Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4259

Search results for: debt to equity ratio

4259 Zakat and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Analysis in Increasing Its Value

Authors: Afrizon Reskino

Abstract:

The Article explores how the role of Zakat and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can enhance corporate values. This research is a descriptive study which aimed to find out how the impact of Zakat and CSR disclosure towards corporate values. Sample taken in this research is the company has entered into the Jakarta Islamic Index, and it estimated to have implemented CSR and also made statements of sources and uses of Zakat taking PT. INCO, PT. Inducement and PT. Semen Gresik. The reasons for selecting of three companies are known from the data and facts every year they always provide significant CSR funds. CSR and charity both have a role and responsibility for the welfare of the peoples. This study found that in 2008, debt-to-equity ratio of PT. INCO approximately 15%. In 2009, It increased to 23%. While Debt-to-equity ratio of PT Semen Gresik increase of 3% to 4%. PT Inducement is weaken from 10% to 7%, but the average debt-to-equity ratio of the three companies has increased.

Keywords: zakat, charity, corporate social responsibility, corporate values

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4258 Convergence with IFRS: Evidence from Financial Statements

Authors: M. S. Turan, Dimple

Abstract:

Due to implementation of IFRS by several developed and developing countries, India has no option other than to converge their accounting standards with IFRS. There are over 10,000 listed companies required to implement IFRS in India. IFRS based financial information presented by a company is different from the same information provided by Indian GAAPs. In this study, we have brought out and analyzed the effect of IFRS reporting on the financial statements of selected companies. The results reveal that convergence with IFRS brought prominent positive variations in the values of quick ratio, debt/equity ratio, proprietary ratio and net profit ratio, while negative variation is brought in the values of current ratio, debt to total assets ratio, operating profit ratio, return on capital employed and return on shareholders’ equity ratios. It also presents significant changes in the values of items of balance sheet, profit and loss account and cash flow statement.

Keywords: IFRS, reporting standards, convergence process, results

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4257 The Optimal Public Debt Ceiling in Taiwan: A Simulation Approach

Authors: Ho Yuan-Hong, Huang Chiung-Ju

Abstract:

This study conducts simulation analyses to find the optimal debt ceiling of Taiwan, while factoring in welfare maximization under a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework. The simulation is based on Taiwan's 2001 to 2011 economic data and shows that welfare is maximized at a "debt"⁄"GDP" ratio of 0.2, increases in the "debt"⁄"GDP " ratio leads to increases in both tax and interest rates and decreases in the consumption ratio and working hours. The study results indicate that the optimal debt ceiling of Taiwan is 20% of GDP, where if the "debt"⁄"GDP" ratio is greater than 40%, the welfare will be negative and result in welfare loss.

Keywords: debt sustainability, optimal debt ceiling, dynamic stochastic general equilibrium, welfare maximization

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4256 Determinants of Dividend Payout Ratio: Evidence form MENA Region

Authors: Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar, Walid Elgammal, Hisham Jawhar

Abstract:

This paper studies the determinants of the dividends payout ratio. The factors affecting the dividends payout ratio are to be identified. The study focuses only on the cement and construction industry within the MENA region in an attempt to isolate any incoherent behavior. The factors under consideration are: sales growth, ROE, ROA, ROS, debt to equity ratio, firm size, and free cash flow. Data were collected from official stock exchange markets in addition to annual reports. The study considered all firms that paid dividend in each of the three consecutive years starting from 2010 till 2012. Out of the 123 listed firms that work in cement and construction industry in MENA region, only 19 paid dividends in the three consecutive years 2010-12. Our sample consists of the 19 firms (57 observations) which are selected according to purposive sampling. Moreover, the study uses the homogeneous subcategory within the purposive sampling since only similar firms in the construction industry had been examined. The outcome of the study provides a vital insight into the determinants of dividends payout ratio of companies in MENA region. The results showed that the dividend payout ratio has a strong and positive relationship with return on assets and strong but negative relationship with return on equity. On the other hand, the results detected weak relationships between dividend payout ratio and sale growth, debt to equity ratio, firm size, and free cash flow. The study suggests that board of directors tend to compensate shareholders and minimize the agency cost by distributing a high portion of profits in form of dividends whenever return on equity decreases. Also, when the performance of the firm improves, and hence return on assets increases, boards of directors are more generous in distributing profits.

Keywords: dividends payout ratio, profitability firm size, free cashflow, debt to equity ratio

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4255 Impact of Capital Structure, Dividend Policy and Sustainability on Value of Firm: A Case Study of Spinning Textile Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Zahid Ahmad, Samia Yousaf

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate and assess the financial position, operating performance, and recent outlook of the companies. This study investigates the impact of capital structure, dividend policy and sustainability on the value of firms of textile spinning sector of Pakistan which is listed on Pakistan stock exchange. The panel data technique has been applied to this group of textile sector which is textile spinning. This study covers the last ten years of time period. All the data related to the variables have been collected from the annual reports and financial statements of the textile sector firms. There are differently related determinants to measure the capital structure which are fixed assets turnover ratio, debt ratio, equity ratio, debt to equity ratio, assets tangibility, and shareholder’s equity. Dividend policy is being measured by two determinants which are earning per share (EPS) and dividend payout ratio. Sustainability is being measured by three suitable factors which are sales growth, gross profit margin ratio and firm size. These are three independent variables and their determinants of this study. Value of firm is measured through the return on asset (ROA). Capital structure is at the top of the list among all the three variables. According to the results of this research work, somewhere all the three variables generates positive and significant effect on the firm’s performance and its growth.

Keywords: capital structure, dividend policy, panel data, sustainability

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4254 Ownership, Management Responsibility and Corporate Performance of the Listed Firms in Kazakhstan

Authors: Gulnara Moldasheva

Abstract:

The research explores the relationship between management responsibility and corporate governance of listed companies in Kazakhstan. This research employs firm level data of randomly selected listed non-financial firms and firm level data “operational” financial sector, consisted from banking sector, insurance companies and accumulated pension funds using multivariate regression analysis under fixed effect model approach. Ownership structure includes institutional ownership, managerial ownership and private investor’s ownership. Management responsibility of the firm is expressed by the decision of the firm on amount of leverage. Results of the cross sectional panel study for non-financial firms showed that only institutional shareholding is significantly negatively correlated with debt to equity ratio. Findings from “operational” financial sector show that leverage is significantly affected only by the CEO/Chair duality and the size of financial institutions, and insignificantly affected by ownership structure. Also, the findings show, that there is a significant negative relationship between profitability and the debt to equity ratio for non-financial firms, which is consistent with pecking order theory. Generally, the found results suggest that corporate governance and a management responsibility play important role in corporate performance of listed firms in Kazakhstan.

Keywords: ownership, corporate governance, debt to equity ratio, corporate performance

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4253 The Internationalization of Capital Market Influencing Debt Sustainability's Impact on the Growth of the Nigerian Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, Eugine Iheanacho

Abstract:

The paper set out to assess the sustainability of debt in the Nigerian economy. Precisely, it sought to determine the level of debt sustainability and its impact on the growth of the economy; whether internationalization of capital market has positively influenced debt sustainability’s impact on economic growth; and to ascertain the direction of causality between external debt sustainability and the growth of GDP. In the light of these objectives, ratio analysis was employed for the determination of debt sustainability. Our findings revealed that the periods 1986 – 1994 and 1999 – 2004 were periods of severe unsustainable borrowing. The unit root test showed that the variables of the growth model were integrated of order one, I(1) and the cointegration test provided evidence for long run stability. Considering the dawn of internationalization of capital market, the researcher employed the structural break approach using Chow Breakpoint test on the vector error correction model (VECM). The result of VECM showed that debt sustainability, measured by debt to GDP ratio exerts negative and significant impact on the growth of the economy while debt burden measured by debt-export ratio and debt service export ratio are negative though insignificant on the growth of GDP. The Cho test result indicated that internationalization of capital market has no significant effect on the debt overhang impact on the growth of the Economy. The granger causality test indicates a feedback effect from economic growth to debt sustainability growth indicators. On the bases of these findings, the researchers made some necessary recommendations which if followed religiously will go a long way to ameliorating debt burdens and engendering economic growth.

Keywords: debt sustainability, internalization, capital market, cointegration, chow test

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4252 The Sustainability of Public Debt in Taiwan

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study examines whether the Taiwan’s public debt is sustainable utilizing an unrestricted two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) model with an autoregressive unit root. The empirical results show that Taiwan’s public debt appears as a nonlinear series and is stationary in regime 1 but not in regime 2. This result implies that while Taiwan’s public debt was mostly sustainable over the 1996 to 2013 period examined in the study, it may no longer be sustainable in the most recent two years as the public debt ratio has increased cumulatively to 3.618%.

Keywords: nonlinearity, public debt, sustainability, threshold autoregressive model

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4251 Corporate Performance and Balance Sheet Indicators: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Hussain Bohra, Pradyuman Sharma

Abstract:

This study highlights the significance of Balance Sheet Indicators on the corporate performance in the case of Indian manufacturing companies. Balance sheet indicators show the actual financial health of the company and it helps to the external investors to choose the right company for their investment and it also help to external financing agency to give easy finance to the manufacturing companies. The period of study is 2000 to 2014 for 813 manufacturing companies for which the continuous data is available throughout the study period. The data is collected from PROWESS data base maintained by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd. Panel data methods like fixed effect and random effect methods are used for the analysis. The Likelihood Ratio test, Lagrange Multiplier test and Hausman test results proof the suitability of the fixed effect model for the estimation. Return on assets (ROA) is used as the proxy to measure corporate performance. ROA is the best proxy to measure corporate performance as it already used by the most of the authors who worked on the corporate performance. ROA shows return on long term investment projects of firms. Different ratios like Current Ratio, Debt-equity ratio, Receivable turnover ratio, solvency ratio have been used as the proxies for the Balance Sheet Indicators. Other firm specific variable like firm size, and sales as the control variables in the model. From the empirical analysis, it was found that all selected financial ratios have significant and positive impact on the corporate performance. Firm sales and firm size also found significant and positive impact on the corporate performance. To check the robustness of results, the sample was divided on the basis of different ratio like firm having high debt equity ratio and low debt equity ratio, firms having high current ratio and low current ratio, firms having high receivable turnover and low receivable ratio and solvency ratio in the form of firms having high solving ratio and low solvency ratio. We find that the results are robust to all types of companies having different form of selected balance sheet indicators ratio. The results for other variables are also in the same line as for the whole sample. These findings confirm that Balance sheet indicators play as significant role on the corporate performance in India. The findings of this study have the implications for the corporate managers to focus different ratio to maintain the minimum expected level of performance. Apart from that, they should also maintain adequate sales and total assets to improve corporate performance.

Keywords: balance sheet, corporate performance, current ratio, panel data method

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4250 Debts and Debt-Based Sukuk Related to Risk Shifting Behavior

Authors: Siti Raihana Hamzah

Abstract:

This paper elaborates risk shifting in debt financing system as the ultimate cause of the global financial crisis. In contrast, risk sharing in equity financing like sukuk helps the economic system to be better sustained. Nevertheless, some types of sukuk are haunted by the issue of imitation with bonds. The critics on the imitation issue not only have raised doubt on the ability of sukuk to diminish risk shifting behavior but also the ability of this Islamic financial instrument to ensure better future financial stability. Through that, this paper provides discussion on the possibility of sukuk to induce risk shifting and how equity financing may help sukuk to be free from risk shifting. This paper is important in the sense that sukuk receives a significant demand from investors throughout the world. For this instrument to be supportive in the future economic stability, the issue of imitation needs to be identified and addressed. Furthermore, critics cannot be focused on debts and its ability to gauge the financial flux but also to sukuk due to their structures similarity.

Keywords: global financial crisis, debt, risk-shifting, risk sharing, equity, sukuk, bonds

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4249 Interest Charges and Sustainability Challenges: The Case of OECD Countries

Authors: Aime Philombe Zapji Ymele

Abstract:

Servicing public debt is a significant budgetary burden. In the sense that the payment of interest charges is a liability on the balance sheet of the public budget and affects fiscal policy. Interest charges can sometimes become a burden if they crowd out private activities. In order to analyse and understand the determinants of the debt burden and its impact on the sustainability of public finances, the present work focuses on OECD countries. It is noted from the literature that the factors that determine interest charges are macroeconomic (inflation, GDP growth, and interest rates) and public finances (primary balance and public debt). After analysing a panel of 33 OECD countries and using ordinary least squares (OLS), we find that public debt, inflation, and long-term interest rates are positively correlated with interest charges. An increase in any of these variables leads to an increase in debt charges. On the other hand, a growth in GDP is negatively associated with interest charges. Indeed, an increase in GDP generates enough revenue to meet the repayment of debt charges. According to the empirical analysis, we can say that, despite the large and growing debt-to-GDP ratio of major OECD countries, interest charges are not a threat to the sustainability of public finances. However, it is important for these countries to reduce the ratio of public debt to GDP because, in the face of the many challenges (health, aging population, etc.) that are looming on the horizon, an increase in interest rates could bring with it considerable burdens that would threaten the budgetary balance of these states.

Keywords: interest charges, sustainability, public debt, interest rates

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4248 Interest Charges and Sustainability Challenges: The Case of OECD Countries

Authors: Zapji Ymele Aime Philombe

Abstract:

Servicing public debt is a significant budgetary burden in the sense that the payment of interest charges is a liability on the balance sheet of the public budget and affects fiscal policy. Interest charges can sometimes become a burden if they crowd out private activities. In order to analyse and understand the determinants of the debt burden and its impact on the sustainability of public finances, the present work focuses on OECD countries. It is noted from the literature that the factors that determine interest charges are macroeconomic (inflation, GDP growth and interest rates) and public finances (primary balance and public debt). After analysing a panel of 33 OECD countries and using ordinary least squares (OLS), we find that public debt, inflation and long-term interest rates are positively correlated with interest charges. An increase in any of these variables leads to an increase in debt charges. On the other hand, a growth in GDP is negatively associated with interest charges. Indeed, an increase in GDP generates enough revenue to meet the repayment of debt charges. According to the empirical analysis, we can say that, despite the large and growing debt-to-GDP ratio of major OECD countries, interest charges are not a threat to the sustainability of public finances. However, it is important for these countries to reduce the ratio of public debt to GDP because, in the face of the many challenges (health, aging population, etc.) that are looming on the horizon, an increase in interest rates could bring with it considerable burdens that would threaten the budgetary balance of these states.

Keywords: interests charges, public debt, sustainability, interest rates

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4247 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: external debt, military spending, ARDL approach, India

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4246 The Determinants of Financial Stability: Evidence from Jordan

Authors: Wasfi Al Salamat, Shaker Al-Kharouf

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the determinants of financial stability for 13 commercial banks listed on the Amman stock exchange (ASE) over the period (2007-2016) after controlling for the independent variables: return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA), earnings per share (EPS), growth in gross domestic product (GDP), inflation rate and debt ratio to measure the financial stability by three main variables: capital adequacy, non-performing loans and the number of returned checks. The balanced panel data statistical approach has been used for data analysis. Results are estimated by using multiple regression models. The empirical results suggested that there is statistically significant negative effect of inflation rate and debt ratio on the capital adequacy while there is statistically significant positive effect of growth in gross domestic product on capital adequacy. In contrast, there is statistically significant negative effect of return on equity and growth in gross domestic product on the non-performing loans while there is statistically significant positive effect of inflation rate on non-performing loans. Finally, there is statistically significant negative effect of growth in gross domestic product on the number of returned checks while there is statistically significant positive effect of inflation rate on the number of returned checks.

Keywords: capital adequacy, financial stability, non-performing loans, number of returned checks, ASE

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4245 Financing Innovation: Differences across National Innovation Systems

Authors: Núria Arimany Serrat, Xavier Ferràs Hernández, Petra A. Nylund, Eric Viardot

Abstract:

Innovation is an increasingly important antecedent to firm competitiveness and growth. Successful innovation, however, requires a significant financial commitment and the means of financing accessible to the firm may affect its ability to innovate. The access to equity financing such as venture capital has been connected to innovativeness for young firms. For established enterprises, debt financing of innovation may be a more realistic option. Continuous innovation and growth would otherwise require a constant increase of equity. We, therefore, investigate the relation between debt financing and innovation for large firms and hypothesize that those firms that carry more debt will be more innovative. The need for debt financing of innovation may be reduced for very profitable firms, which can finance innovation with cash flow. We thus hypothesize a moderating effect of profitability on the relationship between debt financing and innovation. We carry out an empirical investigation using a longitudinal data set including 167 large European firms over five years, resulting in 835 firm years. We apply generalized least squares (GLS) regression with fixed firm effects to control for firm heterogeneity. The findings support our hypotheses and we conclude that access to debt finding is an important antecedent of innovation, with profitability as a moderating factor. The results do however differ across national innovation systems and we find a strong relationship for British, Dutch, French, and Italian firms but not for German and Spanish entities. We discuss differences in the national systems of innovation and financing which contextualize the variations in the findings and thus make a nuanced contribution to the research in innovation financing. The cross-country differences calls for differentiated advice to managers, institutions, and researchers depending on the national context.

Keywords: innovation, R&D, national innovation systems, financing

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4244 Determinants of Financial Performance of South African Businesses in Africa: Evidence from JSE Listed Telecommunications Companies

Authors: Nomakhosi Tshuma, Carley Chetty

Abstract:

This study employed panel regression analysis to investigate the financial performance determinants of MTN and Vodacom’s rest of Africa businesses between 2012 to 2020. It used net profit margin, return on assets (ROA), and return on equity (ROE) as financial performance proxies. Financial performance determinants investigated were asset size, debt ratio, liquidity, number of subscribers, and exchange rate. Data relating to exchange rates were obtained from the World Bank website, while financial data and subscriber information were obtained from the companies’ audited financial statements. The study found statistically significant negative relationships between debt and both ROA and net profit, exchange rate and both ROA and net profit, and subscribers and ROE. It also found significant positive relationships between ROE and both asset size and exchange rate. The study recommends strategic options that optimise on the above findings, and these include infrastructure sharing to reduce infrastructure costs and the minimisation of foreign-denominated debt.

Keywords: financial performance, determinants of financial performance, business in Africa, telecommunications industry

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4243 Debt Relief for Emerging Economies: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Hummad Ch. Umar

Abstract:

Most of the developing economies, including Pakistan, are confronted with high level of external debt which is adversely affecting their economic performance. The hypothesis of debt overhang is often used to assess the negative relationship between foreign debt and the economic growth of the indebted country. As first objective of the present study, this hypothesis is tested by using Pooled OLS (POLS), Generalized Method of Moment (GMM), Random Effect (RE), and Fixed effect (FE) techniques. As second objective, the study uses the concept of debt Laffer Curve to determine the eligibility condition of the indebted countries for the relief programs. According to this approach, countries lying on the right side of the Laffer Curve are stated to be trapped in the strong debt overhang making them unable to come out of the vicious circle of low growth and high foreign debt. The empirical analysis confirms that only two countries out of twenty two completely fulfill the conditions of being eligible for the debt relief. All other countries continue to face debt burden of different magnitudes. The study further confirms that the debt relief alone is not sufficient for overcoming the debt problem. Instead, sound economic policies and conducive investment decisions are required to lay the foundations of long-term growth and development. Debt relief should be the option for only those countries that meet a minimum measurable criterion of good governance, economic freedom, and consistency of policies.

Keywords: external debt, debt burden, debt overhang, debt laffer curve, debt relief, investment decisions

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4242 A Dynamic Panel Model to Evaluate the Impact of Debt Relief on Poverty

Authors: Loujaina Abdelwahed

Abstract:

Debt relief granted to low-and middle-income countries effectively provides additional funds for governments that can be used to increase public investment on poverty-reducing services to alleviate poverty and boost economic growth. However, little is known about the extent to which the poor benefit from the increased public investment. This study aims to assess the impact of debt relief granted through multiple initiatives during the 1990s on poverty reduction. In particular, it assesses the impact on the level, depth and severity of poverty in 76 low-and middle income countries over the period 1990-2011. Debt relief is found to have a significant impact on reducing the level, the depth and the severity of poverty. Analysis of the different types of debt relief reveals that debt service relief reduces poverty, whereas debt principle relief does not have a significant impact.

Keywords: debt relief, developing countries, HIPC, poverty, system GMM estimator

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4241 The Third World Debt Burden and the Implication for Economic Development

Authors: Odeh Ibn Iganga

Abstract:

The issue of foreign debt, debt crisis or the concept of Third World debt burden generally gained prominence after the end of the cold war which pitched the United States and the former Soviet Union against each other in an ideological supremacy tussle. Before then however, Third World Countries (TWCs) enjoyed a relative economic resilience and stability and ostensibly friendly relations with the leaders of the polarized blocks in a way to garner supports for, and as an instrument of strengthening and expanding influence and power of the leaders of the two blocs, and achieve their goals. Consequently, the Third World concept lost its political relevance and usage perhaps, too, its economic comportment, and eventually became phraseology synonymous with developing countries bedeviled with debt crisis and struggling to emerge from debt burden, economic underdevelopment and poverty. Since then, also, particularly during the last two decades, the issue of Third World debt burden, which is currently posing significant problems, has a considerable attracted public policy and academic scrutiny. Third World debt burden thus is not a recent phenomenon but is a result of, and due to, pursuance of foreign aid from countries of the North which had, from the start, created the condition of economic subservience and master-servant relationship that could generate persistent seeking and lobbing for foreign aids through borrowing, thus tying down in a perpetual manner, most of the Third World Countries to underdevelopment, dependency and poverty. The interest of this paper, therefore, is to examine the causes, costs and or the implications of the debt burden on the economies of the Third World Countries, review some general solutions to the debt burden as well as offering suggestions as a way out of the doldrums.

Keywords: third world, debt burden, debt crisis, economic development and underdevelopment

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4240 A Critical Knowledge of Brand Equity in Thai Academic Works

Authors: Pongsiri Kamkankaew

Abstract:

This paper experiments to consider brand equity thought in Thai academic works. This essay employs that the first emerging of brand equity in Thai academic works and the components of brand equity which explore the extent to the convoluted approach with other Thai social condition. In Thailand, brand equity is supposed to provide branding and brand management replacement. However, the commitment of brand equity imposes in its proposal for seemly application in Thai context – to develop the brand equity framework by the Thai social – culture and Thai utilization style which it is questionable whether the brand equity in western conception is useful for characterizing the brand equity in Thailand context. In this position, brand equity also aspects several major questions: How can western conception lead to apply in Thai business? How can diversification be given within Thai SMEs business running? Can corporate brand valuation approach adopt in real business doing? So this paper argues that Thai brand equity notion should reduce disturb over improvement of its self-restraint and business area. Instead, Thai academic who are interested in brand equity can harmonize different mature bodies of discipline and other investigative a frame of references to complete and open the recognizing of brand equity.

Keywords: Thai brand equity, knowledge critical, brand management, branding

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4239 Fiscal Stability Indicators and Public Debt Trajectory in Croatia

Authors: Hrvoje Simovic

Abstract:

Paper analyses the key problems of fiscal sustainability in Croatia. To point out key challenges of fiscal sustainability, the public debt sustainability is analyzed using standard indicators of fiscal stability, accompanied with the identification of regime changes approach in the public debt trajectory using switching regression approach. The analysis is conducted for the period from 2001 to 2016. Results show huge vulnerability in recession period (2009-14), so key challenges in current fiscal policy and public debt management are recognized in maturity prolongation, interest rates trends, and credit rating expectations.

Keywords: fiscal sustainability, public debt, Croatia, budget deficit

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4238 Foreign Debt and Firm Performance: Evidence from French Non-Financial Firms

Authors: Salma Mefteh-Wali, Marie-Josephe Rigobert

Abstract:

We investigate the impact of foreign currency debt on firm performance for a sample of non-financial French firms studied over the period 2002 to 2012. As foreign currency debt is both a financing and hedging instrument against foreign exchange risk, we mobilize optimal hedging theory and capital structure theory. When we study the impact on firm value, our main results show that before and after the financial crisis of 2008, foreign debt had the same behavior as domestic debt. We find that during the crisis period, foreign debt positively affects firm value. Investors perceive foreign debt as a natural hedging instrument that is likely to reduce the costs of underinvestment, alleviate cash flow volatility, limit the costs of financial distress, and generate tax shield benefits. Also, our results show that foreign leverage negatively affects the firm performance proxied by ROA and ROE, during and after the financial crisis. However, this impact is positive in the pre-crisis period.

Keywords: foreign currency derivatives, foreign currency debt, foreign currency hedging, firm performance

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4237 Investors' Ratio Analysis and the Profitability of Listed Firms: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Abisola Akinola, Akinsulere Femi

Abstract:

The stock market has continually been a source of economic development in most developing countries. This study examined the relationship between investors’ ratio analysis and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria using secondary data obtained from the annual reports of forty-two (42) companies. The study employed the multiple regression technique to analyze the relationship between investors’ ratio analysis (measured by dividend per share and earning per share) and profitability (measured by the return on equity). The results from the analysis show that investors’ ratio analysis, when measured by earnings per share, have a positive and significant impact on profitability. However, the study noted that investors’ ratio analysis, when measured by dividend per share, tend to have a positive impact on profitability but it is statistically insignificant. By implication, investors and other stakeholders that are interested in investing in stocks can predict the earning capacity of listed firms in the stock market.

Keywords: dividend per share, earnings per share, profitability, return on equity

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4236 The Determinants of Financial Ratio Disclosures and Quality: Evidence from an Emerging Market

Authors: Ben Kwame Agyei-Mensah

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of firm-specific characteristics which include proportion of Non-Executive Directors, ownership concentration, firm size, profitability, debt equity ratio, liquidity and leverage on the extent and quality of financial ratios disclosed by firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange. The research was conducted through detailed analysis of the 2012 financial statements of the listed firms. Descriptive analysis was performed to provide the background statistics of the variables examined. This was followed by regression analysis which forms the main data analysis. The results of the extent of financial ratio disclosure level, mean of 62.78%, indicate that most of the firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange did not overwhelmingly disclose such ratios in their annual reports. The results of the low quality of financial ratio disclosure mean of 6.64% indicate that the disclosures failed woefully to meet the International Accounting Standards Board's qualitative characteristics of relevance, reliability, comparability and understandability. The results of the multiple regression analysis show that leverage (gearing ratio) and return on investment (dividend per share) are associated on a statistically significant level as far as the extent of financial ratio disclosure is concerned. Board ownership concentration and proportion of (independent) non-executive directors, on the other hand were found to be statistically associated with the quality of financial ratio disclosed. There is a significant negative relationship between ownership concentration and the quality of financial ratio disclosure. This means that under a higher level of ownership concentration less quality financial ratios are disclosed. The findings also show that there is a significant positive relationship between board composition (proportion of non-executive directors) and the quality of financial ratio disclosure.

Keywords: voluntary disclosure, firm-specific characteristics, financial reporting, financial ratio disclosure, Ghana stock exchange

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4235 Exploring the Effect of Accounting Information on Systematic Risk: An Empirical Evidence of Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Mojtaba Rezaei, Elham Heydari

Abstract:

This paper highlights the empirical results of analyzing the correlation between accounting information and systematic risk. This association is analyzed among financial ratios and systematic risk by considering the financial statement of 39 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) for five years (2014-2018). Financial ratios have been categorized into four groups and to describe the special features, as representative of accounting information we selected: Return on Asset (ROA), Debt Ratio (Total Debt to Total Asset), Current Ratio (current assets to current debt), Asset Turnover (Net sales to Total assets), and Total Assets. The hypotheses were tested through simple and multiple linear regression and T-student test. The findings illustrate that there is no significant relationship between accounting information and market risk. This indicates that in the selected sample, historical accounting information does not fully reflect the price of stocks.

Keywords: accounting information, market risk, systematic risk, stock return, efficient market hypothesis, EMH, Tehran stock exchange, TSE

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4234 Time Variance and Spillover Effects between International Crude Oil Price and Ten Emerging Equity Markets

Authors: Murad A. Bein

Abstract:

This paper empirically examines the time-varying relationship and spillover effects between the international crude oil price and ten emerging equity markets, namely three oil-exporting countries (Brazil, Mexico, and Russia) and seven Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The results revealed that there are spillover effects from oil markets into almost all emerging equity markets save Slovakia. Besides, the oil supply glut had a homogenous effect on the emerging markets, both net oil-exporting, and oil-importing countries (CEE). Further, the time variance drastically increased during financial turmoil. Indeed, the time variance remained high from 2009 to 2012 in response to aggregate demand shocks (global financial crisis and Eurozone debt crisis) and quantitative easing measures. Interestingly, the time variance was slightly higher for the oil-exporting countries than for some of the CEE countries. Decision-makers in emerging economies should therefore seek policy coordination when dealing with financial turmoil.

Keywords: crude oil, spillover effects, emerging equity, time-varying, aggregate demand shock

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4233 Political Regimes, Political Stability and Debt Dependence in African Countries of Franc Zone: A Logistic Modeling

Authors: Nounamo Nguedie Yann Harold

Abstract:

The factors behind the debt have been the subject of several studies in the literature. Pioneering studies based on the 'double deficit' approach linked indebtedness to the imbalance between savings and investment, the budget deficit and the current account deficit. Most studies on identifying factors that may stimulate or reduce the level of external public debt agree that the following variables are important explanatory variables in leveraging debt: the budget deficit, trade opening, current account and exchange rate, import, export, interest rate, term variation exchange rate, economic growth rate and debt service, capital flight, and over-indebtedness. Few studies addressed the impact of political factors on the level of external debt. In general, however, the IMF's stabilization programs in developing countries following the debt crisis have resulted in economic recession and the advent of political crises that have resulted in changes in governments. In this sense, political institutions are recognised as factors of accumulation of external debt in most developing countries. This paper assesses the role of political factors on the external debt level of African countries in the Franc Zone over the period 1985-2016. Data used come from World Bank and ICRG. Using a logit in panel, the results show that the more a country is politically stable, the lower the external debt compared to the gross domestic product. Political stability multiplies 1.18% the chances of being in the sustainable debt zone. For example, countries with good political institutions experience less severe external debt burdens than countries with bad political institutions.

Keywords: African countries, external debt, Franc Zone, political factors

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4232 The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Gross Domestic Product under Contributions of Level of External Debt in Developing Countries

Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee

Abstract:

This study investigates the fiscal policy impact on countries’ economic growth in developing countries with a different external debt level. The fiscal policy effectiveness has been re-emphasized in the global financial crisis of 2008 with the external debt as its new contemporary driver (Ruščáková and Semančíková, 2016). According to Bouakez, (2014 ) different theories have proposed the economic consequence of fiscal policy, specifically for developing countries. However, fiscal policy literature is lacking research regarding the fiscal policy’s effectiveness with the external debt’s contributions through comprehensive study (Canh, 2018). Also, according to scholars, high levels of external debt will influence economic growth. First, through foreign resources and channel of investment in which high level of debt decreases the amount of foreign investment in the developing countries. Second, through the deterioration of foreign investors and fiscal policies related to a high level of debt (Cordella, et.al., 2010). Therefore, this study proposed that only countries with a low external debt level and appropriate fiscal policies and good quality institutions can gain the proper quantity and quality of foreign investors, which will help the economic growth. For this, this research is examining the impact of fiscal policy on developing countries' economic growth in the situation of different external debt levels.

Keywords: fiscal policy, external debt, gross domestic product, developing countries

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4231 Impact of Foreign Debt on Economic Growth of Nigeria

Authors: Gylych Jelilov

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of foreign debt on economic growth. Example has been chosen from Africa, Nigeria. By conducting cointegration test we have tested for a long-run relationship between. GDP = Real gross domestic product, EXTDEBT = External debt, INT = Interest rate, CAB = Current account balance, and EXCHR = Real exchange rate over the period 1990 to 2012. It was found out by the study that there is a negative but insignificant relationship between external debt and real gross domestic product. While a positive relationship exists between external debt and economic growth. Also, showed a negative and significant relationship between interest rate and real gross domestic product and there was a positive but insignificant relationship between current account balance and real gross domestic product.

Keywords: economic growth, foreign debt, Nigeria, sustainable development, economic stability

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4230 The Conditionality of Financial Risk: A Comparative Analysis of High-Tech and Utility Companies Listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SSE)

Authors: Joseph Paul Chunga

Abstract:

The investment universe is awash with a myriad of financial choices that investors have to opt for, which principally culminates into a duality between aggressive or conservative approaches. Howbeit, it is pertinent to emphasize that the investment vehicles with an aggressive approach tend to take on more risk than the latter group in an effort to generate higher future returns for their respective investors. This study examines the conditionality effect that such partiality in financing has on the High-Tech and Public Utility companies listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SSE). Specifically, it examines the significance of the relationship between capitalization ratios of Total Debt Ratio (TDR), Degree of Financial Leverage (DFL) and profitability ratios of Earnings per Share (EPS) and Returns on Equity (ROE) on the Financial Risk of the two industries. We employ a modified version of the Panel Regression Model used by Rahman (2017) to estimate the relationship. The study finds that there is a significant positive relationship between the capitalization ratios on the financial risk of Public Utility companies more than High-Tech companies and a substantial negative relationship between the profitability ratios and the financial risk of the former than the latter companies. This then spells an important insight for prospective investors with regards to the volatility of earnings of such companies.

Keywords: financial leverage, debt financing, conservative firms, aggressive firms

Procedia PDF Downloads 86