Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 402

Search results for: alcohol

282 Teen Insights into Drugs, Alcohol, and Nicotine: A National Survey of Adolescent Attitudes toward Addictive Substances

Authors: Linda Richter


Background and Significance: The influence of parents on their children’s attitudes and behaviors is immense, even as children grow out of what one might assume to be their most impressionable years and into teenagers. This study specifically examines the potential that parents have to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent substance use, even in the face of considerable environmental influences to use nicotine, alcohol, or drugs. Methodology: The findings presented are based on a nationally representative survey of 1,014 teens aged 12-17 living in the United States. Data were collected using an online platform in early 2018. About half the sample was female (51%), 49% was aged 12-14, and 51% was aged 15-17. The margin of error was +/- 3.5%. Demographic data on the teens and their families were available through the survey platform. Survey items explored adolescent respondents’ exposure to addictive substances; the extent to which their sources of information about these substances are reliable or credible; friends’ and peers’ substance use; their own intentions to try substances in the future; and their relationship with their parents. Key Findings: Exposure to nicotine, alcohol, or other drugs and misinformation about these substances were associated with a greater likelihood that adolescents have friends who use drugs and that they have intentions to try substances in the future, which are known to directly predict actual teen substance use. In addition, teens who reported a positive relationship with their parents and having parents who are involved in their lives had a lower likelihood of having friends who use drugs and of having intentions to try substances in the future. This relationship appears to be mediated by parents’ ability to reduce the extent to which their children are exposed to substances in their environment and to misinformation about them. Indeed, the findings indicated that teens who reported a good relationship with their parents and those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring had significantly higher odds of reporting a lower number of risk factors than teens with a less positive relationship with parents or less monitoring. There also were significantly greater risk factors associated with substance use among older teens relative to younger teens. This shift appears to coincide directly with the tendency of parents to pull back in their monitoring and their involvement in their adolescent children’s lives. Conclusion: The survey findings underscore the importance of resisting the urge to completely pull back as teens age and demand more independence since that is exactly when the risks for teen substance use spike and young people need their parents and other trusted adults to be involved more than ever. Particularly through the cultivation of a healthy, positive, and open relationship, parents can help teens receive accurate and credible information about substance use and also monitor their whereabouts and exposure to addictive substances. These findings, which come directly from teens themselves, demonstrate the importance of continued parental engagement throughout children’s lives, regardless of their age and the disincentives to remaining involved and connected.

Keywords: Prevention, Adolescent, substance use, parental monitoring

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281 Assessment of HIV/Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection among Patients Living with HIV in Northern and Southern Region of Nigeria

Authors: Folajinmi Oluwasina, Greg Abiaziem, Moses Luke, Mobolaji Kolawole, Nancy Yibowei, Anne Taiwo


Background: Occurrence of HIV infection has an adverse effect on the natural causes of Hepatitis B Viral (HBV) infection, faster progression of hepatic fibrosis demonstrated in patients with co-infection. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients, and to retrospectively evaluate laboratory characteristics of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patient files for all HIV-infected cases followed-up and treated at 52 health facilities. Among HIV-infected cases, those with HBsAg positivity and HIV/Hepatitis B co-infection were determined. Socio demographic, alcohol or substance use, ART, CD4, Viral Load levels and treatment durations were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 125 HIV-infected patients evaluated retrospectively, 17 (13.6%) had HBsAg positivity. Of these 17 cases were 11(64.7%) male and 6 (35.3%) female, with a mean age of 48.7 years. No patients had a history of alcohol or substance use. The mean duration of follow up was 28 months. 9 (52.9%) patients had negative HBV DNA at presentation while 8(47%) had positive HBV DNA, with normal ALT levels in all subjects. Among the 9 cases with negative HBV DNA who had no indication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In five cases, treatment was commenced since HBV DNA was elevated in conjunction with low CD4. One patient in whom treatment was not indicated based on HBV DNA and CD4 levels in conjunction with the absence of AIDS defining clinical picture was currently being followed-up without treatment. Of the patients receiving HAART therapy, the average CD4 count at presentation was 278 cells/mm3 vs. 466 cells/mm3 at the end of 12 months. In three subjects with positive HBV DNA, a decrease in HBV DNA was noted after initiation of treatment. In four patients with negative DNA who received treatment, the HBV DNA negative status was found to remain, while one patient who did not receive treatment had elevated HBV DNA and decreased CD4 levels. Conclusion: It was shown that this group of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection, HAART was found to be associated with a decrease in HBV DNA in HBV DNA positive cases, absence of transition to positivity among those with negative HBV DNA, and with increased CD4 in all subjects.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, Dna, co-Infection, anti retroviral therapy

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280 Healthy Lifestyle and Quality of Life in Carintia Region, Slovenia

Authors: Pirjo Kaakinen, Helvi Kyngäs, Danica Železnik


People live longer than earlier and healthy lifestyle is one of the important issue to prevent functional inability and chronic disease. Aim of this study was describe the lifestyle changes of Carintia region’s people. The study was cross-sectional study. Data were collected by questionnaire in two period, first May 2013 (N=63) and on March 2014 (N=77) at the University of College of ‘Health Sciences Slovenj Gradec’. The study was part of project ‘Choose a healthy lifestyle - an investment for the future’. The questionnaire included self-estimated questions about physical activity, nutrition, grocery habit, smoking habit and alcohol use. Participants were measured clinical parameters such as blood pressure, blood glucose, BMI. Most of participants were women (61%) and they were over 60 years old (64%). Participants have a high BMI (75%) and elevated blood pressure (64%). However, almost all participants (89%) had normal blood glucose level. Slightly more than half of participants (54%) have normal cholesterol level. Participants (83%) eat breakfast in the morning and most of them have three or four daily meals. Fruit and vegetable consumption decrease during this study. Half of participants (51%) drank a litre of water per day and popular beverage was coffee or tea. To drink carbonate beverages was not so popular over 60 year’s old participants than younger one. There was less smokers in 2014 than 2013. Intensity of daily physical activity increased during healthy lifestyle project. The most popular form of physical activity was hiking. This study showed that the project can be effective in the Carintia region’s people lifestyle changes even it was short time. People did changes in their daily life and there were a positive influence physical activity, meal frequency, fruit, vegetable and alcohol consumption. In the future is needed the follow up study to get out longitudinal lifestyle changes.

Keywords: Health Education, Quality of Life, Healthy lifestyle, adults

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279 A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study to Explore Role of Chain Length in Predicting Useful Characteristic Properties of Commodity and Engineering Polymers

Authors: GAURAV MANIK, Lokesh Soni, Sushanta Kumar Sethi


This work attempts to use molecular simulations to create equilibrated structures of a range of commercially used polymers. Generated equilibrated structures for polyvinyl acetate (isotactic), polyvinyl alcohol (atactic), polystyrene, polyethylene, polyamide 66, poly dimethyl siloxane, poly carbonate, poly ethylene oxide, poly amide 12, natural rubber, poly urethane, and polycarbonate (bisphenol-A) and poly ethylene terephthalate are employed to estimate the correct chain length that will correctly predict the chain parameters and properties. Further, the equilibrated structures are used to predict some properties like density, solubility parameter, cohesive energy density, surface energy, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. The simulated densities for polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polycarbonate are 1.15 g/cm3, 1.125 g/cm3, 1.02 g/cm3, 0.84 g/cm3 and 1.223 g/cm3 respectively are found to be in good agreement with the available literature estimates. However, the critical repeating units or the degree of polymerization after which the solubility parameter showed saturation were 15, 20, 25, 10 and 20 respectively. This also indicates that such properties that dictate the miscibility of two or more polymers in their blends are strongly dependent on the chosen polymer or its characteristic properties. An attempt has been made to correlate such properties with polymer properties like Kuhn length, free volume and the energy term which plays a vital role in predicting the mentioned properties. These results help us to screen and propose a useful library which may be used by the research groups in estimating the polymer properties using the molecular simulations of chains with the predicted critical lengths. The library shall help to obviate the need for researchers to spend efforts in finding the critical chain length needed for simulating the mentioned polymer properties.

Keywords: Flory Huggins interaction parameter, Kuhn length, cohesive energy density, free volume

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278 Dielectric Study of Ethanol Water Mixtures at Different Concentration Using Hollow Channel Cantilever Platform

Authors: Maryam S. Ghoraishi, John E. Hawk, Thomas Thundat


Understanding liquid properties in small scale has become important in recent decades as immerging new microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices have been widely used for micro pumps, drug delivery, and many other laboratory-on-microchips analysis. Often in microfluidic devices, fluids are transported electrokinetically. Therefore, extensive knowledge of fluid flow, heat transport, electrokinetics and electrochemistry are key to successful lab on a chip design. Among different microfluidic devices, recently developed hollow channel cantilever offers an ideal platform to study different fluid properties simultaneously without drastic decrease in quality factor which normally occurs when traditional cantilevers operate in the liquid phase. Using hollow channel cantilever, we monitor changes in density and viscosity of liquid while simultaneously investigating dielectric properties of alcohol water binary mixtures. Considerable research has been conducted on alcohol-water mixtures since such a mixture is a typical prototype for biomolecules, Micelle formation, and structural stability of proteins (to name a few). Here we show that hollow channel cantilever can be employed to investigate dielectric properties of ethanol/water mixtures in different concentrations. We study dynamic amplitude shifts of hollow channel cantilever oscillation at different concentrations of ethanol/water for different voltages. Our results show how interactions between solute and solvent, and possibly cluster formation, could change dielectric properties and dipole reorientation of the mixture, as well as the resulting force on the hollow cantilever. For comparison, we also examine higher conductivity ionic mixtures of sodium sulfate solution under the same conditions as low conductivity ethanol/water mixtures. We will show the results from systematic investigation of solvent effects on dielectric properties of the binary mixture. We will also address the question of resolution limits in dielectric study of analyte molecules imposed by solvent concentrations.

Keywords: Low Frequency, dielectric constant, cantilever sensors, ethanol water mixtures

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277 Synthesis and Study the Effect of HNTs on PVA/Chitosan Composite Material

Authors: Malek Ali


Composites materials of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Chitosan (CS) have been synthesized and characterized successfully. HNTs have been added to composites to enhance the mechanical and degradation properties by hydrogen bonding interactions, compatibility, and chemical crosslink between HNTs and PVA. PVA/CS/HNTs composites prepared with different concentration ratio. SEM micrographs of composites surface showed that more agglomeration with more chitosan ratio. Mechanical and degradation properties were characterized and the result indicates that Mechanical and degradation of 80%PVA/5%Chitosan/15%HNTs higher than the others PVA/CS/HNTs composites.

Keywords: Composites, PVA/chitosan, PVA/CS/HNTs, HNTs

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276 Emergency Treatment of Methanol Poisoning: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Priti Kumar Roy, Priyanka Ghosh


Every year a considerable number of people die due to methyl alcohol poisoning, in which most of them die even before proper treatment. This work gives a simple and cheap first aid to those affected individuals by the administration of activated charcoal. In this article, we emphasise on the adsorption capability of activated charcoal for the treatment of poisoning and use an impulsive differential equation to study the effect of activated charcoal during adsorption. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on the adsorption which are incorporated in the model system.

Keywords: Adsorption, impulsive differential equation, activated charcoal, methanol poisoning

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275 Mesoporous Material Nanofibers by Electrospinning

Authors: Sh. Sohrabnezhad, A. Jafarzadeh


In this paper, MCM-41 mesoporous material nanofibers were synthesized by an electrospinning technique. The nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a silica source and fiber forming source, respectively. TEM and SEM images showed synthesis of MCM-41 nanofibers with a diameter of 200 nm. The pore diameter and surface area of calcined MCM-41 nanofibers was 2.2 nm and 970 m2/g, respectively. The morphology of the MCM-41 nanofibers depended on spinning voltages.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, Electrospinning, Porous Materials, Fiber Technology, X-ray techniques

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274 Cellulose Extraction from Pomelo Peel: Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Authors: Jitlada Chumee, Drenpen Seeburin


The cellulose was extracted from pomelo peel and an etherification reaction used for converting cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The pomelo peel was refluxed with 0.5 M HCl and 1 M NaOH solution at 90°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cellulose was bleached with calcium hypochlorite and used as precursor. The precursor was soaked in mixed solution between isopropyl alcohol and 40%w/v NaOH for 12 h. After that, chloroacetic acid was added and reacted at 55°C for 6 h. The optimum condition was 5 g of cellulose: 0.25 mole of NaOH : 0.07 mole of ClCH2COOH with 78.00% of yield. Moreover, the product had 0.54 of degree of substitution (DS).

Keywords: Extraction, pomelo peel, carboxymethyl cellulose, bioplastic

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273 Subtidal Crabs of Oman Sea: New Collections and Biogeographic Considerations

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Seied Mohammad Reza Fatemi, Tooraj Valinassab


The samplings were carried out at 8 stations (Govatr, Pasabandar, Beriss, Ramin, Chabahar, Pozm, Gordim, and Meidani) in subtidal zones of Oman Sea during the year 2009-2010. The specimens were collected by trawl net and preserved in 70% alcohol. A total of 23 species belonged to 9 families and 15 genera were caught. The results of the present study revealed that families Portunidae had the highest species enriched with 9 species. Most of the species had high distribution in the west Indian Ocean (69.56%) and 8.69% of species were endemic. Almost species were similar to those found in the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Biogeography, brachyura, subtidal, Oman Sea

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272 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Novel Hydrogels Based On Chitosan Derivatives

Authors: Mahmoud H. Aboul-Ela, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa


Synthesis of cross-linked hydrogels composed of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different weight ratios in presence of glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. Characterization of the prepared hydrogels was done using FTIR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The prepared hydrogels were investigated as adsorbent materials for some transition metal ions from their aqueous solutions. Moreover, the swell ability of the prepared hydrogels was also investigated in both acidic and alkaline pHs, as well as in simulated body fluid (SBF).

Keywords: Hydrogels, metal uptake, trimethyl chitosan, superabsorbent materials

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271 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Fawad Inam, Kostandinos Katsamangas


Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, Surfactants, Dispersion, de-wrinkling, scanning electronic microscopy

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270 In vitro Establishment and Characterization of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Derived Cancer Stem-Like Cells

Authors: Varsha Salian, Shama Rao, N. Narendra, B. Mohana Kumar


Evolving evidence proposes the existence of a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of undifferentiated, self-renewing cancer stem cells, responsible for exhibiting resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapy, recurrence, metastasis and heterogeneous tumor formation. Importantly, the mechanisms exploited by cancer stem cells to resist chemotherapy are very less understood. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most regularly diagnosed cancer types in India and is associated commonly with alcohol and tobacco use. Therefore, the isolation and in vitro characterization of cancer stem-like cells from patients with OSCC is a critical step to advance the understanding of the chemoresistance processes and for designing therapeutic strategies. With this, the present study aimed to establish and characterize cancer stem-like cells in vitro from OSCC. The primary cultures of cancer stem-like cell lines were established from the tissue biopsies of patients with clinical evidence of an ulceroproliferative lesion and histopathological confirmation of OSCC. The viability of cells assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay showed more than 95% at passage 1 (P1), P2 and P3. Replication rate was performed by plating cells in 12-well plate and counting them at various time points of culture. Cells had a more marked proliferative activity and the average doubling time was less than 20 hrs. After being cultured for 10 to 14 days, cancer stem-like cells gradually aggregated and formed sphere-like bodies. More spheroid bodies were observed when cultured in DMEM/F-12 under low serum conditions. Interestingly, cells with higher proliferative activity had a tendency to form more sphere-like bodies. Expression of specific markers, including membrane proteins or cell enzymes, such as CD24, CD29, CD44, CD133, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is being explored for further characterization of cancer stem-like cells. To summarize the findings, the establishment of OSCC derived cancer stem-like cells may provide scope for better understanding the cause for recurrence and metastasis in oral epithelial malignancies. Particularly, identification and characterization studies on cancer stem-like cells in Indian population seem to be lacking thus provoking the need for such studies in a population where alcohol consumption and tobacco chewing are major risk habits.

Keywords: Characterization, In vitro, oral squamous cell carcinoma, cancer stem-like cells

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269 Effect of Short Chain Alcohols on Bending Rigidity of Lipid Bilayer

Authors: Buti Suryabrahmam, V. A. Raghunathan


We study the effect of short chain alcohols on mechanical properties of saturated lipid bilayers in the fluid phase. The Bending rigidity of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membrane was measured at 28 °C by employing Vesicle Fluctuation Analysis technique. The concentration and chain length (n) of alcohol in the buffer solution were varied from 0 to 1.5 M and from 2 to 8 respectively. We observed a non-linear reduction in the bending rigidity from ~17×10⁻²⁰ J to ~10×10⁻²⁰ J, for all chain lengths of alcohols used in our experiment. We observed approximately three orders of the concentration difference between ethanol and octanol, to show the similar reduction in the bending values. We attribute this phenomenon to thinning of the bilayer due to the adsorption of alcohols at the bilayer-water interface.

Keywords: Alcohols, bending rigidity, DMPC, lipid bilayers

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268 Simulation of Polymeric Precursors Production from Wine Industrial Organic Wastes

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Tanapoom Phuncharoen, Tawiwat Sriwongsa, Kanita Boonruang


The production of dimethyl acetal, isovaleradehyde, and pyridine were simulated using Aspen Plus simulation. Upgrading cleaning water from wine industrial production is the main objective of the project. The winery waste composes of acetaldehyde, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, water, isoamyl alcohol, and isobutanol. The project is separated into three parts; separation, reaction, and purification. Various processes were considered to maximize the profit along with obtaining high purity and recovery of each component with optimum heat duty. The results show a significant value of the product with purity more than 75% and recovery over 98%.

Keywords: Wine, dimethyl acetal, pyridine, aspen plus, isovaleradehyde, polymeric precursors

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267 Efficacy of Some Plant Extract against Larvae and Pupae of American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) including the Effect on Peritropme Membrane

Authors: Deepali Lal, Sudha Summerwar, Jyoutsna Pandey


The resistance of pesticide by the pest is an important matter of concern.The pesticide of plant origin having nontoxic biodegradable and environmentally friendly qualities. The frequent spraying of toxic chemicals is developing resistance to the pesticide. Leaf powder of the plants like Argimone mexicana and Calotropis procera is prepared, Different doses of these plant extracts are given to the Fourth in star stages of Helicoverpa armigera through feeding methods, to find their efficacy the experimental findings will be put under analysis using various parameters. The effect on paritrophic membrane is also studied.

Keywords: Alcohol, Cotton, acetone, plant extract, distillation plant, pipette, castor leaves, grams pods, larvae of helicoverpa armigera, vails, jars

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266 Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Properties of Terbium Manganate-Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Film

Authors: Monalisa Halder, Amit K. Das, Ajit K. Meikap


Polymer nanocomposites are very significant materials both in academia and industry for diverse potential applicability in electronics. Polymer plays the role of matrix element which has low density, flexibility, good mechanical strength and electrical properties. Use of nanosized multiferroic filler in the polymer matrix is suitable to achieve nanocomposites with enhanced magneto-dielectric effect and good mechanical properties both at the same time. Multiferroic terbium manganate (TbMnO₃) nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method using chloride precursors. Terbium manganate-polyvinyl alcohol (TbMnO₃-PVA) nanocomposite film has been prepared by solution casting method. Crystallite size of TbMnO₃ nanoparticle has been calculated to be ~ 40 nm from XRD analysis. Morphological study of the samples has been done by scanning electron microscopy and a well dispersion of the nanoparticles in the PVA matrix has been found. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) exhibits enhancement of thermal stability of the nanocomposite film with the inclusion of TbMnO₃ nanofiller in PVA matrix. The electrical transport properties of the nanocomposite film sample have been studied in the frequency range 20Hz - 2MHz at and above room temperature. The frequency dependent variation of ac conductivity follows universal dielectric response (UDR) obeying Jhonscher’s sublinear power law. Correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism is the dominant charge transport mechanism with maximum barrier height 19 meV above room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant of the sample with frequency has been studied at different temperatures. Real part of dielectric constant at 1 KHz frequency at room temperature of the sample is found to be ~ 8 which is higher than that of the pure PVA film sample (~ 6). Dielectric constant decreases with the increase in frequency. Relaxation peaks have been observed in the variation of imaginary part of electric modulus with frequency. The relaxation peaks shift towards higher frequency as temperature increases probably due to the existence of interfacial polarization in the sample in presence of applied electric field. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the nanocomposite film have been studied under ±40 V applied at different temperatures. I-V characteristic exhibits temperature dependent rectifying nature indicating the formation of Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with barrier height 23 meV. In conclusion, using multiferroic TbMnO₃ nanofiller in PVA matrix, enhanced thermal stability and electrical properties can be achieved.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Schottky diode, TGA, correlated barrier hopping, TbMnO₃

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265 Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes from Mycelial Fungi

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, G. Kvesitadze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, L. Kutateladze, M. Jobava, N. Zakariashvili


Multiple repeated soil-climatic zones in Georgia determines the diversity of microorganisms. Hundreds of microscopic fungi of different genera have been isolated from different ecological niches, including some extreme environments. Biosynthetic ability of microscopic fungi has been studied. Trichoderma ressei, representative of the Ascomycetes secrete cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes that act in synergy to hydrolyze polysaccharide polymers to glucose, xylose and arabinose, which can be fermented to biofuels. The other mesophilic strains producing cellulases are Allesheria terrestris, Chaetomium thermophile, Fusarium oxysporium, Piptoporus betulinus, Penicillium echinulatum, P. purpurogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. wentii, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus etc. In the majority of the cases the cellulases produced by strains of genus Aspergillus usually have high β-glucosidase activity and average endoglucanases levels (with some exceptions), whereas strains representing Trichoderma have high endo enzyme and low β-glucosidase, and hence has limited efficiency in cellulose hydrolysis. Six producers of stable cellulases and xylanases from mesophilic and thermophilic fungi have been selected. By optimization of submerged cultivation conditions, high activities of cellulases and xylanases were obtained. For enzymes purification, their sedimentation by organic solvents such as ethyl alcohol, acetone, isopropanol and by ammonium sulphate in different ratios have been carried out. Best results were obtained with precipitation by ethyl alcohol (1:3.5) and ammonium sulphate. The yields of enzyme according to cellulase activities were 80-85% in both cases. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Trichoderma viride X 33 is 126 U/g, from the strain Penicillium canescence D 85–185U/g and from the strain Sporotrichum pulverulentum T 5-0 110 U/g. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus sp. Av10 is 120 U/g, xylanase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus niger A 7-5–1155U/g and from the strain Aspergillus niger Aj 38-1250 U/g. Optimum pH and temperature of operation and thermostability, of the enzyme preparations, were established. The efficiency of hydrolyses of different agricultural residues by the microscopic fungi cellulases has been studied. The glucose yield from the residues as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis is highly determined by the ratio of enzyme to substrate, pH, temperature, and duration of the process. Hydrolysis efficiency was significantly increased as a result of different pretreatment of the residues by different methods. Acknowledgement: The Study was supported by the ISTC project G-2117, funded by Korea.

Keywords: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, microscopic fungi, cellulase, xylanase

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264 Recognising the Importance of Smoking Cessation Support in Substance Misuse Patients

Authors: Mark Ashworth, Patrick White, Shaine Mehta, Neelam Parmar


Patients with a history of substance have a high prevalence of comorbidities, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mortality rates are higher than that of the general population and the link to respiratory disease is reported. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) support opioid substitution therapy as an effective means for harm reduction. However, whilst a high proportion of patients receiving opioid substitution therapy are smokers, to the author’s best knowledge there have been no studies of respiratory disease and smoking intensity in these patients. A cross sectional prevalence study was conducted using an anonymised patient-level database in primary care, Lambeth DataNet (LDN). We included patients aged 18 years and over who had records of ever having been prescribed methadone in primary care. Patients under 18 years old or prescribed buprenorphine (because of uncertainty about the prescribing indication) were excluded. Demographic, smoking, alcohol and asthma and COPD coding data were extracted. Differences between methadone and non-methadone users were explored with multivariable analysis. LDN contained data on 321, 395 patients ≥ 18 years; 676 (0.16%) had a record of methadone prescription. Patients prescribed methadone were more likely to be male (70.7% vs. 50.4%), older (48.9yrs vs. 41.5yrs) and less likely to be from an ethnic minority group (South Asian 2.1% vs. 7.8%; Black African 8.9% vs. 21.4%). Almost all those prescribed methadone were smokers or ex-smokers (97.3% vs. 40.9%); more were non-alcohol drinkers (41.3% vs. 24.3%). We found a high prevalence of COPD (12.4% vs 1.4%) and asthma (14.2% vs 4.4%). Smoking intensity data shows a high prevalence of ≥ 20 cigarettes per day (21.5% vs. 13.1%). Risk of COPD, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and deprivation, was raised in smokers: odds ratio 14.81 (95%CI 11.26, 19.47), and in the methadone group: OR 7.51 (95%CI: 5.78, 9.77). Furthermore, after adjustment for smoking intensity (number of cigarettes/day), the risk was raised in methadone group: OR 4.77 (95%CI: 3.13, 7.28). High burden of respiratory disease compounded by the high rates of smoking is a public health concern. This supports an integrated approach to health in patients treated for opiate dependence, with access to smoking cessation support. Further work may evaluate the current structure and commissioning of substance misuse services, including smoking cessation. Regression modelling highlights that methadone as a ‘risk factor’ was independently associated with COPD prevalence, even after adjustment for smoking intensity. This merits further exploration, as the association may be related to unexplored aspects of smoking (such as the number of years smoked) or may be related to other related exposures, such as smoking heroin or crack cocaine.

Keywords: Substance Misuse, Smoking cessation, Respiratory Disease, methadone

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263 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi


This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

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262 Protein-Starch-Potassium Iodide Composite as a Sensor for Chlorine in Water

Authors: H. El-Sayed, S. Mowafi, A. Abou El-Kheir, M. Abou Taleb


Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Protein-starch-potassium iodide (PSPI) composite was prepared by anchoring starch and potassium iodide mixture onto the film surface using appropriate polymeric material. The possibility of using PSPI composite for determination of the concentration of chlorine ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of chlorine in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blue colour of formed between starch and the released iodine obtained by interaction of potassium iodide chlorine in the tested water sample.

Keywords: Water, Protein, Chlorine, potassium iodide

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261 Managing Crowds at Sports Mega Events: Examining the Impact of ‘Fan Parks’ at International Football Tournaments between 2002 and 2016

Authors: Joel Rookwood


Sports mega events have become increasingly significant in sporting, political and economic terms, with analysis often focusing on issues including resource expenditure, development, legacy and sustainability. Transnational tournaments can inspire interest from a variety of demographics, and the operational management of such events can involve contributions from a range of personnel. In addition to television audiences events also attract attending spectators, and in football contexts the temporary migration of fans from potentially rival nations and teams can present event organising committees and security personnel with various challenges in relation to crowd management. The behaviour, interaction and control of supporters has previously led to incidents of disorder and hooliganism, with damage to property as well as injuries and deaths proving significant consequences. The Heysel tragedy at the 1985 European Cup final in Brussels is a notable example, where 39 fans died following crowd disorder and mismanagement. Football disasters and disorder, particularly in the context of international competition, have inspired responses from police, law makers, event organisers, clubs and associations, including stadium improvements, legislative developments and crowd management practice to improve the effectiveness of spectator safety. The growth and internationalisation of fandom and developments in event management and tourism have seen various responses to the evolving challenges associated with hosting large numbers of visiting spectators at mega events. In football contexts ‘fan parks’ are a notable example. Since the first widespread introduction in European football competitions at the 2006 World Cup finals in Germany, these facilities have become a staple element of such mega events. This qualitative, longitudinal, multi-continent research draws on extensive semi-structured interview and observation data. As a frame of reference, this work considers football events staged before and after the development of fan parks. Research was undertaken at four World Cup finals (Japan 2002, Germany 2006, South Africa 2010 and Brazil 2014), four European Championships (Portugal 2004, Switzerland/Austria 2008, Poland/Ukraine 2012 and France 2016), four other confederation tournaments (Ghana 2008, Qatar 2011, USA 2011 and Chile 2015), and four European club finals (Istanbul 2005, Athens 2007, Rome 2009 and Basle 2016). This work found that these parks are typically temporarily erected, specifically located zones where supporters congregate together irrespective of allegiances to watch matches on large screens, and partake in other forms of organised on-site entertainment. Such facilities can also allow organisers to control the behaviour, confine the movement and monitor the alcohol consumption of supporters. This represents a notable shift in policy from previous football tournaments, when the widely assumed causal link between alcohol and hooliganism which frequently shaped legislative and police responses to disorder, also dissuaded some authorities from permitting fans to consume alcohol in and around stadia. It also reflects changing attitudes towards modern football fans. The work also found that in certain contexts supporters have increasingly engaged with such provision which impacts fan behaviour, but that this is relative to factors including location, facilities, management and security.

Keywords: Management, facility, event, fan, park

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260 When Talk Is the Cure for the Morning After: Talking Therapy in Conor Mcpherson’s Dublin Carol and Shining City

Authors: Maha Hamoud Alatawi


Drawing on the work of John McLeod and Ariel Watson, this paper explains the relationship between narrative and psychotherapy in two plays by the Irish playwright Conor McPherson. Dublin Carol presents John’s chequered past through his reminiscences of alcohol addiction and Shining City tells the story of John who is haunted by the ghost of his wife, recently died in a car accident, and who seeks the help of Ian, a therapist. At first, the significance of storytelling as an integral part of Irish culture is highlighted. Such a tradition features prominently in contemporary Irish drama. The paper concludes that it is the power of narrative and its therapeutic impact and not the act of psychotherapy and treatment which brings signs of change to characters’ lives.

Keywords: Psychotherapy, drama, storytelling, Conor McPherson

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259 Study Regarding Effect of Isolation on Social Behaviour in Mice

Authors: Ritu Shitak


Humans are social mammals, of the primate order. Our biology, behaviour, and pathologies are unique to us. In our desire to understand, reduce solitary confinement one source of information is the many reports of social isolation of other social mammals, especially primates. A behavioural study was conducted in the department of pharmacology at Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla in Himachal Pradesh province in India using white albino mice. Different behavioural parameters were observed by using open field, tail suspension, tests for aggressive behaviour and social interactions and the effect of isolation was studied. The results were evaluated and the standard statistics were applied. The said study was done to establish facts that isolation itself impairs social behaviour and can lead to alcohol dependence as well as related drug dependence.

Keywords: social isolation, albino mice, drug dependence, isolation on social behaviour

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258 Experimental Assessment of Artificial Flavors Production

Authors: M. Unis, S. Turky, A. Elalem, A. Meshrghi


The Esterification kinetics of acetic acid with isopropnol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a homogenous catalyst was studied with isothermal batch experiments at 60,70 and 80°C and at a different molar ratio of isopropnol to acetic acid. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction indicated that the low of molar ratio is favored for esterification reaction, this is due to the reaction is catalyzed by acid. The maximum conversion, approximately 60.6% was obtained at 80°C for molar ratio of 1:3 acid : alcohol. It was found that increasing temperature of the reaction, increases the rate constant and conversion at a certain mole ratio, that is due to the esterification is exothermic. The homogenous reaction has been described with simple power-law model. The chemical equilibrium combustion calculated from the kinetic model in agreement with the measured chemical equilibrium.

Keywords: esterification, artificial flavors, chemical equilibria, isothermal

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257 Separation of Some Pyrethroid Insecticides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Fairouz Tazerouti, Samira Ihadadene


Pyrethroids are synthetic pesticides that originated from the modification of natural pyrethrins to improve their biological activity and stability. They are a family of chiral pesticides with a large number of stereoisomers. Enantiomers of synthetic pyretroids present different insecticidal activity, toxicity against aquatic invertebrates and persistence in the environment so the development of rapid and sensitive chiral methods for the determination of different enantiomers is necessary. In this study, the separation of enantiomers of pyrethroid insecticides has been systematically studied using three commercially chiral high-performance liquid chromatography columns. Useful resolution was obtained for compounds with a variety of acid and alcohol moieties, and containing one to four chiral centres. The chromatographic behaviour of the diastereomers of some of these insecticides by using normal, polar and reversed mobile phase mode were also examined.

Keywords: Analysis, Pesticides, liquid chromatography, pyrethroids

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256 An Analysis of Motorcycle Accidents in Spain (2006-2011)

Authors: Francisco Toledo-Castillo, María Josefa Sospedra-Baeza, Sergio Hidalgo-Fuentes


Motorcycles constitute about 9% of all motorized vehicles in Spain and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 21% of total accidents. Six years of motorcycle accident data were obtained through the national accident database of Spain (Dirección General de Tráfico). Some of the studied factors are age, gender, helmet wearing, alcohol consumption, speeding, subject’s driving license and for how long it has been held, the trip purpose, and the presence of a passenger on the vehicle. Key findings show helmet use, unsafe speed, the trip purpose, weather, distraction, collision type and other variables play significant roles in crash-injury outcomes. Finally, we examine evolution of mortality and severity from 2006 to 2011.

Keywords: Statistics, Risk Factors, Spain, motorcycle accidents

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255 Bioremediation of Phenol in Wastewater Using Polymer-Supported Bacteria

Authors: Areej K. Al-Jwaid, Dmitiry Berllio, Andrew Cundy, Irina Savina, Jonathan L. Caplin


Phenol is a toxic compound that is widely distributed in the environment including the atmosphere, water and soil, due to the release of effluents from the petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries, coking plants and oil refineries. Moreover, a range of daily products, using phenol as a raw material, may find their way into the environment without prior treatment. The toxicity of phenol effects both human and environment health, and various physio-chemical methods to remediate phenol contamination have been used. While these techniques are effective, their complexity and high cost had led to search for alternative strategies to reduce and eliminate high concentrations of phenolic compounds in the environment. Biological treatments are preferable because they are environmentally friendly and cheaper than physico-chemical approaches. Some microorganisms such as Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococus sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. have shown a high ability to degrade phenolic compounds to provide a sole source of energy. Immobilisation process utilising various materials have been used to protect and enhance the viability of cells, and to provide structural support for the bacterial cells. The aim of this study is to develop a new approach to the bioremediation of phenol based on an immobilisation strategy that can be used in wastewater. In this study, two bacterial species known to be phenol degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas mendocina and Rhodococus koreensis) were purchased from National Collection of Industrial, Food and Marine Bacteria (NCIMB). The two species and mixture of them were immobilised to produce macro porous crosslinked cell cryogels samples by using four types of cross-linker polymer solutions in a cryogelation process. The samples were used in a batch culture to degrade phenol at an initial concentration of 50mg/L at pH 7.5±0.3 and a temperature of 30°C. The four types of polymer solution - i. glutaraldehyde (GA), ii. Polyvinyl alcohol with glutaraldehyde (PVA+GA), iii. Polyvinyl alcohol–aldehyde (PVA-al) and iv. Polyetheleneimine–aldehyde (PEI-al), were used at different concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% to crosslink the cells. The results of SEM and rheology analysis indicated that cell-cryogel samples crosslinked with the four cross-linker polymers formed monolithic macro porous cryogels. The samples were evaluated for their ability to degrade phenol. Macro porous cell–cryogels crosslinked with GA and PVA+GA showed an ability to degrade phenol for only one week, while the other samples crosslinked with a combination of PVA-al + PEI-al at two different concentrations have shown higher stability and viability to reuse to degrade phenol at concentration (50 mg/L) for five weeks. The initial results of using crosslinked cell cryogel samples to degrade phenol indicate that is a promising tool for bioremediation strategies especially to eliminate and remove the high concentration of phenol in wastewater.

Keywords: Bioremediation, phenol degradation, crosslinked cells, immobilisation

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254 Effectivity Analysis of The Decontamination Products for Radioactive 99mTc Used in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Hayrettin Eroglu, Oguz Aksakal


In this study, it is analysed that which decontamination products are more effective and how decontamination process should be performed in the case of contamination of radioactive 99mTc which is the most common radioactive element used in nuclear applications dealing with the human body or the environment. Based on the study, it is observed that existing radioactive washers are less effective than expected, alcohol has no effect on the decontamination of 99mTc, and temperature and pH are the most important factors. In the light of the analysis, it is concluded that the most effective decontamination product is DM-D (Decontamination Material-D). When the effect of DM-D on surfaces is analysed, it is observed that decontamination is very fast on scrubs and formica with both DM-D and water, and although DM-D is very effective on skin, it is not effective on f ceramic tiles and plastic floor covering material. Also in this study, the effectiveness of different molecular groups in the decontaminant was investigated. As a result, the acetate group has been observed as the most effective component of the decontaminant.

Keywords: Contamination, decontamination, radioactive, technetium

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253 Protein-Thiocyanate Composite as a Sensor for Iron III Cations

Authors: Hosam El-Sayed, Amira Abou El-Kheir, Salwa Mowafi, Marwa Abou Taleb


Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Proteinium thiocyanate (PTC) composite was prepared by reaction of a regenerated film with potassium thiocyanate in acid medium. In another experiment, the said acidified proteins were reacted with potassium thiocyante before dissolution and regeneration in a form of PTC composite. The possibility of using PTC composite for determination of the concentration of iron III ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of iron III cations in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blood red colour of iron III thiocyanate obtained by interaction of PTC with iron III cation in the tested water sample.

Keywords: Sensor, Water, Protein, iron III cations, thiocyanate

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