Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: antecedent

54 Antecedent and Outcome of New Product Development in Leather Industry, Bangkok and Vicinity, Thailand

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund

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The purposes of this research were to develop and to monitor the antecedent factors which directly affected the success rate of new product development. This was a case study of the leather industry in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 350 leather factories were used as a sample group. The findings revealed that the new product development model was harmonized with the empirical data at the acceptable level, the statistic values are: x^2=6.45, df= 7, p-value = .48856; RMSEA = .000; RMR = .0029; AGFI = .98; GFI = 1.00. The independent variable that directly influenced the dependent variable at the highest level was marketing outcome which had a influence coefficient at 0.32 and the independent variables that indirectly influenced the dependent variables at the highest level was a clear organization policy which had a influence coefficient at 0.17, whereas, all independent variables can predict the model at 48 percent.

Keywords: antecedent, new product development, leather industry, Thailand

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53 Competition between Verb-Based Implicit Causality and Theme Structure's Influence on Anaphora Bias in Mandarin Chinese Sentences: Evidence from Corpus

Authors: Linnan Zhang

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Linguists, as well as psychologists, have shown great interests in implicit causality in reference processing. However, most frequently-used approaches to this issue are psychological experiments (such as eye tracking or self-paced reading, etc.). This research is a corpus-based one and is assisted with statistical tool – software R. The main focus of the present study is about the competition between verb-based implicit causality and theme structure’s influence on anaphora bias in Mandarin Chinese sentences. In Accessibility Theory, it is believed that salience, which is also known as accessibility, and relevance are two important factors in reference processing. Theme structure, which is a special syntactic structure in Chinese, determines the salience of an antecedent on the syntactic level while verb-based implicit causality is a key factor to the relevance between antecedent and anaphora. Therefore, it is a study about anaphora, combining psychology with linguistics. With analysis of the sentences from corpus as well as the statistical analysis of Multinomial Logistic Regression, major findings of the present study are as follows: 1. When the sentence is stated in a ‘cause-effect’ structure, the theme structure will always be the antecedent no matter forward biased verbs or backward biased verbs co-occur; in non-theme structure, the anaphora bias will tend to be the opposite of the verb bias; 2. When the sentence is stated in a ‘effect-cause’ structure, theme structure will not always be the antecedent and the influence of verb-based implicit causality will outweigh that of theme structure; moreover, the anaphora bias will be the same with the bias of verbs. All the results indicate that implicit causality functions conditionally and the noun in theme structure will not be the high-salience antecedent under any circumstances.

Keywords: accessibility theory, anaphora, theme strcture, verb-based implicit causality

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52 On an Approach for Rule Generation in Association Rule Mining

Authors: B. Chandra

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In Association Rule Mining, much attention has been paid for developing algorithms for large (frequent/closed/maximal) itemsets but very little attention has been paid to improve the performance of rule generation algorithms. Rule generation is an important part of Association Rule Mining. In this paper, a novel approach named NARG (Association Rule using Antecedent Support) has been proposed for rule generation that uses memory resident data structure named FCET (Frequent Closed Enumeration Tree) to find frequent/closed itemsets. In addition, the computational speed of NARG is enhanced by giving importance to the rules that have lower antecedent support. Comparative performance evaluation of NARG with fast association rule mining algorithm for rule generation has been done on synthetic datasets and real life datasets (taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository). Performance analysis shows that NARG is computationally faster in comparison to the existing algorithms for rule generation.

Keywords: knowledge discovery, association rule mining, antecedent support, rule generation

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51 Empirical Evaluation of Game Components Based on Learning Theory: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Seoi Lee, Dongjoo Chin, Heewon Kim

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Gamification refers to a technique that applies game elements to non-gaming elements, such as education and exercise, to make people more engaged in these behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify effective elements in gamification for changing human behaviors. In order to accomplish this purpose, a survey based on learning theory was developed, especially for assessing antecedents and consequences of behaviors, and 8 popular and 8 unpopular games were selected for comparison. A total of 407 adult males and females were recruited via crowdsourcing Internet marketplace and completed the survey, which consisted of 19 questions for antecedent and 14 questions for consequences. Results showed no significant differences in consequence questions between popular and unpopular games. For antecedent questions, popular games are superior to unpopular games in character customization, play type selection, a sense of belonging, patch update cycle, and influence or dominance. This study is significant in that it reveals the elements of gamification based on learning theory. Future studies need to empirically validate whether these factors affect behavioral change.

Keywords: gamification, learning theory, antecedent, consequence, behavior change, behaviorism

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50 The Antecedent Variables of Government Financial Accounting System (SAKD) Implementation and Its Consequences: Empirical Study on the Device of Regional Coordinating Agency for Development of Cross County, City Region III Central Java Province, Indo

Authors: Dona Primasari

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This study examines the antecedent variables of Government Financial Acccounting System (SAKD) implementation and its consequence. The antecedent variables are: decentralization of decision making, adaptation, and the manager support. The consequences are satisfaction and performance officer. This research represents the empirical test which used convenience sampling technics in data collection. The data were collected from 167 officers of local government in the Regional Coordinating Agency for Development of Cross County/City Region III Central Java Province. Data analysis used Structural Equation Model (SEM) with the AMOS 18.0 program. The result of hypothesis examination indicates that six raised hypothesis are accepted and two hypothesis are rejected.

Keywords: decentralization of decision making, adaptation officer, manager support, implementation of Government Accounting Financial System (SAKD), satisfaction and performance officer

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49 A Rare Case of Atypical Guillian-Barre Syndrome Following Antecedent Dengue Infection

Authors: Amlan Datta

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Dengue is an arboviral, vector borne infection, quite prevalent in tropical countries such as India. Approximately, 1 to 25% of cases may give rise to neurological complication, such as, seizure, delirium, Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS), multiple cranial nerve palsies, intracranial thrombosis, stroke-like presentations, to name a few. Dengue fever, as an antecedent to GBS is uncommon, especially in adults.Here, we report a case about a middle aged lady who presented with an acute onset areflexic ascending type of polyradiculoneuropathy along with bilateral lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy, as well as abducens and motor component of trigeminal (V3) weakness. Her respiratory and neck muscles were spared. She had an established episode of dengue fever (NS1 and dengue IgM positive) 7 days prior to the weakness. Nerve conduction study revealed a demyelinating polyradiculopathy of both lower limbs and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed albuminocytological dissociation. She was treated with 5 days of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), following which her limb weakness improved considerably. This case highlights GBS as a potential complication following dengue fever.

Keywords: areflexic, demyelinating, dengue, polyradiculoneuropathy

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48 Antecedents to Leaders’ Empowering Behavior: A Study of Team Leaders and Their Subordinates

Authors: Manjari Srivastsva, Ruta Vyas

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The research in the area of self leadership advocates employee/team empowerment. It is well understood that empowered employees would contribute more and better to their organizational outcomes. This research is a part of an ongoing larger research in the area of empowering leadership behavior. The present research aims to understand some of the antecedents to empowering behavior of leaders such that the organizations can focus on the right elements and invest in the appropriate areas during their leadership development activities. The research is exploratory field study. Sampling is purposive, employing triadic design i.e. a manager and two of his/her subordinates are selected for data collection. The total no. of respondents is 240, with 80 managers and 160 of their direct reports. Initially focus group interview was done and based on the inputs from focus group, quantitative data was collected personally by the researchers using questionnaire. The sample is drawn from seven professionally run organization including those of Indian origin as well as multi-national companies. This study proposes to explore the constituents of empowering behavior both from leaders’ and their subordinates’ perspective and also see the relationship between some of the personal variables of leaders as an antecedent to empowering behavior. Similarly, the study aims to explore the subordinates’ perspectives as an antecedent to empowering behavior. The relationship between antecedent variables and empowering behavior is tested for moderation employing organization culture. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was done to establish the validity of the questionnaires. Further hierarchical regression analysis results revealed that organization based self-esteem and global self-esteem impact leaders’ empowering behavior and this relationship is further moderated by organization culture. Team members’ perspective showed higher importance for task characteristics and members' readiness from the point of view of empowerment. The relation between task characteristics and members’ readiness was not moderated by culture. The finding from this research may be utilized by professionals to guide organizations desiring rapid and sustainable growth, to develop leaders who empower their teams such that they act as leaders themselves and become stimulants for the growth of organizations.

Keywords: empowering behavior, team leaders, subordinates, self-esteem, organization culture, task characteristics, team members readiness

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47 Study of Storms on the Javits Center Green Roof

Authors: Alexander Cho, Harsho Sanyal, Joseph Cataldo

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A quantitative analysis of the different variables on both the South and North green roofs of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was taken to find mathematical relationships between net radiation and evapotranspiration (ET), average outside temperature, and the lysimeter weight. Groups of datasets were analyzed, and the relationships were plotted on linear and semi-log graphs to find consistent relationships. Antecedent conditions for each rainstorm were also recorded and plotted against the volumetric water difference within the lysimeter. The first relation was the inverse parabolic relationship between the lysimeter weight and the net radiation and ET. The peaks and valleys of the lysimeter weight corresponded to valleys and peaks in the net radiation and ET respectively, with the 8/22/15 and 1/22/16 datasets showing this trend. The U-shaped and inverse U-shaped plots of the two variables coincided, indicating an inverse relationship between the two variables. Cross variable relationships were examined through graphs with lysimeter weight as the dependent variable on the y-axis. 10 out of 16 of the plots of lysimeter weight vs. outside temperature plots had R² values > 0.9. Antecedent conditions were also recorded for rainstorms, categorized by the amount of precipitation accumulating during the storm. Plotted against the change in the volumetric water weight difference within the lysimeter, a logarithmic regression was found with large R² values. The datasets were compared using the Mann Whitney U-test to see if the datasets were statistically different, using a significance level of 5%; all datasets compared showed a U test statistic value, proving the null hypothesis of the datasets being different from being true.

Keywords: green roof, green infrastructure, Javits Center, evapotranspiration, net radiation, lysimeter

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46 Financing Innovation: Differences across National Innovation Systems

Authors: Núria Arimany Serrat, Xavier Ferràs Hernández, Petra A. Nylund, Eric Viardot

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Innovation is an increasingly important antecedent to firm competitiveness and growth. Successful innovation, however, requires a significant financial commitment and the means of financing accessible to the firm may affect its ability to innovate. The access to equity financing such as venture capital has been connected to innovativeness for young firms. For established enterprises, debt financing of innovation may be a more realistic option. Continuous innovation and growth would otherwise require a constant increase of equity. We, therefore, investigate the relation between debt financing and innovation for large firms and hypothesize that those firms that carry more debt will be more innovative. The need for debt financing of innovation may be reduced for very profitable firms, which can finance innovation with cash flow. We thus hypothesize a moderating effect of profitability on the relationship between debt financing and innovation. We carry out an empirical investigation using a longitudinal data set including 167 large European firms over five years, resulting in 835 firm years. We apply generalized least squares (GLS) regression with fixed firm effects to control for firm heterogeneity. The findings support our hypotheses and we conclude that access to debt finding is an important antecedent of innovation, with profitability as a moderating factor. The results do however differ across national innovation systems and we find a strong relationship for British, Dutch, French, and Italian firms but not for German and Spanish entities. We discuss differences in the national systems of innovation and financing which contextualize the variations in the findings and thus make a nuanced contribution to the research in innovation financing. The cross-country differences calls for differentiated advice to managers, institutions, and researchers depending on the national context.

Keywords: innovation, R&D, national innovation systems, financing

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45 Motivations, Communication Dimensions, and Perceived Outcomes in the Multi-Sectoral Collaboration of the Visitor Management Program of Mount Makiling Forest Reserve in Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines

Authors: Charmaine B. Distor

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Collaboration has long been recognized in different fields, but there’s been little research on operationalizing it especially on a multi-sectoral setting as per the author’s best knowledge. Also, communication is one of the factors that is usually overlooked when studying it. Specifically, this study aimed to describe the organizational profile and tasks of collaborators in the visitor management program of Make It Makiling (MIM). It also identified the factors that motivated collaborators to collaborate in MIM while determining the communication dimensions in the collaborative process. It also determined the communication channels used by collaborators in MIM while identifying the outcomes of collaboration in MIM. This study also found out if a relationship exists between collaborators’ motivations for collaboration and their perceived outcomes of collaboration, and collaborators' communication dimensions and their perceived outcomes of collaboration. Lastly, it also provided recommendations to improve the communication in MIM. Data were gathered using a self-administered survey that was patterned after Mattessich and Monsey’s (1992) collaboration experience questionnaire. Interviews and secondary sources mainly provided by the Makiling Center for Mountain Ecosystems (MCME) were also used. From the seven MIM collaborating organizations that were selected through purposive sampling, 86 respondents were chosen. Then, data were analyzed through frequency counts, percentages, measures of central tendencies, and Pearson’s and Spearman rho correlations. Collaborators’ length of collaboration ranged from seven to twenty years. Furthermore, six out of seven of the collaborators were involved in the task of 'emergency, rescue, and communication'. For the other aspect of the antecedents, the history of previous collaboration efforts ranked as the highest rated motivation for collaboration. In line with this, the top communication dimension is the governance while perceived effectiveness garnered the highest overall average among the perceived outcomes of collaboration. Results also showed that the collaborators highly rely on formal communication channels. Meetings and memos were the most commonly used communication channels throughout all tasks under the four phases of MIM. Additionally, although collaborators have a high view towards their co-collaborators, they still rely on MCME to act as their manager in coordinating with one another indirectly. Based on the correlation analysis, antecedent (motivations)-outcome relationship generally had positive relationships. However, for the process (communication dimensions)-outcome relationship, both positive and negative relationships were observed. In conclusion, this study exhibited the same trend with existing literature which also used the same framework. For the antecedent-outcome relationship, it can be deduced that MCME, as the main organizer of MIM, can focus on these variables to achieve their desired outcomes because of the positive relationships. For the process-outcome relationship, MCME should also take note that there were negative relationships where an increase in the said communication dimension may result in a decrease in the desired outcome. Recommendations for further study include a methodology that contains: complete enumeration or any parametric sampling, a researcher-administered survey, and direct observations. These might require additional funding, but all may yield to richer data.

Keywords: antecedent-outcome relationship, carrying capacity, organizational communication, process-outcome relationship

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44 Acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint in L2 Turkish by Adult Korean Speakers

Authors: Oktay Cinar

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The aim of this study is to investigate the acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint (OPC) by adult Korean L2 Turkish speakers in order to find out how constraints regulating the syntax of null and overt subjects are acquired. OPC is claimed to be a universal feature of all null subject languages restricting the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun and quantified or wh-question antecedents. However, there is no such restriction when the embedded subject is null or the antecedent is a referential subject. Considered as a principle of Universal Grammar (UG), OPC knowledge of L2 speakers has been widely tested with different language pairs. In the light of previous studies on OPC, it can be argued that L2 learners display early sensitivity to OPC constraints during their interlanguage grammar development. Concerning this, the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun o (third person pronoun) and referential matrix subject is claimed to be controversial in Turkish, which poses problems with the universality of OPC. However, the current study argues against this claim by providing evidence from advanced Korean speakers that OPC is universal to all null subject languages and OPC knowledge can be accessed with direct access to UG. In other words, the performances of adult Korean speakers on the syntax of null and overt subjects are tested to support this claim. In order to test this, OPC task is used. 15 advanced speakers and a control group of adult native Turkish participants are instructed to determine the co-reference relationship between the subject of embedded clause, either overt pronominal o or null, and the subject of the matrix clause, either quantified pronoun and wh-question or referential antecedent. They are asked to select the interpretation of the embedded subject, either as the same person as in the matrix subject or another person who is not the same person in the matrix subject. These relations are represented with four conditions, and each condition has four questions (16 questions in total). The results claim that both control group and Korean L2 Turkish speakers display sensitivity to all constraints that OPC has, which suggests that OPC works in Turkish as well.

Keywords: adult Korean speakers, binding theory, generative second language acquisition, overt pronoun constraint

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43 Antecedent of Loyalty: A Case of Inbound Tourists in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Natnicha Hasoontree

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This purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of loyalty of inbound tourists towards tourist destinations in Bangkok, Thailand. The antecedents of loyalty in this study included tourists’ satisfaction towards tourist destinations, perceived value of tourist destinations, feelings of engagement with tourist destinations, acquaintance with tourist destinations, and seeking novelty. By using multi-stage sampling technique, 400 tourists were sampled: 200 male and 200 female inbound tourists. The findings revealed that inbound tourists’ satisfaction was the most important factor that could influence the factor of loyalty. The findings indicated that the overall antecedents had a mean of 4.416 with the overall standard deviation of 0.808.

Keywords: antecedents, loyalty, inbound tourists, tourist destinations

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42 A Conceptual Framework of the Individual and Organizational Antecedents to Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Muhammad Abdul Basit Memon

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The importance of organizational knowledge sharing and knowledge management has been documented in numerous research studies in available literature, since knowledge sharing has been recognized as a founding pillar for superior organizational performance and a source of gaining competitive advantage. Built on this, most of the successful organizations perceive knowledge management and knowledge sharing as a concern of high strategic importance and spend huge amounts on the effective management and sharing of organizational knowledge. However, despite some very serious endeavors, many firms fail to capitalize on the benefits of knowledge sharing because of being unaware of the individual characteristics, interpersonal, organizational and contextual factors that influence knowledge sharing; simply the antecedent to knowledge sharing. The extant literature on antecedents to knowledge sharing, offers a range of antecedents mentioned in a number of research articles and research studies. Some of the previous studies about antecedents to knowledge sharing, studied antecedents to knowledge sharing regarding inter-organizational knowledge transfer; others focused on inter and intra organizational knowledge sharing and still others investigated organizational factors. Some of the organizational antecedents to KS can relate to the characteristics and underlying aspects of knowledge being shared e.g., specificity and complexity of the underlying knowledge to be transferred; others relate to specific organizational characteristics e.g., age and size of the organization, decentralization and absorptive capacity of the firm and still others relate to the social relations and networks of organizations such as social ties, trusting relationships, and value systems. In the same way some researchers have highlighted on only one aspect like organizational commitment, transformational leadership, knowledge-centred culture, learning and performance orientation and social network-based relationships in the organizations. A bulk of the existing research articles on antecedents to knowledge sharing has mainly discussed organizational or environmental factors affecting knowledge sharing. However, the focus, later on, shifted towards the analysis of individuals or personal determinants as antecedents for the individual’s engagement in knowledge sharing activities, like personality traits, attitude and self efficacy etc. For example, employees’ goal orientations (i.e. learning orientation or performance orientation is an important individual antecedent of knowledge sharing behaviour. While being consistent with the existing literature therefore, the antecedents to knowledge sharing can be classified as being individual and organizational. This paper is an endeavor to discuss a conceptual framework of the individual and organizational antecedents to knowledge sharing in the light of the available literature and empirical evidence. This model not only can help in getting familiarity and comprehension on the subject matter by presenting a holistic view of the antecedents to knowledge sharing as discussed in the literature, but can also help the business managers and especially human resource managers to find insights about the salient features of organizational knowledge sharing. Moreover, this paper can help provide a ground for research students and academicians to conduct both qualitative as well and quantitative research and design an instrument for conducting survey on the topic of individual and organizational antecedents to knowledge sharing.

Keywords: antecedents to knowledge sharing, knowledge management, individual and organizational, organizational knowledge sharing

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41 The Antecedent Factor Affecting the Entrepreneurs’ Decision Making for Using Accounting Office Service in Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Nawaporn Thongnut

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The objective was to study the process and how to prepare the accounting of the Thai temples and to study the performance and quality in the accounting preparation of the temples in accordance with the regulation. The population was the accountants and individuals involved in the accounting preparation of 17 temples in the suburban Bangkok. The measurement used in this study was questionnaire. The statistics used in the analysis are the descriptive statistic. The data was presented in the form of percentage tables to describe the data on the demographic characteristics. The study found that temple wardens were responsible for the accounting and reporting of the temples. Abbots were to check the accuracy of the accounts in the monasteries. Mostly, there was no account auditing of the monasteries from the outside. The practice when receiving income for most of the monasteries had been keeping financial document in an orderly manner.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, creating shared value, management accountant’s roles, stock exchange of Thailand

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40 Associations between Game Users and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Esteem, Self- Efficacy and Social Capital

Authors: Hye Rim Lee, Eui Jun Jeong, Ji Hye Yoo

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This study makes an integrated investigation on how life satisfaction is associated with the Korean game users' psychological variables (self-esteem, game and life self- efficacy), social variables (bonding and bridging social capital), and demographic variables (age, gender). The data used for the empirical analysis came from a representative sample survey conducted in South Korea. Results show that self-esteem and game efficacy were an important antecedent to the degree of users’ life satisfaction. Both bonding social capital and bridging social capital enhance the level of the users’ life satisfaction. The importance of perspectives as well as their implications for the game users and further associated research, are explored.

Keywords: life satisfaction, self-esteem, game efficacy, life-efficacy, social capital

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39 The Influence of Emotional Intelligence Skills on Innovative Start-Ups Coaching: A Neuro-Management Approach

Authors: Alina Parincu, Giuseppe Empoli, Alexandru Capatina

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The purpose of this paper is to identify the most influential predictors of emotional intelligence skills, in the case of 20 business innovation coaches, on the co-creation of knowledge through coaching services delivered to innovative start-ups from Europe, funded through Horizon 2020 – SME Instrument. We considered the emotional intelligence skills (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills) as antecedent conditions of the outcome: the quality of coaching services, perceived by the entrepreneurs who received funding within SME instrument, using fuzzy-sets qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach. The findings reveal that emotional intelligence skills, trained with neuro-management techniques, were associated with increased goal-focused business coaching skills.

Keywords: neuro-management, innovative start-ups, business coaching, fsQCA

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38 Antecedents and Loyalty of Foreign Tourists towards Attractions in Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand

Authors: Arunroong Wongkungwan

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This study aimed to investigate the influence of selected antecedents, which were tourists’ satisfaction towards attractions in Bangkok, perceived value of the attractions, feelings of engagement with the attractions, acquaintance with the attractions, push factors, pull factors and motivation to seek novelty, on foreign tourist’s loyalty towards tourist attractions in Bangkok. By using multi stage sampling technique, 400 international tourists were sampled. After that, Semi Structural Equation Model was utilized in the analysis stage by LISREL. The Semi Structural Equation Model of the selected antecedents of tourist’s loyalty attractions had a correlation with the empirical data through the following statistical descriptions: Chi- square = 3.43, df = 4, P- value = 0.48893; RMSEA = 0.000; CFI = 1.00; CN = 1539.75; RMR = 0.0022; GFI = 1.00 and AGFI = 0.98. The findings indicated that all antecedents were able together to predict the loyalty of the foreign tourists who visited Bangkok at 73 percent.

Keywords: antecedent, Bangkok, foreign tourists, loyalty, tourist attractions

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37 An Empirical Examination on the Relationships between Organizational Justice, Affective Commitment and Absenteeism

Authors: Emine Öğüt, Mehtap Öztürk, Adem Öğüt

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Affective commitment is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values. Organizational justice is an antecedent of the organizational commitment and it has the potential to create powerful benefits for organizations and employees alike. When perceived unfairness among employees increases, affective commitment decreases and absenteeism increases accordingly. In this research, relationships between organizational justice perception, affective commitment and absenteeism is analysed. In this regard, a field study has been conducted over the physicians working in the hospitals of the Health Ministry and University Hospitals in the province of Konya. The partial least squares (PLS) method is used to analyse the survey data. The findings of the research shows that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between organizational justice perception and affective commitment while there is a negative statistically significant relationship between organizational justice and absenteeism.

Keywords: organizational justice, affective commitment, absenteeism, healthcare management

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36 A Review on Pathological Gaming among Adolescents

Authors: Anjali Malik

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This paper presents a review of the literature on behavioral addictions with a particular focus on understanding online gaming habits among adolescents. Extant researches yielded many different sets of antecedent factors for developing pathological online gaming behavior. This paper draws findings from the most-cited publications most closely associated with factors explaining why individuals develop such kind of problematic behavior. What emerges as central to understanding this phenomenon is the presence of multiple variable causes that take into account the individual, the environment and their interaction to explain the risk behavior such as pathological online gaming. In addition to that role of some mediating factors and pull factors has also been discussed, along with the consequences on personal, social and academic performance resulting from such kind of addictive behavior. The paper also makes recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the phenomena studied here by examining the relative contribution of these multiple-risk contexts.

Keywords: pathological gaming, gaming addiction, adolescents, behavior

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35 Comparison of ANFIS Update Methods Using Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Artificial Bee Colony

Authors: Michael R. Phangtriastu, Herriyandi Herriyandi, Diaz D. Santika

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This paper presents a comparison of the implementation of metaheuristic algorithms to train the antecedent parameters and consequence parameters in the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The algorithms compared are genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial bee colony (ABC). The objective of this paper is to benchmark well-known metaheuristic algorithms. The algorithms are applied to several data set with different nature. The combinations of the algorithms' parameters are tested. In all algorithms, a different number of populations are tested. In PSO, combinations of velocity are tested. In ABC, a different number of limit abandonment are tested. Experiments find out that ABC is more reliable than other algorithms, ABC manages to get better mean square error (MSE) than other algorithms in all data set.

Keywords: ANFIS, artificial bee colony, genetic algorithm, metaheuristic algorithm, particle swarm optimization

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34 The Influence of Leader’s Sources of Power on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohamed Yunus, Noorlaila Yunus, Kadulliah Ghazali

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In this an era of intense competition, Malaysia aspires to be a fully developed country by 2020 and desires its citizens to perform and execute excellent work behaviors. For that reason, organizations are focusing on employees’ positive and constructive behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). They expect employees to not only complete their required duties by providing excellent performance but also keenly go beyond their roles that are not specifying in their formal job descriptions to ensure organizational success. The role and duty to acquire employees to engage and connect in OCB is the responsibility of a leader. Thus, leaders can utilize their sources of power to enable subordinates to accomplish organizational objective including OCB. Therefore, this paper formulates a framework postulating leader’s sources of power as an antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The discussion on implications for future theory development is discussed.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), leader’s sources of power, call centre industry, conceptual paper

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33 Proactive WPA/WPA2 Security Using DD-WRT Firmware

Authors: Mustafa Kamoona, Mohamed El-Sharkawy

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Although the latest Wireless Local Area Network technology Wi-Fi 802.11i standard addresses many of the security weaknesses of the antecedent Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol, there are still scenarios where the network security are still vulnerable. The first security model that 802.11i offers is the Personal model which is very cheap and simple to install and maintain, yet it uses a Pre Shared Key (PSK) and thus has a low to medium security level. The second model that 802.11i provide is the Enterprise model which is highly secured but much more expensive and difficult to install/maintain and requires the installation and maintenance of an authentication server that will handle the authentication and key management for the wireless network. A central issue with the personal model is that the PSK needs to be shared with all the devices that are connected to the specific Wi-Fi network. This pre-shared key, unless changed regularly, can be cracked using offline dictionary attacks within a matter of hours. The key is burdensome to change in all the connected devices manually unless there is some kind of algorithm that coordinate this PSK update. The key idea of this paper is to propose a new algorithm that proactively and effectively coordinates the pre-shared key generation, management, and distribution in the cheap WPA/WPA2 personal security model using only a DD-WRT router.

Keywords: Wi-Fi, WPS, TLS, DD-WRT

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32 The Antecedent Factor Affecting Manpower’s Working Performance of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Suvimon Wajeetongratana, Sittichai Thammasane

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This research objective was to study the development training that affecting the work performance of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University manpower. The sample of 200 manpower was used to collect data for the survey. The statistics for data analysis were frequency percentage, mean value, standard deviation and hypothesis testing using independent samples (t-test). The study indicated that the development training has the most affect to employees in the high level and the second was coaching by the senior follow by the orientation in case of changing jobs task or changing positions. Interms of manpower work performance have three performance areas are quality of the job is better than the original. Moreover the results of hypothesis testing found that the difference personal information including gender, age, education, income per month have difference effectiveness of attitudes and also found the develop training is correlated with the performance of employees in the same direction.

Keywords: development training, employees job satisfaction, work performance, Sunandha Rajabhat University

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31 Emotion Dysregulation as Mediator between Child Abuse and Opiate Use Motives

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

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Coping motives are considered to be indicators of problematic substance use. The present investigation examined a model with emotional abuse as an antecedent and emotional dysregulation as a mediator leading to substance use. The intent of this study was to examine the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and motives for substance use. The sample consisted of 72 male opiate users recruited from those enrolled for Methadone Maintenance treatment. Participants responded to measures of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and motives for opiate use. All data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and bootstrap analysis of mediation. Results supported the hypothesis that the experience of emotional abuse in childhood is associated with problems in regulating emotions which in turn correlates with opiate use as a way to cope with negative affect, to enhance positive effect or to obtain social rewards. Bootstrap analysis confirmed the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Findings support the potential utility of further research into emotion dysregulation and motives as antecedents of problematic opiate use.

Keywords: childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, motives, substance use

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30 Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguity Resolution in L2: the Role of Semantics

Authors: Hamideh Marefat, Eskandar Samadi

Abstract:

This study examined the effect of semantics on processing ambiguous sentences containing Relative Clauses (RCs) preceded by a complex Determiner Phrase (DP) by Persian-speaking learners of L2 English with different proficiency and Working Memory Capacities (WMCs). The semantic relationship studied was one between the subject of the main clause and one of the DPs in the complex DP to see if, as predicted by Spreading Activation Model, priming one of the DPs through this semantic manipulation affects the L2ers’ preference. The results of a task using Rapid Serial Visual Processing (time-controlled paradigm) showed that manipulation of the relationship between the subject of the main clause and one of the DPs in the complex DP preceding RC has no effect on the choice of the antecedent; rather, the L2ers' processing is guided by the phrase structure information. Moreover, while proficiency did not have any effect on the participants’ preferences, WMC brought about a difference in their preferences, with a DP1 preference by those with a low WMC. This finding supports the chunking hypothesis and the predicate proximity principle, which is the strategy also used by monolingual Persian speakers.

Keywords: semantics, relative clause processing, ambiguity resolution, proficiency, working memory capacity

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29 Pollutant Loads of Urban Runoff from a Mixed Residential-Commercial Catchment

Authors: Carrie Ho, Tan Yee Yong

Abstract:

Urban runoff quality for a mixed residential-commercial land use catchment in Miri, Sarawak was investigated for three storm events in 2011. Samples from the three storm events were tested for five water quality parameters, Namely, TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb. Concentration of the pollutants were found to vary significantly between storms, but were generally influenced by the length of antecedent dry period and the strength of rainfall intensities. Runoff from the study site showed a significant level of pollution for all the parameters investigated. Based on the National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQS), stormwater quality from the study site was polluted and exceeded class III water for TSS and BOD5 with maximum EMCs of 177 and 24 mg/L, respectively. Design pollutant load based on a design storm of 3-month average recurrence interval (ARI) for TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb were estimated to be 40, 9.4, 5.4, 1.7, and 0.06 kg/ha, respectively. The design pollutant load for the pollutants can be used to estimate loadings from similar catchments within Miri City.

Keywords: mixed land-use, urban runoff, pollutant load, national water quality

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28 The Mediating Impact of Entrepreneurial Alertness on Relationship between Entrepreneurial Education and Intentions

Authors: Altaf Hussain, Norashidah Hashim

Abstract:

An important aspect needed for promoting entrepreneurship is to encourage individuals for becoming entrepreneurs by endowing them with the required skills and knowledge for identifying the opportunities and turning these opportunities into successful ventures. Literature has recognized entrepreneurship education has significant role in motivating individual’s intention to become an entrepreneurs. Developing upon the insights based on dynamic view of human capital theory, this conceptual paper explores the role of entrepreneurial alertness in a linkage between entrepreneurial education and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Prior knowledge which can be acquired through entrepreneurship education and or experience is an antecedent for developing specific human capital of alertness for identifying the opportunities which impact on individual intentions. This suggests cause & effect relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions through entrepreneurial alertness by impacting on the attitude, social norms and perceived behavioral control of an individual which can motivate individual intention of becoming an entrepreneur. Thus, alertness skill acquired through entrepreneurship education for identifying the profitable opportunities mediates the relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, alertness, intentions, human capital

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27 Teacher Education: Exploring the Challenges of the Teaching Profession in Nigeria for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Ugabi John Ibak, Odey Boniface Ugbem

Abstract:

Education is considered the bedrock of any meaningful developments and teacher education plays a critical role in this direction. Teacher education is the master keys that can alleviate poverty, promote peace, conserve the environment, improve the quality of life for all and help achieve all round sustain enable development in Nigeria and the world over. This paper X-rays the nature and character of the teaching profession, historical background to teacher education in Nigeria, national policy on education, problems of teacher education in Nigeria and prospects of teacher education for sustainable national development. The study shows that the misfortunes of the teacher education owes much to it historical antecedent. Also majorly, is the failure of government to adequately fund education at the various levels in the country. It was discovered that in the history of the nation no government has budgeted 13% of its annual budget (half of 26% UNESCO minimum) to education. This has resulted to poor infrastructure, inadequate equipment and poorly motivated personnel in all the nations public schools at all levels. Hence, the paper concludes that in spite of these overwhelming challenges, teachers have a lot of prospects both in the teaching profession and outside teaching.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching profession, sustainable national development, education, development

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26 Antecedent Factors Affecting Evaluation of Quality of Students at Graduate School

Authors: Terada Pinyo

Abstract:

This study is a survey research designed to evaluate the quality of graduate students and factors influencing their quality. The sample group consists of 240 students. The data are collected from stratified sampling and are analyzed and calculated by instant computer program. Statistics used are percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient, Cramer’s V and logistic regression analysis. It is found that the graduate students’ opinions regarding their characteristics according to the Thai Qualifications Framework for Higher Education (TQF) are at high score range both overall and specific category. The top categories that received the top score are interpersonal skills and responsibility, ethics and morals, knowledge, cognitive skills, numerical analysis with communication and information technology skills, respectively. On the other hand, factors affecting the quality of graduate students are cognitive skills, numerical analysis with communication and information technology, knowledge, interpersonal skills and responsibility, ethics and morals, and career regarding sales/business, respectively.

Keywords: student quality evaluation, Thai qualifications framework for higher education, graduate school, cognitive skills

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25 The Internal View of the Mu'min: Natural Law Theories in Islam

Authors: Gianni Izzo

Abstract:

The relation of Islam to its legal precepts, reflected in the various jurisprudential 'schools of thought' (madhahib), is one expressed in a version of 'positivism' (fiqh) providing the primary theory for deducing Qurʾan rulings and those from the narrations (hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad. Scholars of Islam, including Patricia Crone (2004) and others chronicled by Anver Emon (2005), deny the influence of natural law theories as extra-scriptural indices of revelation’s content. This paper seeks to dispute these claims by reference to historical and canonical examples within Shiʿa legal thought that emphasize the salient roles of ‘aql (reason), fitrah (primordial human nature), and lutf (divine grace). These three holistic features, congenital to every human, and theophanically reflected in nature make up a mode of moral intelligibility antecedent to prophetic revelation. The debate between the 'traditionalist' Akhbaris and 'rationalist' Usulis over the nature of deriving legal edicts in Islam is well-covered academic ground. Instead, an attempt is made to define and detail the built-in assumptions of natural law revealed in the jurisprudential summa of Imami Shiʿism, whether of either dominant school, that undergird its legal prescriptions and methods of deduction.

Keywords: Islam, fiqh, natural law, legal positivism, aql

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