates in the processes of creativity. The second conclusion is that the classical poem employed symbols, oxymora and antonymous and antithetical forms to create two poetic texts in one mold and form. We can conclude that this study is pioneering in showing the constant paradoxical relationship between the apparent and the hidden meanings in classical and modern Arabic poetry.
Keywords: apparent, symbol, hidden, antithetical, oxymoron, Sophism, Fatimid poetryProcedia PDF Downloads 180
3586 Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin BTS Station
Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julien Dewancker
Abstract:Access to the mass transit system, including rapid elevated and underground transport has become an outstanding issue for many cities. The mass transit access development should focus on behavioral responses of the different passenger groups. Moreover, it should consider about the appearance of intent-oriented action related accessibility that was explored from user’s satisfaction and attitudes related to services quality. This study aims to evaluate mass transit accessibility from passenger’s satisfaction, therefore, understanding the passenger’s attitudes about mass transit accessibility. The study area of this research is Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS Skytrain) at Saphan Taksin station. 200 passengers at Saphan Taksin station were asked to rate the questionnaires survey that considers accessibility aspects of convenience, safety, feeder connectivity, and other dimensions. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes and satisfaction for access to the BTS station, and the result shows several factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and passenger’s opinion that needs to concern for the development mass transit system and accessibility performance.
Keywords: urban transportation, user satisfaction, accessibility, Bangkok mass transitProcedia PDF Downloads 141
3585 Research on the Torsional Vibration of a Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain Equipped with a Dual Mass Flywheel
Authors: Xiaolin Tang, Wei Yang, Xiaoan Chen
Abstract:The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring the torsional vibration characteristics of a power-split hybrid powertrain equipped with a dual mass flywheel. The dynamic equations of governing torsional vibration for this hybrid driveline are presented, and the multi-body dynamic model for the powertrain is established with the software of ADAMS. Accordingly, different parameters of dual mass flywheel are investigated by forced vibration to reduce the torsional vibration of hybrid drive train. The analysis shows that the implementation of a dual mass flywheel is an effective way to decrease the torsional vibration of the hybrid powertrain. At last, the optimal combination of parameters yielding the lowest vibration is provided.
Keywords: dual mass flywheel, hybrid electric vehicle, torsional vibration, powertrain, dynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 343
3584 Multi-Linear Regression Based Prediction of Mass Transfer by Multiple Plunging Jets
Abstract:The paper aims to compare the performance of vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets and to model and predict their mass transfer capacity by multi-linear regression based approach. The multiple vertical plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 90O; whereas, multiple inclined plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 600. The results of the study suggests that mass transfer is higher for multiple jets, and inclined multiple plunging jets have up to 1.6 times higher mass transfer than vertical multiple plunging jets under similar conditions. The derived relationship, based on multi-linear regression approach, has successfully predicted the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) from operational parameters of multiple plunging jets with a correlation coefficient of 0.973, root mean square error of 0.002 and coefficient of determination of 0.946. The results suggests that predicted overall mass transfer coefficient is in good agreement with actual experimental values; thereby suggesting the utility of derived relationship based on multi-linear regression based approach and can be successfully employed in modelling mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.
Keywords: mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, multi-linear regression, earth sciencesProcedia PDF Downloads 389
3583 A Framework for Supply Chain Efficiency Evaluation of Mass Customized Automobiles
Authors: Arshia Khan, Hans-Dietrich Haasis
Abstract:Different tools of the supply chain should be managed very efficiently in mass customization. In the automobile industry, there are different strategies to manage these tools. We need to investigate which strategies among the different ones are successful and which are not. There is lack in literature regarding such analysis. Keeping this in view, the purpose of this paper is to construct a framework and model which can help to analyze the supply chain of mass customized automobiles quantitatively for future studies. Furthermore, we will also consider that which type of data can be used for the suggested model and where it can be taken from. Such framework can help to bring insight for future analysis.
Keywords: mass customization, supply chain, inventory, distribution, automobile industryProcedia PDF Downloads 296
3582 Mass Transfer Studies of Carbon Dioxide Absorption in Sodium Hydroxide in Millichannels
Authors: A. Durgadevi, S. Pushpavanam
Abstract:In this work, absorption studies are done by conducting experiments of 99.9 (v/v%) pure CO₂ with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide solutions in a T-junction glass circular milli-channel. The gas gets absorbed in the aqueous phase resulting in the shrinking of slugs. This phenomenon is used to develop a lumped parameter model. Using this model, the chemical dissolution dynamics and the mass transfer characteristics of the CO₂-NaOH system is analysed. The liquid side mass transfer coefficient is determined with the help of the experimental data.
Keywords: absorption, dissolution dynamics, lumped parameter model, milli-channel, mass transfer coefficientProcedia PDF Downloads 210
3581 Vibration of Gamma Graphyne with an Attached Mass
Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang
Abstract:Atomic finite element simulation is applied to investigate the vibration frequency of a single-layer gamma graphyne with an attached mass for the CCCC, SSSS, CFCF, SFSF boundary conditions using the commercial code ANSYS. The fundamental frequencies of the graphyne sheet are compared with the results of the previous study. The results of the comparison are very good in all considered cases. The attached mass causes a shift in the resonant frequency of the graphyne. The frequencies of the single-layer gamma graphyne with an attached mass for different boundary conditions are obtained, and the order based on the boundary condition is CCCC >SSSS > CFCF> SFSF. The highest frequency shift is obtained when the attached mass is located at the center of the graphyne sheet. This is useful for the design of a highly sensitive graphyne-based mass sensor.
Keywords: graphyne, finite element analysis, vibration analysis, frequency shiftProcedia PDF Downloads 158
3580 Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe
Authors: P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff, Nur Irmawati
Abstract:This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PC-CPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of the experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have a significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rt, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66(ºC/W).
Keywords: loop heat pipe, nanofluid, optimization, thermal resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 351