Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Antoinette P. Malan

9 From a Madwoman in the Attic to a Fairy Land: A Conversation with Antoinette in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea

Authors: Prasenjit Panda

Abstract:

Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea, a prequel to Bronte’s Jane Eyre, explores the history of the other and gives voices to the people who were silenced and kept under the darkness of negation and denial for a long time. Jean Wide Sargasso Sea provides an alternative understanding of Charlotte Brontë’s mad Creole woman, i.e., Bertha Mason of Jane Eyre in the postcolonial context. Rhys transforms Charlotte Bronte’s Victorian romance into a realistic narrative. In doing so, she re-reads Bertha as Antoinette, the unspeakable figure of otherness, into an unnameable self, and creates a new stage for the inner self. She in the novel is no longer a lunatic heiress in Rochester’s attic rather in this novel she finds her fantasy, dream and most importantly, voice. Rhys peeps through the character of Antoinette through her fragmented memories, dreams, and identity. Antoinette’s identity is mutilated constantly in the conflicts between colonizers and colonized, male and female, black and white. We shall use postcolonial theories like Bhaba’s hybridity and third space as a methodology to reveal the dialectics of struggle of a doubly colonized woman.We shall see that Bertha Mason was neglected by Bronte because of her madness and was locked in the Rochester’s Attic, but here Rhys beautifully converts her madness as a language of Antoinette, a language for her protest, a language for her liberation, a language for her dreams. In this present paper, we shall try to show how Antoinette tries to free her soul and body from the clutches of her multiple existences, identity, and narratives.

Keywords: Identity, Narratives, dislocation, colonizer, fragmented memories

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8 Cultural Heritage, Manga, and Film: Japanese Tourism at Petit Trianon, Versailles

Authors: Denise C. I. Maior-Barron

Abstract:

This conference presentation proposes to discuss the Japanese tourist perception of Marie Antoinette, at the heritage site which represents the home par excellence of the last Queen of France: Petit Trianon, Versailles. The underpinning analysis has a two-fold aim of firstly identifying the elements that contributed at the said perception and secondly of placing this in the wider context of tabi (travel) culture. The contribution of the presentation lies in its relevance to the analysis of postmodern trends of Japanese travel culture in relation to the consumption of European cultural heritage, through an insight into Japanese contemporary perception of heritage sites and their associated historical figures subject to controversy. Based upon the author’s doctoral studies field research at Petit Trianon - survey led in situ between 2010-2012, applied with the questionnaire method on a total of 307 respondents out of which 53 Japanese nationals - the media sources that were revealed to have had a direct influence on these nationals’ perception of Marie Antoinette, were Riyoko Ikeda’s shōjo manga La Rose de Versailles (1972) and Sofia Coppola’s film Marie-Antoinette (2006). The interpretation of the survey results through an assessment of visitor discourse determined the research methodology to be qualitative as opposed to quantitative, thus what confirmed the empirical hypothesis of the survey was a pattern of perception instead of percentages. Consequently, the interpretation focused on the answers to the questions relating to the image of Marie Antoinette in relation to historical knowledge, cultural background and last but not least media influences.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Film, manga, tabi

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7 Potential of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum)

Authors: Nomakholwa F. Stokwe, Antoinette P. Malan

Abstract:

Woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum, is an important pest of apples worldwide. The aphid feeds above ground on buds and leaf axils and the roots of apple trees. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the two families, Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, and their symbiotic bacteria have generated extensive interest as inundative applied biological control agents of insects. With the development of the resistance of WAA to chemicals, export restrictions, and the inability of parasitoids to control the aphid successfully early in the season, considering EPNs as an alternative biocontrol agent is important. Seven EPN species were tested for their pathogenicity against WAA. Laboratory bioassays identified S. yirgalemense and H. zealandica as being the most virulent against the subterranean stage of the WAA, with a mortality rate of 48% and 38%, respectively. Studies on the effect of WAA size showed that the last instar is most susceptible to infection, whereas smaller instars appear to be too small for nematode penetration and infection. Neither increasing the exposure period of the aphids nor increasing the nematode concentration affected the infection rate positively. The haemolymph of WAA showed an inhibitory effect on the development of the symbiotic bacteria, preventing the completion of the nematode’s life cycle.

Keywords: Biocontrol, apples, woolly apple aphid, entomopathogenic nematodes

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6 Competencies and Training Needs for School Sport Managers in the North West Province, South Africa

Authors: Elriena Eksteen, Yolandi Willemse, Dawie D. J. Malan, Suria Ellis

Abstract:

It is important to understand which competencies are needed for managerial and administrative effectiveness of school sport managers with regard to the design, delivery and direction of school sport programmes. The purpose of this study was to determine the competencies and training needs for secondary school sport managers in the North West Province. Data were gathered from 79 school sport managers in the North West Province by means of a validated self-compiled questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and a dependent t-test were used to compare which competencies school sport managers perceive as important in their work with the competencies they actually perform. Functional competencies and core competencies were both found to be important for managing school sport effectively. There were statistically significant differences between the perceived importance of competencies and the frequency with which competencies were actually performed. Respondents attached greater importance to functional and core competencies than the proportion of time spent actually performing them. Furthermore, results indicated the need to train teachers in managing sport finance, sport facilities and human resources, as well as presenting workshops in public relations, sport marketing and sport organisation.

Keywords: Competencies, functional competencies, core competencies, school sport manager, training needs

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5 A Theoretical Framework for Design Theories in Mobile Learning: A Higher Education Perspective

Authors: Paduri Veerabhadram, Antoinette Lombard

Abstract:

In this paper a framework for hypothesizing about mobile learning to complement theories of formal and informal learning is presented. As such, activity theory will form the main theoretical lens through which the elements involved in formal and informal learning for mobile learning will be explored, specifically related to context-aware mobile learning application. The author believes that the complexity of the relationships involved can best be analysed using activity theory. Activity theory, as a social, cultural and activity theory can be used as a mobile learning framework in an academic environment, but to develop an optimal artifact, through investigation of inherent system's contradictions. As such, it serves as a powerful modelling tool to explore and understand the design of a mobile learning environment in the study’s environment. The Academic Tool Kit Framework (ATKF) as also employed for designing of a constructivism learning environment, effective in assisting universities to facilitate lecturers to effectively implement learning through utilizing mobile devices. Results indicate a positive perspective of students in the use of mobile devices for formal and informal learning, based on the context-aware learning environment developed through the use of activity theory and ATKF.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, pedagogy, Cooperative Learning, Collaborative Learning, context-aware learning environment

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4 In vitro Protein Folding and Stability Using Thermostable Exoshells

Authors: Siddharth Deshpande, Nihar Masurkar, Vallerinteavide Mavelli Girish, Malan Desai, Chester Drum

Abstract:

Folding and stabilization of recombinant proteins remain a consistent challenge for industrial and therapeutic applications. Proteins derived from thermophilic bacteria often have superior expression and stability qualities. To develop a generalizable approach to protein folding and stabilization, we tested the hypothesis that wrapping a thermostable exoshell around a protein substrate would aid folding and impart thermostable qualities to the internalized substrate. To test the effect of internalizing a protein within a thermostable exoshell (tES), we tested in vitro folding and stability using green fluorescent protein (GFPuv), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and renilla luciferase (rLuc). The 8nm interior volume of a thermostable ferritin assembly was engineered to accommodate foreign proteins and either present a positive, neutral or negative interior charge environment. We further engineered the tES complex to reversibly assemble and disassemble with pH titration. Template proteins were expressed as inclusion bodies and an in vitro folding protocol was developed that forced proteins to fold inside a single tES. Functional yield was improved 100-fold, 100-fold and 150-fold with use of tES for GFPuv, HRP and rLuc respectively and was highly dependent on the internal charge environment of the tES. After folding, functional proteins could be released from the tES folding cavity using size exclusion chromatography at pH 5.8. Internalized proteins were tested for improved stability against thermal, organic, urea and guanidine denaturation. Our results demonstrated that thermostable exoshells can efficiently refold and stabilize inactive aggregates into functional proteins.

Keywords: Stability, thermostable shell, in vitro folding, functional yield

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3 Identification of Risks Associated with Process Automation Systems

Authors: J. K. Visser, H. T. Malan

Abstract:

A need exists to identify the sources of risks associated with the process automation systems within petrochemical companies or similar energy related industries. These companies use many different process automation technologies in its value chain. A crucial part of the process automation system is the information technology component featuring in the supervisory control layer. The ever-changing technology within the process automation layers and the rate at which it advances pose a risk to safe and predictable automation system performance. The age of the automation equipment also provides challenges to the operations and maintenance managers of the plant due to obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts. The main objective of this research was to determine the risk sources associated with the equipment that is part of the process automation systems. A secondary objective was to establish whether technology managers and technicians were aware of the risks and share the same viewpoint on the importance of the risks associated with automation systems. A conceptual model for risk sources of automation systems was formulated from models and frameworks in literature. This model comprised six categories of risk which forms the basis for identifying specific risks. This model was used to develop a questionnaire that was sent to 172 instrument technicians and technology managers in the company to obtain primary data. 75 completed and useful responses were received. These responses were analyzed statistically to determine the highest risk sources and to determine whether there was difference in opinion between technology managers and technicians. The most important risks that were revealed in this study are: 1) the lack of skilled technicians, 2) integration capability of third-party system software, 3) reliability of the process automation hardware, 4) excessive costs pertaining to performing maintenance and migrations on process automation systems, and 5) requirements of having third-party communication interfacing compatibility as well as real-time communication networks.

Keywords: Information Technology, Distributed Control System, identification of risks, process automation system

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2 The Sustainability of Small-Scale Sheep Farming Systems in the Northern Cape (Hantam Karoo)

Authors: Mashford Zenda, Paul Malan

Abstract:

The major objective of the study was to assess the current sustainability of small-scale sheep farming systems in the Hantam Karoo in the Northern Cape Province, taking into account economic, social, and environmental variables (indicators) and to assess the constraints they are facing to promote the development of sheep farming in a sustainable way. A sample of 32 small-scale farmers was interviewed using structured and unstructured questionnaires in their farms. The survey was conducted on the 24 July to 28 July 2017. The results revealed that the sheep farming system is not economically viable to a larger extent, but partially sustainable on the social dimension. It has been found that under economically viable the incomes of small-scale sheep farmers are not enough to sustain their families. Furthermore, the small-scale sheep farmers indicated that they are not economically viable due to low sheep numbers on the farm. Low levels of income per month and low profits were also noticed. On the social dimension of the sheep farming system, it was found that the small-scale sheep farmers are also not struggling to market their sheep and they have good trade relations. Furthermore, it was found that the small-scale sheep farming system is benefiting their family, community and the farmers have access to basic needs. Secure tenure is a major challenge that is being faced by the small-scale farmers in the Hantam Karoo. Under the environmentally viability it was found that the veld condition is not acceptable for efficient sheep production and the stocking rates of sheep is not an issue that has to be addressed for the poor veld. The veld condition is not good maybe due to frequent drought conditions and continuous grazing. Continuous grazing on the veld is known to destroy the veld condition, therefore the farmers should aim to practice rotation grazing so that the generation to come will benefit from it. It raises a question that the small-scale sheep farmers are not managing the veld in the Hantam Karoo effectively. Sheep farming systems in the study area was male dominated. It may be a good idea to train women to practice agriculture, in order to alleviate poverty and food security. Youth appear to be uninterested in agriculture, because most of the respondents were above the age of 50 years. Our study reveals that small-scale sheep farmers in the study area have the following constraints; limited grazing land, poor veld, overgrazed veld, no secure tenure rights, predation, drought, poor infrastructure and sheep diseases. This undermines the overall performance of the sheep farming system and the themes of sustainability; social, economic and environmental. Small-scale sheep farmers in the study area select male sheep according to color of sheep 22%, temperament 41%, and performance 3%. These results indicate that the small-scale sheep farmers do not consider performance when selecting male animals. Performance is of paramount importance to have a better sheep flock. Furthermore, these results indicates that small-scale sheep farmers are not aware of breeding practices.

Keywords: Sustainability, small-scale sheep farmers, veld condition, Hantam Karoo

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1 The Sustainability of Small-Scale Sheep Farming Systems in the Northern Cape (Hantam Karoo)

Authors: Mashford Zenda, Paul Malan

Abstract:

The major objective of the study was to assess the current sustainability of small-scale sheep farming systems in the Hantam Karoo in the Northern Cape Province, taking into account economic, social, and environmental variables (indicators) and to assess the constraints they are facing to promote the development of sheep farming in a sustainable way. A sample of 32 small-scale farmers was interviewed using structured and unstructured questionnaires on their farms. The survey was conducted from 24 July to 28 July 2017. It was found that 13% of the respondents have never been to school, while only 50% of the respondents went from grade R to grade 8, while 6% matriculated, 13% tertiary, and 13% have never been to school. Their level of education is sufficient to interpret and understand the basic concepts of sustainable sheep farming practices. The results revealed that the sheep farming system is not economically viable to a larger extent, but partially sustainable on the social dimension. It has been found that under economically viable, the incomes of small-scale sheep farmers are not enough to sustain their families. Furthermore, the small-scale sheep farmers indicated that they are not economically viable due to low sheep numbers on the farm. Low levels of income per month and low profits were also noticed. On the social dimension of the sheep farming system, it was found that the small-scale sheep farmers are also not struggling to market their sheep, and they have good trade relations. Furthermore, it was found that the small-scale sheep farming system is benefiting their family, community, and the farmers have access to basic needs. Secure tenure is a major challenge that is being faced by the small-scale farmers in the Hantam Karoo. Under the environmental viability, it was found that the veld condition is not acceptable for efficient sheep production, and the stocking rates of sheep is not an issue that has to be addressed for the poor veld. The veld condition is not good maybe due to frequent drought conditions and continuous grazing. Continuous grazing on the veld is known to destroy the veld condition; therefore the farmers should aim to practice rotation grazing so that the generation to come will benefit from it. It raises a question that the small-scale sheep farmers are not managing the veld in the Hantam Karoo effectively. Sheep farming systems in the study area were male-dominated. It may be a good idea to train women to practice agriculture in order to alleviate poverty and food security. Youth appear to be uninterested in agriculture because most of the respondents were above the age of 50 years. Our study reveals that small-scale sheep farmers in the study area have the following constraints; limited grazing land, poor veld, overgrazed veld, no secure tenure rights, predation, drought, poor infrastructure, and sheep diseases. This undermines the overall performance of the sheep farming system and the themes of sustainability; social, economic, and environmental. Small-scale sheep farmers in the study area select male sheep according to the color of sheep 22%, temperament 41%, and performance 3%. These results indicate that small-scale sheep farmers do not consider performance when selecting male animals. Performance is of paramount importance to have a better sheep flock. Furthermore, these results indicate that small-scale sheep farmers are not aware of breeding practices. There is a lot of scopes for future studies to enhance the effectiveness of small-scale sheep farming in the Hantam Karoo.

Keywords: Sustainability, small-scale sheep farmers, veld condition, Hantam Karoo

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