Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4972

Search results for: thermal cycling machine

4972 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin

Abstract:

In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: oscillatory, polymerase chain reaction, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
4971 Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Crack Initiation of AA320 Alloy under Combined Thermal Cycling (CTC) and Mechanical Loading (ML) during Four Point Rotating and Bending Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Rana Atta Ur Rahman, Daniel Juhre

Abstract:

Initiation of crack during fatigue of casting alloys are noticed mainly on the basis of experimental results. Crack initiation and strength of fatigue of AA320 are summarized here. Load sequence effect is applied to notify initiation phase life. Crack initiation at notch root and fatigue life is calculated under single & two-step mechanical loading (ML) with and without combined thermal cycling (CTC). An Experimental setup is proposed to create the working temperature as per alloy applications. S-N curves are plotted, and a comparison is made between crack initiation leading to failure under different ML with & without thermal loading (TL).

Keywords: fatigue, initiation, SN curve, alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
4970 An Integrated Tailoring Method for Thermal Cycling Tests of Spacecraft Electronics

Authors: Xin-Yan Ji, Jing Wang, Chang Liu, Yan-Qiang Bi, Zhong-Xu Xu, Xi-Yuan Li

Abstract:

Thermal tests of electronic units are critically important for the reliability validation and performance demonstration of the spacecraft hard-wares. The tailoring equation in MIL-STD-1540 is based on fatigue of solder date. In the present paper, a new test condition tailoring expression is proposed to fit different thermo-mechanical fatigue and different subsystems, by introducing an integrated evaluating method for the fatigue acceleration exponent. The validate test has been accomplished and the data has been analyzed and compared with that from the MIL-STD-1540 tailoring equations. The results are encouraging and reasonable.

Keywords: thermal cycling test, thermal fatigue, tailoring equation, test condition planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
4969 Thermal Analysis of Induction Machine Stator

Authors: Andrej Kačenka, Jana Kertzscher

Abstract:

The thermal analysis is of equal importance as the electromagnetic one during the design process of electrical machines. This paper introduces a thermal modeling method for the prediction of the temperature in an induction machine stator with three-phase winding connected in a series using a lumped-parameter thermal model. The parameters of the model are calculated based on an analytical approach and experiments performed on test bench. The analytical approach study is carried out by means of numerical modeling and verified by the finite element method. For validating the numerical model, experimental results are presented and compared with the simulated ones.

Keywords: lumped thermal model, thermal analysis, numerical analysis, finite element method, induction machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
4968 Estimation of the Temperatures in an Asynchronous Machine Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Yi Huang, Clemens Guehmann

Abstract:

In order to monitor the thermal behavior of an asynchronous machine with squirrel cage rotor, a 9th-order extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is implemented to estimate the temperatures of the stator windings, the rotor cage and the stator core. The state-space equations of EKF are established based on the electrical, mechanical and the simplified thermal models of an asynchronous machine. The asynchronous machine with simplified thermal model in Dymola is compiled as DymolaBlock, a physical model in MATLAB/Simulink. The coolant air temperature, three-phase voltages and currents are exported from the physical model and are processed by EKF estimator as inputs. Compared to the temperatures exported from the physical model of the machine, three parts of temperatures can be estimated quite accurately by the EKF estimator. The online EKF estimator is independent from the machine control algorithm and can work under any speed and load condition if the stator current is nonzero current system.

Keywords: asynchronous machine, extended Kalman filter, resistance, simulation, temperature estimation, thermal model

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
4967 Thermal and Mechanical Finite Element Analysis of a Mineral Casting Machine Frame

Authors: H. Zou, B. Wang

Abstract:

Thermal distortion of the machine tool plays a critical role in its machining accuracy. This study investigates the thermal performance of a high-precision machine frame with future-oriented mineral casting components. A thermo-mechanical finite element model (FEM) was established to evaluate the thermal behavior of the frame under environmental thermal fluctuations. The validity of the presented FEM model was confirmed experimentally by a series of laser interferometer tests. Good agreement between numerical and experimental results demonstrates that the proposed model can accurately predict the thermal deformation of the frame with thermo-mechanical coupling effect. The results also show that keeping the workshop in thermally stable conditions is crucial for improving the machine accuracy of the system with large scale components. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of innovative mineral casting material applied in high-precision drilling machine and to provide a strategy for machine tool industry seeking a perfect substitute for classic frame materials such as cast iron and granite.

Keywords: thermo-mechanical model, finite element method, laser interferometer, mineral casting frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4966 Thermal Network Model for a Large Scale AC Induction Motor

Authors: Sushil Kumar, M. Dakshina Murty

Abstract:

Thermal network modelling has proven to be important tool for thermal analysis of electrical machine. This article investigates numerical thermal network model and experimental performance of a large-scale AC motor. Experimental temperatures were measured using RTD in the stator which have been compared with the numerical data. Thermal network modelling fairly predicts the temperature of various components inside the large-scale AC motor. Results of stator winding temperature is compared with experimental results which are in close agreement with accuracy of 6-10%. This method of predicting hot spots within AC motors can be readily used by the motor designers for estimating the thermal hot spots of the machine.

Keywords: AC motor, thermal network, heat transfer, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
4965 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang

Abstract:

To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

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4964 Competing Interactions, and Magnetization Dynamics in Doped Rare-Earth Manganites Nanostructural System

Authors: Wiqar Hussain Shah

Abstract:

The Structural, magnetic and transport behavior of La1-xCaxMnO3+ (x=0.48, 0.50, 0.52 and 0.55 and =0.015) compositions close to charge ordering, was studied through XRD, resistivity, DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. With time and thermal cycling (T<300 K) there is an irreversible transformation of the low-temperature phase from a partially ferromagnetic and metallic to one that is less ferromagnetic and highly resistive. For instance, an increase of resistivity can be observed by thermal cycling, where no effect is obtained for lower Ca concentration. The time changes in the magnetization are logarithmic in general and activation energies are consistent with those expected for electron transfer between Mn ions. The data suggest that oxygen non-stoichiometry results in mechanical strains in this two-phase system, leading to the development of irreversible metastable states, which relax towards the more stable charge-ordered and antiferromagnetic microdomains at the nano-meter size. This behavior is interpreted in terms of strains induced charge localization at the interface between FM/AFM domains in the antiferromagnetic matrix. Charge, orbital ordering and phase separation play a prominent role in the appearance of such properties, since they can be modified in a spectacular manner by external factor, making the different physical properties metastable. Here we describe two factors that deeply modify those properties, viz. the doping concentration and the thermal cycling. The metastable state is recovered by the high temperature annealing. We also measure the magnetic relaxation in the metastable state and also the revival of the metastable state (in a relaxed sample) due to high temperature (800 ) thermal treatment.

Keywords: Rare-earth maganites, nano-structural materials, doping effects on electrical, magnetic properties, competing interactions

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4963 Three Dimensional Analysis of Cubesat Thermal Vacuum Test

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam

Abstract:

Thermal vacuum testing target is to qualify the space system and ensure its operability under harsh space environment. The functionality of the cubesat was checked at extreme orbit conditions. Test was performed for operational and nonoperational modes. Analysis is done to simulate the cubesat thermal cycling inside thermal vacuum chamber. Comsol Multiphysics finite element is used to solve three dimensional problem for the cubesat inside TVAC. Three dimensional CAD model is done using Autodesk Inventor program. The boundary conditions were applied from the actual shroud temperature. The input heat load variation with time is considered to solve the transient three dimensional problem. Results show that the simulated temperature profiles are within an acceptable range from the real testing data.

Keywords: cubesat, thermal vacuum test, testing simulation, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
4962 PTFE Capillary-Based DNA Amplification within an Oscillatory Thermal Cycling Device

Authors: Jyh J. Chen, Fu H. Yang, Ming H. Liao

Abstract:

This study describes a capillary-based device integrated with the heating and cooling modules for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The device consists of the reaction polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary, the aluminum blocks, and is equipped with two cartridge heaters, a thermoelectric (TE) cooler, a fan, and some thermocouples for temperature control. The cartridge heaters are placed into the heating blocks and maintained at two different temperatures to achieve the denaturation and the extension step. Some thermocouples inserted into the capillary are used to obtain the transient temperature profiles of the reaction sample during thermal cycles. A 483-bp DNA template is amplified successfully in the designed system and the traditional thermal cycler. This work should be interesting to persons involved in the high-temperature based reactions and genomics or cell analysis.

Keywords: polymerase chain reaction, thermal cycles, capillary, TE cooler

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
4961 A Method to Predict the Thermo-Elastic Behavior of Laser-Integrated Machine Tools

Authors: C. Brecher, M. Fey, F. Du Bois-Reymond, S. Neus

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing has emerged into a fast-growing section within the manufacturing technologies. Established machine tool manufacturers, such as DMG MORI, recently presented machine tools combining milling and laser welding. By this, machine tools can realize a higher degree of flexibility and a shorter production time. Still there are challenges that have to be accounted for in terms of maintaining the necessary machining accuracy - especially due to thermal effects arising through the use of high power laser processing units. To study the thermal behavior of laser-integrated machine tools, it is essential to analyze and simulate the thermal behavior of machine components, individual and assembled. This information will help to design a geometrically stable machine tool under the influence of high power laser processes. This paper presents an approach to decrease the loss of machining precision due to thermal impacts. Real effects of laser machining processes are considered and thus enable an optimized design of the machine tool, respective its components, in the early design phase. Core element of this approach is a matched FEM model considering all relevant variables arising, e.g. laser power, angle of laser beam, reflective coefficients and heat transfer coefficient. Hence, a systematic approach to obtain this matched FEM model is essential. Indicating the thermal behavior of structural components as well as predicting the laser beam path, to determine the relevant beam intensity on the structural components, there are the two constituent aspects of the method. To match the model both aspects of the method have to be combined and verified empirically. In this context, an essential machine component of a five axis machine tool, the turn-swivel table, serves as the demonstration object for the verification process. Therefore, a turn-swivel table test bench as well as an experimental set-up to measure the beam propagation were developed and are described in the paper. In addition to the empirical investigation, a simulative approach of the described types of experimental examination is presented. Concluding, it is shown that the method and a good understanding of the two core aspects, the thermo-elastic machine behavior and the laser beam path, as well as their combination helps designers to minimize the loss of precision in the early stages of the design phase.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, laser beam machining, machine tool, thermal effects

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4960 An Analysis of Conditions for Efficiency Gains in Large ICEs Using Cycling

Authors: Bauer Peter, Murillo Jenny

Abstract:

This paper investigates the bounds of achievable fuel efficiency improvements in engines due to cycling between two operating points assuming a series hybrid configuration . It is shown that for linear bsfc dependencies (as a function of power), cycling is only beneficial if the average power needs are smaller than the power at the optimal bsfc value. Exact expressions for the fuel efficiency gains relative to the constant output power case are derived. This asymptotic analysis is then extended to the case where transient losses due to a change in the operating point are also considered. The case of the boundary bsfc trajectory where constant power application and cycling yield the same fuel consumption.is investigated. It is shown that the boundary bsfc locations of the second non-optimal operating points is hyperbolic. The analysis of the boundary case allows to evaluate whether for a particular engine, cycling can be beneficial. The introduced concepts are illustrated through a number of real world examples, i.e. large production Diesel engines in series hybrid configurations.

Keywords: cycling, efficiency, bsfc, series hybrid, diesel, operating point

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
4959 Comparative Analysis of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Cooled 185 KW High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Air Suspension Blower

Authors: Usman Abubakar, Xiaoyuan Wang, Sayyed Haleem Shah, Sadiq Ur Rahman, Rabiu Saleh Zakariyya

Abstract:

High-speed Permanent magnet synchronous machine (HSPMSM) uses in different industrial applications like blowers, compressors as a result of its superb performance. Nevertheless, the over-temperature rise of both winding and PM is one of their substantial problem for a high-power HSPMSM, which affects its lifespan and performance. According to the literature, HSPMSM with a Hybrid cooling configuration has a much lower temperature rise than non-hybrid cooling. This paper presents the design 185kW, 26K rpm with two different cooling configurations, i.e., hybrid cooling configuration (forced air and housing spiral water jacket) and non-hybrid (forced air cooling assisted with winding’s potting material and sleeve’s material) to enhance the heat dissipation of winding and PM respectively. Firstly, the machine’s electromagnetic design is conducted by the finite element method to accurately account for machine losses. Then machine’s cooling configurations are introduced, and their effectiveness is validated by lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN). Investigation shows that using potting, sleeve materials to assist non-hybrid cooling configuration makes the machine’s winding and PM temperature closer to hybrid cooling configuration. Therefore, the machine with non-hybrid cooling is prototyped and tested due to its simplicity, lower energy consumption and can still maintain the lifespan and performance of the HSPMSM.

Keywords: airflow network, axial ventilation, high-speed PMSM, thermal network

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
4958 Depth Estimation in DNN Using Stereo Thermal Image Pairs

Authors: Ahmet Faruk Akyuz, Hasan Sakir Bilge

Abstract:

Depth estimation using stereo images is a challenging problem in computer vision. Many different studies have been carried out to solve this problem. With advancing machine learning, tackling this problem is often done with neural network-based solutions. The images used in these studies are mostly in the visible spectrum. However, the need to use the Infrared (IR) spectrum for depth estimation has emerged because it gives better results than visible spectra in some conditions. At this point, we recommend using thermal-thermal (IR) image pairs for depth estimation. In this study, we used two well-known networks (PSMNet, FADNet) with minor modifications to demonstrate the viability of this idea.

Keywords: thermal stereo matching, deep neural networks, CNN, Depth estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
4957 Prediction-Based Midterm Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Doseong Eom, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

Large exhibition halls require a lot of energy to maintain comfortable atmosphere for the visitors viewing inside. One way of reducing the energy cost is to have thermal energy storage systems installed so that the thermal energy can be stored in the middle of night when the energy price is low and then used later when the price is high. To minimize the overall energy cost, however, we should be able to decide how much energy to save during which time period exactly. If we can foresee future energy load and the corresponding cost, we will be able to make such decisions reasonably. In this paper, we use machine learning technique to obtain models for predicting weather conditions and the number of visitors on hourly basis for the next day. Based on the energy load thus predicted, we build a cost-optimal daily operation plan for the thermal energy storage systems and cooling and heating facilities through simulation-based optimization.

Keywords: building energy management, machine learning, operation planning, simulation-based optimization

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4956 Significance of Bike-Frame Geometric Factors for Cycling Efficiency and Muscle Activation

Authors: Luen Chow Chan

Abstract:

With the advocacy of green transportation and green traveling, cycling has become increasingly popular nowadays. Physiology and bike design are key factors for the influence of cycling efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the significance of bike-frame geometric factors on cycling efficiency and muscle activation for different body sizes of non-professional Asian male cyclists. Participants who represented various body sizes, as measured by leg and back lengths, carried out cycling tests using a tailor-assembled road bike with different ergonomic design configurations including seat-height adjustments (i.e., 96%, 100%, and 104% of trochanteric height) and bike frame sizes (i.e., small and medium frames) for an assessable distance of 1 km. A specific power meter and self-developed adaptable surface electromyography (sEMG) were used to measure average pedaling power and cadence generated and muscle activation, respectively. The results showed that changing the seat height was far more significant than the body and bike frame sizes. The sEMG data evidently provided a better understanding of muscle activation as a function of different seat heights. Therefore, the interpretation of this study is that the major bike ergonomic design factor dominating the cycling efficiency of Asian participants with different body sizes was the seat height.

Keywords: bike frame sizes, cadence rate, pedaling power, seat height

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
4955 Electromechanical Reliability of ITO/Ag/ITO Multilayer Coated Pet Substrate for Optoelectronic Application

Authors: D. W. Mohammed, J. Bowen, S. N. Kukureka

Abstract:

Successful design and fabrication of flexible devices for electrode components requires a low sheet resistance, high optical transmittance, high mechanical reliability. Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is currently the predominant transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film in potential applications such as flexible organic light- emitting diodes, flat-panel displays, solar cells, and thin film transistors (TFTs). However ITO films are too brittle and their resistivity is rather high in some cases compared with ITO/Ag/ ITO, and they cannot completely meet flexible optoelectronic device requirements. Therefore, in this work the mechanical properties of ITO /Ag/ITO multilayer film that deposited on Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) compared with the single layered ITO sample were investigated using bending fatigue, twisting fatigue and thermal cycling experiments. The electrical resistance was monitored during the application of mechanical and thermal loads to see the pattern of relationship between the load and the electrical continuity as a consequent of failure. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to provide surface characterization of the mechanically-tested samples. The effective embedment of the Ag layer between upper and lower ITO films led to metallic conductivity and superior flexibility to the single ITO electrode, due to the high failure strain of the ductile Ag layer. These results indicate that flexible ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes are a promising candidate for use as transparent conductor in flexible displays. They provided significantly reduced sheet resistance compared to ITO, and improved bending and twisting properties both as a function of radius, angle and thermal cycling.

Keywords: ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, failure strain, mechanical properties, PET

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4954 Improvement of Thermal Stability in Ethylene Methyl Acrylate Composites for Gasket Application

Authors: Pemika Ketsuwan, Pitt Supaphol, Manit Nithitanakul

Abstract:

A typical used of ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) gasket is in the manufacture of optical lens, and often, they are deteriorated rapidly due to high temperature during the process. The objective of this project is to improve the thermal stability of the EMA copolymer gasket by preparing EMA with cellulose and silica composites. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) were used in preparing of EMA/cellulose composites and fumed silica (SiO2) was used in preparing EMA/silica composites with different amounts of filler (3, 5, 7, 10, 15 wt.%), using a twin screw extruder at 160 °C and the test specimens were prepared by the injection molding machine. The morphology and dispersion of fillers in the EMA matrix were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The thermal stability of the composite was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. The developed composites were found to enhance thermal and mechanical properties when compared to that of the EMA copolymer alone.

Keywords: ethylene methyl acrylate, HPMC, Silica, Thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
4953 Modeling and Analysis of a Cycling Prosthetic

Authors: John Tolentino, Yong Seok Park

Abstract:

There are currently many people living with limb loss in the USA. The main causes for amputation can range from vascular disease, to trauma, or cancer. This number is expected increase over the next decade. Many patients have a single prosthetic for the first year but end up getting a second one to accommodate their changing physique. Afterwards, the prosthesis gets replaced every three to five years depending on how often it is used. This could cost the patient up to $500,000 throughout their lifetime. Complications do not end there, however. Due to the absence of nerves, it becomes more difficult to traverse terrain with a prosthetic. Moving on an incline or decline becomes difficult, thus curbs and stairs can be a challenge. Certain physical activities, such as cycling, could be even more strenuous. It will need to be relearned to accommodate for the change in weight, center of gravity, and transfer of energy from the leg to the pedal. The purpose of this research project is to develop a new, alternate below-knee cycling prosthetic using Dieter & Schmidt’s design process approach. It will be subjected to fatigue analysis under dynamic loading to observe the limitations as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the prosthetic. Benchmark comparisons will be made between existing prosthetics and the proposed one, examining the benefits and disadvantages. The resulting prosthetic will be 3D printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC) plastic.

Keywords: 3D Printing, Cycling, Prosthetic design, Synthetic design.

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4952 Two Major Methods to Control Thermal Resistance of Focus Ring for Process Uniformity Enhance

Authors: Jin-Uk Park

Abstract:

Recently, the semiconductor industry is rapidly demanding complicated structures and mass production. From the point of view of mass production, the ETCH industry is concentrating on maintaining the ER (Etch rate) of the wafer edge constant regardless of changes over time. In this study, two major thermal factors affecting process were identified and controlled. First, the filler of the thermal pad was studied. Second, the significant difference of handling the thermal pad during PM was studied.

Keywords: etcher, thermal pad, wet cleaning, thermal conductivity

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4951 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electro-ceramics, firing

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4950 Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-rubaye

Abstract:

A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in –situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550°C).

Keywords: fecralloy, zsm-5 zeolite, zeolite coatings, hydrothermal method

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
4949 Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Intention to Commute by Bicycle: Case Study of Mexico City

Authors: Magda Cepeda, Frances Hodgson, Ann Jopson

Abstract:

There are different barriers people face when choosing to cycle for commuting purposes. This study examined the role of psycho-social factors predicting the intention to cycle to commute in Mexico City. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was developed and utilized with a simple random sample of 401 road users. We applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and after identifying five factors, a structural equation model was estimated to find the relationships among the variables. The results indicated that cycling attributes, attitudes to cycling, social comparison and social image and prestige were the most important factors influencing intention to cycle. Although the results from this study are specific to Mexico City, they indicate areas of interest to transportation planners in other regions especially in those cities where intention to cycle its linked to its perceived image and there is political ambition to instigate positive cycling cultures. Moreover, this study contributes to the current literature developing applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

Keywords: cycling, latent variable model, perception, theory of planned behaviour

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4948 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube

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4947 Occupational Heat Stress Condition According to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Textile Processing Unit: A Case Study of Surat, Gujarat, India

Authors: Dharmendra Jariwala, Robin Christian

Abstract:

Thermal exposure is a common problem in every manufacturing industry where heat is used in the manufacturing process. In developing countries like India, a lack of awareness regarding the proper work environmental condition is observed among workers. Improper planning of factory building, arrangement of machineries, ventilation system, etc. play a vital role in the rise of temperature within the manufacturing areas. Due to the uncontrolled thermal stress, workers may be subjected to various heat illnesses from mild disorder to heat stroke. Heat stress is responsible for the health risk and reduction in production. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index and relative humidity are used to evaluate heat stress conditions. WBGT index is a weighted average of natural wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, dry bulb temperature, which are measured with standard instrument QuestTemp 36 area stress monitor. In this study textile processing units have been selected in the industrial estate in the Surat city. Based on the manufacturing process six locations were identified within the plant at which process was undertaken at 120°C to 180°C. These locations were jet dying machine area, stenter machine area, printing machine, looping machine area, washing area which generate process heat. Office area was also selected for comparision purpose as a sixth location. Present Study was conducted in the winter season and summer season for day and night shift. The results shows that average WBGT index was found above Threshold Limiting Value (TLV) during summer season for day and night shift in all three industries except office area. During summer season highest WBGT index of 32.8°C was found during day shift and 31.5°C was found during night shift at printing machine area. Also during winter season highest WBGT index of 30°C and 29.5°C was found at printing machine area during day shift and night shift respectively.

Keywords: relative humidity, textile industry, thermal stress, WBGT

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4946 Environment Saving and Efficiency of Diesel Heat-Insulated Combustion Chamber Using Semitransparent Ceramic Coatings

Authors: Victoria Yu. Garnova, Vladimir G. Merzlikin, Sergey V. Khudyakov, Valeriy A. Tovstonog, Svyatoslav V. Cheranev

Abstract:

Long-term scientific forecasts confirm that diesel engines still will be the basis of the transport and stationary power in the near future. This is explained by their high efficiency and profitability compared to other types of heat engines. In the automotive industry carried basic researches are aimed at creating a new generation of diesel engines with reduced exhaust emissions (with stable performance) determining the minimum impact on the environment. The application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and especially their modifications based on semitransparent ceramic materials allows solving this problem. For such researches, the preliminary stage of testing of physical characteristics materials and coatings especially with semitransparent properties the authors proposed experimental operating innovative radiative-and-convective cycling simulator. This setup contains original radiation sources (imitator) with tunable spectrum for modeling integral flux up to several MW/m2.

Keywords: environment saving, radiative and convective cycling simulator, semitransparent ceramic coatings, imitator radiant energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4945 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou

Abstract:

Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties

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4944 A Literature Review of the Trend towards Indoor Dynamic Thermal Comfort

Authors: James Katungyi

Abstract:

The Steady State thermal comfort model which dominates thermal comfort practice and which posits the ideal thermal conditions in a narrow range of thermal conditions does not deliver the expected comfort levels among occupants. Furthermore, the buildings where this model is applied consume a lot of energy in conditioning. This paper reviews significant literature about thermal comfort in dynamic indoor conditions including the adaptive thermal comfort model and alliesthesia. A major finding of the paper is that the adaptive thermal comfort model is part of a trend from static to dynamic indoor environments in aspects such as lighting, views, sounds and ventilation. Alliesthesia or thermal delight is consistent with this trend towards dynamic thermal conditions. It is within this trend that the two fold goal of increased thermal comfort and reduced energy consumption lies. At the heart of this trend is a rediscovery of the link between the natural environment and human well-being, a link that was partially severed by over-reliance on mechanically dominated artificial indoor environments. The paper concludes by advocating thermal conditioning solutions that integrate mechanical with natural thermal conditioning in a balanced manner in order to meet occupant thermal needs without endangering the environment.

Keywords: adaptive thermal comfort, alliesthesia, energy, natural environment

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4943 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: characteristics curve, photovoltaic, thermal modelling, thermal efficiency

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