Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7129

Search results for: second language vocabulary learning

7129 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

Abstract:

Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

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7128 Chinese Vocabulary Acquisition and Mobile Assisted Language Learning

Authors: Yuqing Sun

Abstract:

Chinese has been regarded as one of the most difficult languages in learning due to its complex spelling structure, difficult pronunciation, as well as its varying forms. Since vocabulary acquisition is the basic process to acquire a language, to express yourself, to compose a sentence, and to conduct a communication, so learning the vocabulary is of great importance. However, the vocabulary contains pronunciation, spelling, recognition and application which may seem as a huge work. This may pose a question for the language teachers (language teachers in China who teach Chinese to the foreign students): How to teach them in an effective way? Traditionally, teachers have no choice but teach it all by themselves, then with the development of technology, they can use computer as a tool to help them (Computer Assisted Language Learning or CALL). Now, they move into the Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) method to guide their teaching, upon which the appraisal is convincing. It diversifies the learning material and the way of output, which can activate learners’ curiosity and accelerate their understanding. This paper will focus on actual case studies occurring in the universities in China of teaching the foreign students to learn Chinese, and the analysis of the utilization of WeChat channel as an example of MALL model to explore the active role of MALL to enhance the effectiveness of Chinese vocabulary acquisition.

Keywords: Chinese, vocabulary acquisition, MALL, case

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7127 EFL Saudi Students' Use of Vocabulary via Twitter

Authors: A. Alshabeb

Abstract:

Vocabulary is one of the elements that links the four skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening and is very critical in learning a foreign language. This study aims to determine how Saudi Arabian EFL students learn English vocabulary via Twitter. The study adopts a mixed sequential research design in collecting and analysing data. The results of the study provide several recommendations for vocabulary learning. Moreover, the study can help teachers to consider the possibilities of using Twitter further, and perhaps to develop new approaches to vocabulary teaching and to support students in their use of social media.

Keywords: social media, twitter, vocabulary, web 2

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
7126 Using Happening Performance in Vocabulary Teaching

Authors: Mustafa Gultekin

Abstract:

It is believed that drama can be used in language classes to create a positive atmosphere for students to use the target language in an interactive way. Thus, drama has been extensively used in many settings in language classes. Although happening has been generally used as a performance art of theatre, this new kind of performance has not been widely known in language teaching area. Therefore, it can be an innovative idea to use happening in language classes, and thus a positive environment can be created for students to use the language in an interactive way. Happening can be defined as an art performance that puts emphasis on interaction in an audience. Because of its interactive feature, happening can also be used in language classes to motivate students to use the language in an interactive environment. The present study aims to explain how a happening performance can be applied to a learning environment to teach vocabulary in English. In line with this purpose, a learning environment was designed for a vocabulary presentation lesson. At the end of the performance, students were asked to compare the traditional way of teaching and happening performance in terms of effectiveness. It was found that happening performance provided the students with a more creative and interactive environment to use the language. Therefore, happening can be used in language classrooms as an innovative tool for education.

Keywords: English, happening, language learning, vocabulary teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7125 Exploring Smartphone Applications for Enhancing Second Language Vocabulary Learning

Authors: Abdulmajeed Almansour

Abstract:

Learning a foreign language with the assistant of technological tools has become an interest of learners and educators. Increased use of smartphones among undergraduate students has made them popular for not only social communication but also for entertainment and educational purposes. Smartphones have provided remarkable advantages in language learning process. Learning vocabulary is an important part of learning a language. The use of smartphone applications for English vocabulary learning provides an opportunity for learners to improve vocabulary knowledge beyond the classroom wall anytime anywhere. Recently, various smartphone applications were created specifically for vocabulary learning. This paper aims to explore the use of smartphone application Memrise designed for vocabulary learning to enhance academic vocabulary among undergraduate students. It examines whether the use of a Memrise smartphone application designed course enhances the academic vocabulary learning among ESL learners. The research paradigm used in this paper followed a mixed research model combining quantitative and qualitative research. The study included two hundred undergraduate students randomly assigned to the experimental and controlled group during the first academic year at the Faculty of English Language, Imam University. The research instruments included an attitudinal questionnaire and an English vocabulary pre-test administered to students at the beginning of the semester whereas post-test and semi-structured interviews administered at the end of the semester. The findings of the attitudinal questionnaire revealed a positive attitude towards using smartphones in learning vocabulary. The post-test scores showed a significant difference in the experimental group performance. The results from the semi-structure interviews showed that there were positive attitudes towards Memrise smartphone application. The students found the application enjoyable, convenient and efficient learning tool. From the study, the use of the Memrise application is seen to have long-term and motivational benefits to students. For this reason, there is a need for further research to identify the long-term optimal effects of learning a language using smartphone applications.

Keywords: second language vocabulary learning, academic vocabulary, mobile learning technologies, smartphone applications

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7124 Comparison Learning Vocabulary Implicitly and Explicitly

Authors: Akram Hashemi

Abstract:

This study provided an empirical evidence for learners of elementary level of language proficiency to investigate the potential role of contextualization in vocabulary learning. Prior to the main study, pilot study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the researcher-made pretest and posttest. After manifesting the homogeneity of the participants, the participants (n = 90) were randomly assigned into three equal groups, i.e., two experimental groups and a control group. They were pretested by a vocabulary test, in order to test participants' pre-knowledge of vocabulary. Then, vocabulary instruction was provided through three methods of visual instruction, the use of context and the use of conventional techniques. At the end of the study, all participants took the same posttest in order to assess their vocabulary gain. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is a significant difference between learning vocabulary visually and learning vocabulary contextually. The results of paired sample t-test showed that different teaching strategies have significantly different impacts on learners’ vocabulary gains. Also, the contextual strategy was significantly more effective than visual strategy in improving students’ performance in vocabulary test.

Keywords: vocabulary instruction, explicit instruction, implicit instruction, strategy

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7123 Methodological Issues of Teaching Vocabulary in a Technical University

Authors: Elza Salakhova

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to consider some common difficulties encountered in teaching vocabulary in technical higher educational institutions. It deals with the problem of teaching special vocabulary in the process of teaching a foreign language. There have been analyzed some problems in teaching a foreign language to learners of a technical higher establishment. There are some recommendations for teachers to motivate their students to learn and master a foreign language through learning terminology.

Keywords: professionally-oriented study, motivation, technical university, foreign language

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7122 Grounding Chinese Language Vocabulary Teaching and Assessment in the Working Memory Research

Authors: Chan Kwong Tung

Abstract:

Since Baddeley and Hitch’s seminal research in 1974 on working memory (WM), this topic has been of great interest to language educators. Although there are some variations in the definitions of WM, recent findings in WM have contributed vastly to our understanding of language learning, especially its effects on second language acquisition (SLA). For example, the phonological component of WM (PWM) and the executive component of WM (EWM) have been found to be positively correlated with language learning. This paper discusses two general, yet highly relevant WM findings that could directly affect the effectiveness of Chinese Language (CL) vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as the quality of its assessment. First, PWM is found to be critical for the long-term learning of phonological forms of new words. Second, EWM is heavily involved in interpreting the semantic characteristics of new words, which consequently affects the quality of learners’ reading comprehension. These two ideas are hardly discussed in the Chinese literature, both conceptual and empirical. While past vocabulary acquisition studies have mainly focused on the cognitive-processing approach, active processing, ‘elaborate processing’ (or lexical elaboration) and other effective learning tasks and strategies, it is high time to balance the spotlight to the WM (particularly PWM and EWM) to ensure an optimum control on the teaching and learning effectiveness of such approaches, as well as the validity of this language assessment. Given the unique phonological, orthographical and morphological properties of the CL, this discussion will shed some light on the vocabulary acquisition of this Sino-Tibetan language family member. Together, these two WM concepts could have crucial implications for the design, development, and planning of vocabularies and ultimately reading comprehension teaching and assessment in language education. Hopefully, this will raise an awareness and trigger a dialogue about the meaning of these findings for future language teaching, learning, and assessment.

Keywords: Chinese Language, working memory, vocabulary assessment, vocabulary teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
7121 The Use of Semantic Mapping Technique When Teaching English Vocabulary at Saudi Schools

Authors: Mohammed Hassan Alshaikhi

Abstract:

Vocabulary is essential factor of learning and mastering any languages, and it helps learners to communicate with others and to be understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether semantic mapping technique was helpful in terms of improving student's English vocabulary learning comparing to the traditional technique. The students’ age was between 11 and 13 years old. There were 60 students in total who participated in this study. 30 students were in the treatment group (target vocabulary items were taught with semantic mapping). The other 30 students were in the control group (the target vocabulary items were taught by a traditional technique). A t-test was used with the results of pre-test and post-test in order to examine the outcomes of using semantic mapping when teaching vocabulary. The results showed that the vocabulary mastery in the treatment group was increased more than the control group.

Keywords: English language, learning vocabulary, Saudi teachers, semantic mapping, teaching vocabulary strategies

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7120 A Comparison of the First Language Vocabulary Used by Indonesian Year 4 Students and the Vocabulary Taught to Them in English Language Textbooks

Authors: Fitria Ningsih

Abstract:

This study concerns on the process of making corpus obtained from Indonesian year 4 students’ free writing compared to the vocabulary taught in English language textbooks. 369 students’ sample writings from 19 public elementary schools in Malang, East Java, Indonesia and 5 selected English textbooks were analyzed through corpus in linguistics method using AdTAT -the Adelaide Text Analysis Tool- program. The findings produced wordlists of the top 100 words most frequently used by students and the top 100 words given in English textbooks. There was a 45% match between the two lists. Furthermore, the classifications of the top 100 most frequent words from the two corpora based on part of speech found that both the Indonesian and English languages employed a similar use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions. Moreover, to see the contextualizing the vocabulary of learning materials towards the students’ need, a depth-analysis dealing with the content and the cultural views from the vocabulary taught in the textbooks was discussed through the criteria developed from the checklist. Lastly, further suggestions are addressed to language teachers to understand the students’ background such as recognizing the basic words students acquire before teaching them new vocabulary in order to achieve successful learning of the target language.

Keywords: corpus, frequency, English, Indonesian, linguistics, textbooks, vocabulary, wordlists, writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
7119 Raising Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Scores through Purpose-Driven Vocabulary Acquisition

Authors: Edward Sarich, Jack Ryan

Abstract:

In contrast to learning new vocabulary incidentally in one’s first language, foreign language vocabulary is often acquired purposefully, because a lack of natural exposure requires it to be studied in an artificial environment. It follows then that foreign language vocabulary may be more efficiently acquired if it is purpose-driven, or linked to a clear and desirable outcome. The research described in this paper relates to the early stages of what is seen as a long-term effort to measure the effectiveness of a methodology for purpose-driven foreign language vocabulary instruction, specifically by analyzing whether directed studying from high-frequency vocabulary lists leads to an improvement in Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) scores. The research was carried out in two sections of a first-year university English composition class at a small university in Japan. The results seem to indicate that purposeful study from relevant high-frequency vocabulary lists can contribute to raising TOEIC scores and that the test preparation methodology used in this study was thought by students to be beneficial in helping them to prepare to take this high-stakes test.

Keywords: corpus vocabulary, language asssessment, second language vocabulary acquisition, TOEIC test preparation

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7118 Using Vocabulary Instructional Materials in Improving the Grade Four Students' Learning in Science

Authors: Shirly May Balais

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the effects of vocabulary instruction in improving the students’ learning in science. The teacher-researcher utilized the vocabulary instructional materials in enriching the science vocabulary of grade four learners. The students were also given an achievement test to determine the effects of vocabulary instructional materials. The assessment indicated that students had shown improvement in comprehension and science literacy. This also helps the students to grasp, understand, and communicate appropriate science concepts and the integration of imagery makes learning science fun. In this research, descriptive qualitative methods and observation interviews were used to describe the effects of using vocabulary instructional materials in improving the science vocabulary of grade four learners. The students’ perceptions were studied, analyzed, and interpreted qualitatively.

Keywords: instruction, learning, science, vocabulary

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7117 Improving Young Learners' Vocabulary Acquisition: A Pilot Program in a Game-Based Environment

Authors: Vasiliki Stratidou

Abstract:

Modern simulation mobile games have the potential to enhance students’ interest, motivation and creativity. Research conducted on the effectiveness of digital games for educational purposes has shown that such games are also ideal at providing an appropriate environment for language learning. The paper examines the issue of simulation mobile games in regard to the potential positive impacts on L2 vocabulary learning. Sixteen intermediate level students, aged 10-14, participated in the experimental study for four weeks. The participants were divided into experimental (8 participants) and control group (8 participants). The experimental group was planned to learn some new vocabulary words via digital games while the control group used a reading passage to learn the same vocabulary words. The study investigated the effect of mobile games as well as the traditional learning methods on Greek EFL learners’ vocabulary learning in a pre-test, an immediate post-test, and a two-week delayed retention test. A teacher’s diary and learners’ interviews were also used as tools to estimate the effectiveness of the implementation. The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in acquiring new words through mobile games. Therefore, digital games proved to be an effective tool in learning English vocabulary.

Keywords: control group, digital games, experimental group, second language vocabulary learning, simulation games

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7116 Vocabulary Paradigm in Learning Romanian As a Foreign Language

Authors: Georgiana Ciobotaru

Abstract:

The vocabulary that foreign students assimilate once they start studying the Romanian language must allow them to develop the linguistic competence of oral and written expression, but also the intercultural one, necessary for their integration into the new socio-cultural environment. Therefore, the familiarization courses with Romanian as a foreign language aim at fundamental language acquisitions in order to obtain the expected level of Romanian language. They also relate differently to the new culture and the new language they come in contact with, having a distinct way of expressing themselves. Foreign students want to continue their university and postgraduate studies at specialized faculties in the country; therefore, they need both a general language for their integration into society and for interaction with others, Romanians or students from countries other than their own, but also from a specialized language that facilitates didactic communication and professional development. The complexity of the vocabulary must thus cover the daily communication needs, but also the subsequent evolution of each one. This paper aims to illustrate the most important semantic fields that students must assimilate in order to crystallize a linguistic identity in the new context of their personal and professional development and to help them cope with the culture shock.

Keywords: integration, intercultural, language, linguistic, vocabulary

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7115 Learning Vocabulary with SkELL: Developing a Methodology with University Students in Japan Using Action Research

Authors: Henry R. Troy

Abstract:

Corpora are becoming more prevalent in the language classroom, especially in the development of dictionaries and course materials. Nevertheless, corpora are still perceived by many educators as difficult to use directly in the classroom, a process which is also known as “data-driven learning” (DDL). Action research has been identified as a method by which DDL’s efficiency can be increased, but it is also an approach few studies on DDL have employed. Studies into the effectiveness of DDL in language education in Japan are also rare, and investigations focused more on student and teacher reactions rather than pre and post-test scores are rarer still. This study investigates the student and teacher reactions to the use of SkELL, a free online corpus designed to be user-friendly, for vocabulary learning at a university in Japan. Action research is utilized to refine the teaching methodology, with changes to the method based on student and teacher feedback received via surveys submitted after each of the four implementations of DDL. After some training, the students used tablets to study the target vocabulary autonomously in pairs and groups, with the teacher acting as facilitator. The results show that the students enjoyed using SkELL and felt it was effective for vocabulary learning, while the teaching methodology grew in efficiency throughout the course. These findings suggest that action research can be a successful method for increasing the efficacy of DDL in the language classroom, especially with teachers and students who are new to the practice.

Keywords: action research, corpus linguistics, data-driven learning, vocabulary learning

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7114 To Gamify Learning English Academic Vocabulary Through Interactive Web-Based E-Books: International Students

Authors: Rabea Alfahad

Abstract:

Learning English academic vocabulary poses a challenge on learning English.In this study, we harnessed interactive web-based e-books, and usedgamification and collaborative responsive writingto teach English academic vocabulary. We recruited 50 international students to investigate the impact of gamification on the participants’ learning gains. In so doing, the participants were randomly assigned to two groups: one group learned English academic vocabulary with gamification, and the second group learnedthem with traditional instructional methods. We used a pre/posttest to gauge the students’ cognitive attainment. We then administered independent samples t-test to find out the impact of gamification on learning academic vocabulary. We also employed an IMMS to collect data regarding the motivational level of the students. We administered a MANOVA test to measure the motivational level of the students in both groups. The results of this study suggested that …

Keywords: english language learners, technologhy integration, teaching, gamification

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7113 Motivation on Vocabulary and Reading Skill via Teacher-Created Website for Thai Students

Authors: P. Klinkesorn, S. Yordchim, T. Gibbs, J. Achariyopas

Abstract:

Vocabulary and reading skill were examined in terms of teaching and learning via teacher-created website. The aims of this study are 1) to survey students’ opinions on the teacher-created website for learning vocabulary and reading skill 2) to survey the students’ motivation for learning vocabulary and reading skill through the teacher-created website. Motivation was applied to the results of the questionnaires and interview forms. Finding suggests that Teacher-Created Website can increase students’ motivation to read more, build up a large stock of vocabulary and improve their understanding of the vocabulary. Implications for developing both social engagement and emotional satisfaction are discussed.

Keywords: motivation, teacher-created website, Thai students, vocabulary and reading skill

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7112 Factors Affecting English Language Acquisition and Learning for Primary Schools in Nigeria

Authors: Chibuzor Dalmeida

Abstract:

This paper shall discuss the factors affecting English Language Acquisition and Learning for Primary School in Nigeria. Learning English language is a difficult task mostly those at the primary school level. Pupils find it more difficult on vocabulary, grammar and sentence structure, idioms, pronunciation etc. Researchers have discovered the reasons behind these discrepancies and have formulated theories that could be of utmost assistance to English language teachers and students. This paper further looked at the following factors that include Learner Characteristics and Personal Traits, Situational and Environmental Factors, Prior Language Development and Competence and Age and Brain Development. It further recommended that pupils must learn new vocabulary, rules for grammar and sentence structure, idioms, pronunciation. Pupils whose families and communities set high standards for language acquisition learn more quickly than those who do not. Exposure to high-quality programs also essential. Pupils do best when they are allowed to speak their native language.

Keywords: acquisition, affecting, factors, learning

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7111 The Role of Vocabulary in Reading Comprehension

Authors: Engku Haliza Engku Ibrahim, Isarji Sarudin, Ainon Jariah Muhamad

Abstract:

It is generally agreed that many factors contribute to one’s reading comprehension and there is consensus that vocabulary size one of the main factors. This study explores the relationship between second language learners’ vocabulary size and their reading comprehension scores. 130 Malay pre-university students of a public university participated in this study. They were students of an intensive English language programme doing preparatory English courses to pursue bachelors degree in English. A quantitative research method was employed based on the Vocabulary Levels Test by Nation (1990) and the reading comprehension score of the in-house English Proficiency Test. A review of the literature indicates that a somewhat positive correlation is to be expected though findings of this study can only be explicated once the final analysis has been carried out. This is an ongoing study and it is anticipated that results of this research will be finalized in the near future. The findings will help provide beneficial implications for the prediction of reading comprehension performance. It also has implications for the teaching of vocabulary in the ESL context. A better understanding of the relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension scores will enhance teachers’ and students’ awareness of the importance of vocabulary acquisition in the L2 classroom.

Keywords: vocabulary size, vocabulary learning, reading comprehension, ESL

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7110 DDl Tasks and Involvement Load Hypothesis

Authors: Zaha Alanazi

Abstract:

Despite the increasing research on the benefits of using corpora in language teaching and learning, data-driven learning (DDL) research has been criticized for its lack of contribution to second language theories. This paper intends to address this gap by examining the assumptions of the involvement load hypothesis (ILH) using two DDL tasks with different cognitive loads. Learners were assigned to one of two conditions: reading only or translation. Based on ILH, translation is more effective than reading in learning vocabulary, as it induces more cognitive involvement (Laufer &Hulstjin, 2001). The two groups received a pretest to ensure their unfamiliarity with six target words. Each group underwent one instructional session under one of the two conditions. After the session, students took three immediate post tests on the six target items: active recall of form, passive recall of meaning, and production. Contrary to the expectations of ILH, the results of the immediate post tests showed no statistically significant difference in the mean of vocabulary knowledge between the two groups. In addition, in the delayed test, the reading-only group showed statistically higher scores in the active recall of form than their translation peers. The findings highlight some important theoretical and pedagogical implications for using DDL tasks, particularly for EFL vocabulary learning.

Keywords: corpora, foreign language acquisition, ILH, vocabulary, cognitive load, DDL

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7109 A Comparative Analysis of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among EFL Freshmen and Senior Medical Sciences Students across Different Fields of Study

Authors: M. Hadavi, Z. Hashemi

Abstract:

Learning strategies play an important role in the development of language skills. Vocabulary learning strategies as the backbone of these strategies have become a major part of English language teaching. This study is a comparative analysis of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) use and preference among freshmen and senior EFL medical sciences students with different fields of study. 449 students (236 freshman and 213 seniors) participated in the study. 64.6% were female and 35.4% were male. The instrument utilized in this research was a questionnaire consisting of 41 items related to the students’ approach to vocabulary learning. The items were classified under eight sections as dictionary strategies, guessing strategies, study preferences, memory strategies, autonomy, note- taking strategies, selective attention, and social strategies. The participants were asked to answer each item with a 5-point Likert-style frequency scale as follows:1) I never or almost never do this, 2) I don’t usually do this, 3) I sometimes do this, 4) I usually do this, and 5)I always or almost always do this. The results indicated that freshmen students and particularly surgical technology students used more strategies compared to the seniors. Overall guessing and dictionary strategies were the most frequently used strategies among all the learners (p=0/000). The mean and standard deviation of using VLS in the students who had no previous history of participating in the private English language classes was less than the students who had attended these type of classes (p=0/000). Female students tended to use social and study preference strategies whereas male students used mostly guessing and dictionary strategies. It can be concluded that the senior students under instruction from the university have learned to rely on themselves and choose the autonomous strategies more, while freshmen students use more strategies that are related to the study preferences.

Keywords: vocabulary leaning strategies, medical sciences, students, linguistics

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7108 Effective Strategies for Teaching English Language to Beginners in Primary Schools in Nigeria

Authors: Halima Musa Kamilu

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effective strategies for teaching English language to learners in primary schools in Nigeria. English language development is the systematic use of instructional strategies designed to promote the acquisition of English by pupils in primary schools whose primary language is not English. Learning a second language is through total immersion. These strategies support this learning method, allowing pupils to have the knowledge of English language in a pattern similar to the way they learned their native language through regular interaction with others who already know the language. The focus is on fluency and learning to speak English in a social context with native speakers. The strategies allow for effective acquisition. The paper also looked into the following areas: visuals that reinforce spoken or written words, employ gestures for added emphasis, adjusting of speech, stressing of high-frequency vocabulary words, use of fewer idioms and clarifying the meaning of words or phrases in context, stressing of participatory learning and maintaining a low anxiety level and boosting of enthusiasm. It recommended that the teacher include vocabulary words that will make the content more comprehensible to the learner.

Keywords: effective, strategies, teaching, beginners and primary schools

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7107 The Social Media, Reading Culture and Vocabulary Expansion: Three Universities from Northern Nigeria

Authors: Nasir Umar Abdullahi

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The social media profoundly causes the reading culture to decline in Nigeria, where the English language is a second language (SL), a language of instruction (LI), as well as the target language (TL). This is because the university students have, over the years, failed to make extensive reading their closest companion, with much emphasis on reading the European novels, newspapers, magazines, etc., so as to learn language from its original or native speakers for linguistic competence. Instead, they squander the most part of their day and nocturnal hours, sending and receiving messages through social media. The end result is their vocabulary become stagnant or ebbs, and that they cannot acquire the Cox head’s 570 vocabulary, let alone the Nation’s 2000 vocabulary to use the language fluently in writing, reading, listening, and speaking and to further compete with the native speaker in varying degrees of language usages. Be that as it may, if the social media is a monster in worsening the decline in reading culture, which degenerates in the Northern part of the country in contradistinction to the Southern part, it boosts it as well, for aside the social media language, slangs, cliché, for instance, students improve their vocabulary power, and at the same time it allows the students to privately and leisurely put the language into use, by using practically some of the vocabulary they have acquired to chart, to comment, socialize to adjudge, etc. This is what this paper tries to explore in Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Al-qalam University and the Federal University Dutin-ma.

Keywords: social media, reading, vocabulary, universities

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7106 Explaining Listening Comprehension among L2 Learners of English: The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Working Memory Capacity

Authors: Ahmed Masrai

Abstract:

Listening comprehension constitutes a considerable challenge for the second language (L2) learners, but a little is known about the explanatory power of different variables in explaining variance in listening comprehension. Since research in this area, to the researcher's knowledge, is relatively small in comparison to that focusing on the relationship between reading comprehension and factors such as vocabulary and working memory, there is a need for studies that are seeking to fill the gap in our knowledge about the specific contribution of working memory capacity (WMC), aural vocabulary knowledge and written vocabulary knowledge to explaining listening comprehension. Among 130 English as foreign language learners, the present study examines what proportion of the variance in listening comprehension is explained by aural vocabulary knowledge, written vocabulary knowledge, and WMC. Four measures were used to collect the required data for the study: (1) A-Lex, a measure of aural vocabulary knowledge; (2) XK-Lex, a measure of written vocabulary knowledge; (3) Listening Span Task, a measure of WMC and; (4) IELTS Listening Test, a measure of listening comprehension. The results show that aural vocabulary knowledge is the strongest predictor of listening comprehension, followed by WMC, while written vocabulary knowledge is the weakest predictor. The study discusses implications for the explanatory power of aural vocabulary knowledge and WMC to listening comprehension and pedagogical practice in L2 classrooms.

Keywords: listening comprehension, second language, vocabulary knowledge, working memory

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7105 Neuroplasticity in Language Acquisition in English as Foreign Language Classrooms

Authors: Sabitha Rahim

Abstract:

In the context of teaching vocabulary of English as Foreign Language (EFL), the confluence of memory and retention is one of the most significant factors in students' language acquisition. The progress of students engaged in foreign language acquisition is often stymied by vocabulary attrition, which leads to learners' lack of confidence and motivation. However, among other factors, little research has investigated the importance of neuroplasticity in Foreign Language acquisition and how underused neural pathways lead to the loss of plasticity, thereby affecting the learners’ vocabulary retention and motivation. This research explored the effect of enhancing vocabulary acquisition of EFL students in the Foundation Year at King Abdulaziz University through various methods and neuroplasticity exercises that reinforced their attention, motivation, and engagement. It analyzed the results to determine if stimulating the brain of EFL learners by various physical and mental activities led to the improvement in short and long term memory in vocabulary retention. The main data collection methods were student surveys, assessment records of teachers, student achievement test results, and students' follow-up interviews. A key implication of this research is for the institutions to consider having multiple varieties of student activities promoting brain plasticity within the classrooms as an effective tool for foreign language acquisition. Building awareness among the faculty and adapting the curriculum to include activities that promote brain plasticity ensures an enhanced learning environment and effective language acquisition in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: language acquisition, neural paths, neuroplasticity, vocabulary attrition

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7104 Augmented Reality for Children Vocabulary Learning: Case Study in a Macau Kindergarten

Authors: R. W. Chan, Kan Kan Chan

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Augmented Reality (AR), with the affordance of bridging between real world and virtual world, brings users immersive experience. It has been applied in education gradually and even come into practice in student daily learning. However, a systematic review shows that there are limited researches in the area of vocabulary acquisition in early childhood education. Since kindergarten is a key stage where children acquire language and AR as an emerging and potential technology to support the vocabulary acquisition, this study aims to explore its value in in real classroom with teacher’s view. Participants were a class of 5 to 6 years old kids studying in a Macau school that follows Cambridge curriculum and emphasizes multicultural ethos. There were 11 boys, 13 girls, and in a total of 24 kids. They learnt animal vocabulary using mobile device and AR flashcards, IPad to scan AR flashcards and interact with pop-up virtual objects. In order to estimate the effectiveness of using Augmented Reality, children attended vocabulary pre-posttest. In addition, teacher interview was administrated after this learning activity to seek practitioner’s opinion towards this technology. For data analysis, paired samples t-test was utilized to measure the instructional effect based on the pre-posttest data. Result shows that Augmented Reality could significantly enhance children vocabulary learning with large effect size. Teachers indicated that children enjoyed the AR learning activity but clear instruction is needed. Suggestions for the future implementation of vocabulary acquisition using AR are suggested.

Keywords: augmented reality, kindergarten children, vocabulary learning, Macau

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7103 EFL Vocabulary Learning Strategies among Students in Greece, Their Preferences and Internet Technology

Authors: Theodorou Kyriaki, Ypsilantis George

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Vocabulary learning has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, contrary to the neglected part of the past. Along with the interest in finding successful vocabulary teaching strategies, many scholars focused on locating learning strategies used by language learners. As a result, more and more studies in the area of language pedagogy have been investigating the use of strategies in vocabulary learning by different types of learners. A common instrument in this field is the questionnaire, a tool of work that was enriched by questions involving current technology, and it was further implemented to a sample of 300 Greek students whose age varied from 9 and 17 years. Strategies located were grouped into the three categories of memory, cognitive, and compensatory type and associations between these dependent variables were investigated. In addition, relations between dependent and independent variables (such as age, sex, type of school, cultural background, and grade in English) were pursued to investigate the impact on strategy selection. Finally, results were compared to findings of other studies in the same field to contribute to a hypothesis of ethnic differences in strategy selection. Results initially discuss preferred strategies of all participants and further indicate that: a) technology affects strategy selection while b) differences between ethnic groups are not statistically significant. A number of successful strategies are presented, resulting from correlations of strategy selection and final school grade in English.

Keywords: acquisition of English, internet technology, research among Greek students, vocabulary learning strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
7102 The Effects of the Inference Process in Reading Texts in Arabic

Authors: May George

Abstract:

Inference plays an important role in the learning process and it can lead to a rapid acquisition of a second language. When learning a non-native language, i.e., a critical language like Arabic, the students depend on the teacher’s support most of the time to learn new concepts. The students focus on memorizing the new vocabulary and stress on learning all the grammatical rules. Hence, the students became mechanical and cannot produce the language easily. As a result, they are unable to predict the meaning of words in the context by relying heavily on the teacher, in that they cannot link their prior knowledge or even identify the meaning of the words without the support of the teacher. This study explores how the teacher guides students learning during the inference process and what are the processes of learning that can direct student’s inference.

Keywords: inference, reading, Arabic, language acquisition

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7101 Using Reading to Learn Pedagogy to Promote Chinese Written Vocabulary Acquisition: An Evaluative Study

Authors: Mengping Cheng, John Everatt, Alison Arrow, Amanda Denston

Abstract:

Based on the available evidence, Chinese heritage language learners have a basic level of Chinese language proficiency with lower capability in literacy compared to speaking. Low levels of literacy are likely related to the lack of reading activities in current textbook-based pedagogy used in Chinese community schools. The present study aims to use Reading to Learn pedagogy which is a top-down language learning model and test the effectiveness of Reading to Learn on Chinese heritage learners’ written vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experiment with the pre-test/post-test non-equivalent group design was conducted. The experimental group received Reading to Learn instructions and the control group had traditional textbook-based instructions. Participants were given Chinese characters tasks (a recognize-and-read task and a listen-and-point task), vocabulary tasks (a receptive vocabulary task and a productive vocabulary task) and a sentence cloze test in pre-tests and post-tests. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If the results show more improvement of Chinese written vocabulary in the experimental group than in the control group, it will be recommended that Reading to Learn pedagogy is valuable to be used to maintain and develop Chinese heritage language literacy.

Keywords: Chinese heritage language, experimental research, Reading to Learn pedagogy, vocabulary acquisition

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7100 Dynamics of Hybrid Language in Urban and Rural Uttar Pradesh India

Authors: Divya Pande

Abstract:

The dynamics of culture expresses itself in language. Even after India got independence in 1947 English subtly crept in the language of the masses with a silent and powerful flow towards the vernacular. The culture contact resulted in learning and emergence of a new language across the Hindi speaking belt of Northern and Central India. The hybrid words thus formed displaced the original word and got contextualized and absorbed in the language of the common masses. The research paper explores the interesting new vocabulary used extensively in the urban and rural districts of the state of Uttar- Pradesh which is the most populous state of India. The paper adopts a two way classification- formal and contextual for the analysis of the hybrid vocabulary of the linguistic items where one element is necessarily from the English language and the other from the Hindi. The new vocabulary represents languages of the wider world cutting across the geographical and the cultural barriers. The paper also broadly points out to the Hinglish commonly used in the state.

Keywords: assimilation, culture contact, Hinglish, hybrid words

Procedia PDF Downloads 331