Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Tobin’s Q

13 The Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Financial Performance of Tourism Firms: Case of Borsa İstanbul

Authors: Ndeye Tiguida Sarr, Onur Akpinar


The tourism industry, being the sector that includes all the activities related to the organization and satisfaction of tourists during their trip, also has a very important role in the national economy of the host country. In order to measure the stakes of tourism on the economy, microeconomic and macroeconomic factors are elements of analysis. While microeconomics is limited to an individual perspective, macroeconomics extends to a global perspective and treats the economy as a whole by focusing on social and economic actors in general. It is in this context that this study focuses on macroeconomic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the financial performance of tourism firms in Turkey, which is one of the world's major destinations. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the relationship between macroeconomic variables and the financial performance of tourism firms. Data from 2011 to 2020 are collected, from a sample of 16 companies that represent the tourism sector in Borsa Istanbul. Tobin’s Q ratio, Market to Book ratio, Return on Invested Capital, and Return on Assets as the financial performance indicators were dependent variables of the study. Gross Domestic Products, Inflation, Interest Rates, and Unemployment as macroeconomic indicators were independent variables. Again, Size, Liquidity, Leverage, and Age were control variables of the study. According to the results, value indicators, which are Tobin’s Q ratio and Market to Book ratio, have a statistically significant relationship with Inflation, Interest Rates, and Unemployment. A negative relationship is found between value indicators and Interest rates and a positive relationship between value indicators and Unemployment and Inflation. On the other hand, there is no significant relationship between profit indicators (Return on Invested Capital and Return on Assets) and macroeconomic variables. Accordingly, Interest rates negatively affect the financial performance of tourism firms and stand out as a factor that decreases the value.

Keywords: financial performance, macroeconomic variables, panel data, Tobin Q

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12 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali


This study empirically inspects the corporate governance and firm performance, and attempts to analyze the corporate governance and control related variables which are hypothesized to have effect on firm’s performance. Current study attempts to assess the mechanism and efficiency of corporate governance to achieve high level performance for the listed firms on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) for the period 2005 to 2008. To evaluate the firm performance level this study investigate the firm performance using three measures; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To check the link between firm performances with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to examine the relation among governance and corporate performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that governance related variables like block shareholding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When chief executive officer is also the board chairperson then it is observed that performance of firm is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative influence on the firm performance and size of firm is positively related with performance of the firm.

Keywords: corporate governance, agency cost, KSE, ROA, Tobin’s Q

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11 Firm Performance and Evolving Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali


This study empirically examines the corporate governance and firm performance, and tries to evaluate the governance, ownership and control related variables which are hypothesized to affect on firms performance. This study tries to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanism to achieve high level performance among companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) over the period from 2005 to 2008. To measure the firm performance level this research uses three measures of performance; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To link the performance of firms with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to test the link between corporate governance and firm performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that corporate governance variables such as percentage block holding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When CEO is also the chairperson of board then it is found that firm performance is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative impact on the performance of the firm and firm size is positively related with the firms performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, performance, agency cost, Karachi stock market

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10 Impact of Working Capital Management Strategies on Firm's Value and Profitability

Authors: Jonghae Park, Daesung Kim


The impact of aggressive and conservative working capital‘s strategies on the value and profitability of the firms has been evaluated by applying the panel data regression analysis. The control variables used in the regression models are natural log of firm size, sales growth, and debt. We collected a panel of 13,988 companies listed on the Korea stock market covering the period 2000-2016. The major findings of this study are as follow: 1) We find a significant negative correlation between firm profitability and the number of days inventory (INV) and days accounts payable (AP). The firm’s profitability can also be improved by reducing the number of days of inventory and days accounts payable. 2) We also find a significant positive correlation between firm profitability and the number of days accounts receivable (AR) and cash ratios (CR). In other words, the cash is associated with high corporate profitability. 3) Tobin's analysis showed that only the number of days accounts receivable (AR) and cash ratios (CR) had a significant relationship. In conclusion, companies can increase profitability by reducing INV and increasing AP, but INV and AP did not affect corporate value. In particular, it is necessary to increase CA and decrease AR in order to increase Firm’s profitability and value.

Keywords: working capital, working capital management, firm value, profitability

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9 Contributing Factors to Building Failures and Defects in the Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Ndibarafinia Tobin


Building defect and failure are common phenomena in the Nigerian construction industry. The activities of the inexperienced labor force in the Nigerian construction industry have tarnished the image of practicing construction professionals in recent past. Defects and collapse can cause unnecessary expenditure, delays, loss of lives, property and left many people injured. They are also generating controversies among parties involved. Also, if this situation is left unanswered and untreated, it will lead to more serious problems in the future upcoming construction projects in Nigeria. Quite a number of factors are responsible for collapse of high-rise, reinforced concrete buildings in Nigeria. Government, professional bodies and stakeholders are asking countless questions as to who should be responsible and how solutions could be proffered. Therefore this study is aimed to identify the contributing factors to high-rise buildings defects and failures in Nigeria, which frequently occur in construction project in order to minimize time and cost and also the roles of professionals and other participants play in the industry in terms of the use of building materials, placement and curing of concrete, modification in the use of a building, collapse of building induced by fire and other causes. The data is collected from questionnaire from various players in construction industry in Nigeria. This study is succeeds in identifying the causes of building failure and also suggesting possible measures to be taken by government and other regulatory bodies in the building industry to avert this and also improve the effectiveness of managing appraisal process of failures and defects in the future.

Keywords: building defects, building failures, Nigerian construction industry, professionals

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8 Using Customer Satisfaction to Help Achieve Sustainable Development Goals in the Islamic Economy: A Quantitative Case Study from Amman, Jordan

Authors: Sarah A. Tobin


Social justice outcomes, derived from customer satisfaction, serve as a main pathway and conduit for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) because they prompt democratizing and socially-inclusive effects that are consistent with Islamic economic values. This paper argues that achieving higher levels of social justice and the SGDs is possible only through the realization of Islamic banking and finance customer satisfaction that aligns with Islamic values in the tradition of the Shari`a (or Islamic law). Through this key manifestation of Shari`a in the banks, social justice aims of achieving SDGs become possible. This paper utilizes a case study of a large-scale survey (N=127) comparing customer satisfaction between a conventional and an Islamic bank in Amman, Jordan. Based on a series of linear regressions, the statistically-significant findings suggest that when overall customer satisfaction is high, customers are more likely to become empowered citizens demanding inclusive, quality services and corruption-free management, as well as attribute their experiences to the Islamic nature of the financial endeavors. Social justice interests and expectations increase (and SDGs are more likely met) when a customer has high levels of satisfaction. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for Islamic financial institutions that enhance customer service experiences for better achieving the social justice aims of the Islamic economy and SDGs, including transparency in transactions, exemplary customer service and follow up, and attending to Islamic values in the aesthetics of bank.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, Islamic economy, social justice, sustainable development goals

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7 An Analysis of a Canadian Personalized Learning Curriculum

Authors: Ruthanne Tobin


The shift to a personalized learning (PL) curriculum in Canada represents an innovative approach to teaching and learning that is also evident in various initiatives across the 32-nation OECD. The premise behind PL is that empowering individual learners to have more input into how they access and construct knowledge, and express their understanding of it, will result in more meaningful school experiences and academic success. In this paper presentation, the author reports on a document analysis of the new curriculum in the province of British Columbia. Three theoretical frameworks are used to analyze the new curriculum. Framework 1 focuses on five dominant aspects (FDA) of PL at the classroom level. Framework 2 focuses on conceptualizing and enacting personalized learning (CEPL) within three spheres of influence. Framework 3 focuses on the integration of three types of knowledge (content, technological, and pedagogical). Analysis is ongoing, but preliminary findings suggest that the new curriculum addresses framework 1 quite well, which identifies five areas of personalized learning: 1) assessment for learning; 2) effective teaching and learning; 3) curriculum entitlement (choice); 4) school organization; and 5) “beyond the classroom walls” (learning in the community). Framework 2 appears to be less well developed in the new curriculum. This framework speaks to the dynamics of PL within three spheres of interaction: 1) nested agency, comprised of overarching constraints [and enablers] from policy makers, school administrators and community; 2) relational agency, which refers to a capacity for professionals to develop a network of expertise to serve shared goals; and 3) students’ personalized learning experience, which integrates differentiation with self-regulation strategies. Framework 3 appears to be well executed in the new PL curriculum, as it employs the theoretical model of technological, pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in which there are three interdependent bodies of knowledge. Notable within this framework is the emphasis on the pairing of technologies with excellent pedagogies to significantly assist students and teachers. This work will be of high relevance to educators interested in innovative school reform.

Keywords: curriculum reform, K-12 school change, innovations in education, personalized learning

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6 The Impact of Board Characteristics on Firm Performance: Evidence from Banking Industry in India

Authors: Manmeet Kaur, Madhu Vij


The Board of Directors in a firm performs the primary role of an internal control mechanism. This Study seeks to understand the relationship between internal governance and performance of banks in India. The research paper investigates the effect of board structure (proportion of nonexecutive directors, gender diversity, board size and meetings per year) on the firm performance. This paper evaluates the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on bank’s financial performance using panel data for 28 listed banks in National Stock Exchange of India for the period of 2008-2014. Returns on Asset, Return on Equity, Tobin’s Q and Net Interest Margin were used as the financial performance indicators. To estimate the relationship among governance and bank performance initially the Study uses Pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Estimation and Generalized Least Square (GLS) Estimation. Then a well-developed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) Estimator is developed to investigate the dynamic nature of performance and governance relationship. The Study empirically confirms that two-step system GMM approach controls the problem of unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity as compared to the OLS and GLS approach. The result suggests that banks with small board, boards with female members, and boards that meet more frequently tend to be more efficient and subsequently have a positive impact on performance of banks. The study offers insights to policy makers interested in enhancing the quality of governance of banks in India. Also, the findings suggest that board structure plays a vital role in the improvement of corporate governance mechanism for financial institutions. There is a need to have efficient boards in banks to improve the overall health of the financial institutions and the economic development of the country.

Keywords: board of directors, corporate governance, GMM estimation, Indian banking

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5 Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance Complementarity in Multinational Enterprises of the EU and India: A Socio-Political Approach

Authors: Moses Pinto, Ana Paula Monte


The present research analyses the interactions between various categories of corporate social responsibility (CSR) that mediate the relationship between CSR and financial performance in Multinational Enterprises (MNE) in light of the present socio-political factors prevalent in the countries under observation. In the research it has been hypothesized that the absence of consensus in the empirical literature on the CSR–financial performance relationship may be explained by the existence of synergies (Complementarities) between the different CSR components. Upon investigation about whether such relationships exist, a final unbalanced panel sample of 1000 observations taken from 100 Multinational Enterprises per year functioning in the Schengen countries and one south east Asian country namely: India, over the span of 10 years i.e. from the year 2008 to 2018 has been analyzed. The empirical analysis used in the research methodology employs dynamic Panel Data in time series specifically, the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) which had been used to detect the varying degrees of relationships between the CSR and financial performance parameters in the background of the socio-political factors prevailing in the countries at the time and also taking into account the bilateral treaty obligations between the countries under observation. The econometric model has employed the financial ratio namely the Return on Assets (ROA) as an indicator of financial performance in order to gauge the internal performance and valuation of a firm as opposed to the Tobin’s Q that provides for the external evaluation of a firm’s financial performance which may not always be accurate. The various CSR dimensions have demonstrated significant correlations to the ‘ROA’ which include some negatively associated correlations and one positively associated correlation that is highly significant throughout the analysis of the observations, namely the correlation between the ‘ROA’ and the CSR dimension: ‘Environment’. The results provide a deeper insight in the synergistic CSR activities that managers could adapt into their Firm’s CSR strategy in order to enhance the ‘ROA’ and also to understand which interactions between the CSR dimensions can be adapted together due to their positively correlated association with each other and the ROA. The future lines of research would be inclined to investigate the effects of socio-political factors on the ROA of the MNEs through better designed econometric models.

Keywords: CSR, financial performance, complementarity, sociopolitical factors

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4 Conceptualizing Personalized Learning: Review of Literature 2007-2017

Authors: Ruthanne Tobin


As our data-driven, cloud-based, knowledge-centric lives become ever more global, mobile, and digital, educational systems everywhere are struggling to keep pace. Schools need to prepare students to become critical-thinking, tech-savvy, life-long learners who are engaged and adaptable enough to find their unique calling in a post-industrial world of work. Recognizing that no nation can afford poor achievement or high dropout rates without jeopardizing its social and economic future, the thirty-two nations of the OECD are launching initiatives to redesign schools, generally under the banner of Personalized Learning or 21st Century Learning. Their intention is to transform education by situating students as co-enquirers and co-contributors with their teachers of what, when, and how learning happens for each individual. In this focused review of the 2007-2017 literature on personalized learning, the author sought answers to two main questions: “What are the theoretical frameworks that guide personalized learning?” and “What is the conceptual understanding of the model?” Ultimately, the review reveals that, although the research area is overly theorized and under-substantiated, it does provide a significant body of knowledge about this potentially transformative educational restructuring. For example, it addresses the following questions: a) What components comprise a PL model? b) How are teachers facilitating agency (voice & choice) in their students? c) What kinds of systems, processes and procedures are being used to guide the innovation? d) How is learning organized, monitored and assessed? e) What role do inquiry based models play? f) How do teachers integrate the three types of knowledge: Content, pedagogical and technological? g) Which kinds of forces enable, and which impede, personalizing learning? h) What is the nature of the collaboration among teachers? i) How do teachers co-regulate differentiated tasks? One finding of the review shows that while technology can dramatically expand access to information, expectations of its impact on teaching and learning are often disappointing unless the technologies are paired with excellent pedagogies in order to address students’ needs, interests and aspirations. This literature review fills a significant gap in this emerging field of research, as it serves to increase conceptual clarity that has hampered both the theorizing and the classroom implementation of a personalized learning model.

Keywords: curriculum change, educational innovation, personalized learning, school reform

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3 Maturity Level of Knowledge Management in Whole Life Costing in the UK Construction Industry: An Empirical Study

Authors: Ndibarefinia Tobin


The UK construction industry has been under pressure for many years to produce economical buildings which offer value for money, not only during the construction phase, but more importantly, during the full life of the building. Whole life costing is considered as an economic analysis tool that takes into account the total investment cost in and ownership, operation and subsequent disposal of a product or system to which the whole life costing method is being applied. In spite of its importance, the practice is still crippled by the lack of tangible evidence, ‘know-how’ skills and knowledge of the practice i.e. the lack of professionals with the knowledge and training on the use of the practice in construction project, this situation is compounded by the absence of available data on whole life costing from relevant projects, lack of data collection mechanisms and so on. The aforementioned problems has forced many construction organisations to adopt project enhancement initiatives to boost their performance on the use of whole life costing techniques so as to produce economical buildings which offer value for money during the construction stage also the whole life of the building/asset. The management of knowledge in whole life costing is considered as one of the many project enhancement initiative and it is becoming imperative in the performance and sustainability of an organisation. Procuring building projects using whole life costing technique is heavily reliant on the knowledge, experience, ideas and skills of workers, which comes from many sources including other individuals, electronic media and documents. Due to the diversity of knowledge, capabilities and skills of employees that vary across an organisation, it is significant that they are directed and coordinated efficiently so as to capture, retrieve and share knowledge in order to improve the performance of the organisation. The implementation of knowledge management concept has different levels in each organisation. Measuring the maturity level of knowledge management in whole life costing practice will paint a comprehensible picture of how knowledge is managed in construction organisations. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify knowledge management maturity in UK construction organisations adopting whole life costing in construction project. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a survey method and conducted by distributing questionnaires to large construction companies that implement knowledge management activities in whole life costing practice in construction project. Four level of knowledge management maturity was proposed on this study. Findings: From the results obtained in the study shows that 34 contractors at the practiced level, 26 contractors at managed level and 12 contractors at continuously improved level.

Keywords: knowledge management, whole life costing, construction industry, knowledge

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2 Internal Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Firms

Authors: Gaurav Gupta, Jitendra Mahakud


This study focuses on the significance of internal financing constraints on the determination of corporate fixed investments in the case of Indian manufacturing companies. Financing constraints companies which have less internal fund or retained earnings face more transaction and borrowing costs due to imperfections in the capital market. The period of study is 1999-2000 to 2013-2014 and we consider 618 manufacturing companies for which the continuous data is available throughout the study period. The data is collected from PROWESS data base maintained by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd. Panel data methods like fixed effect and random effect methods are used for the analysis. The Likelihood Ratio test, Lagrange Multiplier test, and Hausman test results conclude the suitability of the fixed effect model for the estimation. The cash flow and liquidity of the company have been used as the proxies for the internal financial constraints. In accordance with various theories of corporate investments, we consider other firm specific variable like firm age, firm size, profitability, sales and leverage as the control variables in the model. From the econometric analysis, we find internal cash flow and liquidity have the significant and positive impact on the corporate investments. The variables like cost of capital, sales growth and growth opportunities are found to be significantly determining the corporate investments in India, which is consistent with the neoclassical, accelerator and Tobin’s q theory of corporate investment. To check the robustness of results, we divided the sample on the basis of cash flow and liquidity. Firms having cash flow greater than zero are put under one group, and firms with cash flow less than zero are put under another group. Also, the firms are divided on the basis of liquidity following the same approach. We find that the results are robust to both types of companies having positive and negative cash flow and liquidity. The results for other variables are also in the same line as we find for the whole sample. These findings confirm that internal financing constraints play a significant role for determination of corporate investment in India. The findings of this study have the implications for the corporate managers to focus on the projects having higher expected cash inflows to avoid the financing constraints. Apart from that, they should also maintain adequate liquidity to minimize the external financing costs.

Keywords: cash flow, corporate investment, financing constraints, panel data method

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1 An Effective Approach to Knowledge Capture in Whole Life Costing in Constructions Project

Authors: Ndibarafinia Young Tobin, Simon Burnett


In spite of the benefits of implementing whole life costing technique as a valuable approach for comparing alternative building designs allowing operational cost benefits to be evaluated against any initial cost increases and also as part of procurement in the construction industry, its adoption has been relatively slow due to the lack of tangible evidence, ‘know-how’ skills and knowledge of the practice, i.e. the lack of professionals in many establishments with knowledge and training on the use of whole life costing technique, this situation is compounded by the absence of available data on whole life costing from relevant projects, lack of data collection mechanisms and so on. This has proved to be very challenging to those who showed some willingness to employ the technique in a construction project. The knowledge generated from a project can be considered as best practices learned on how to carry out tasks in a more efficient way, or some negative lessons learned which have led to losses and slowed down the progress of the project and performance. Knowledge management in whole life costing practice can enhance whole life costing analysis execution in a construction project, as lessons learned from one project can be carried on to future projects, resulting in continuous improvement, providing knowledge that can be used in the operation and maintenance phases of an assets life span. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an effective approach which can be utilised in capturing knowledge in whole life costing practice in a construction project. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature review was first conducted on the concept of knowledge management and whole life costing. This was followed by a semi-structured interview to explore the existing and good practice knowledge management in whole life costing practice in a construction project. The data gathered from the semi-structured interview was analyzed using content analysis and used to structure an effective knowledge capturing approach. Findings: From the results obtained in the study, it shows that the practice of project review is the common method used in the capturing of knowledge and should be undertaken in an organized and accurate manner, and results should be presented in the form of instructions or in a checklist format, forming short and precise insights. The approach developed advised that irrespective of how effective the approach to knowledge capture, the absence of an environment for sharing knowledge, would render the approach ineffective. Open culture and resources are critical for providing a knowledge sharing setting, and leadership has to sustain whole life costing knowledge capture, giving full support for its implementation. The knowledge capturing approach has been evaluated by practitioners who are experts in the area of whole life costing practice. The results have indicated that the approach to knowledge capture is suitable and efficient.

Keywords: whole life costing, knowledge capture, project review, construction industry, knowledge management

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