Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 303

Search results for: air suspension

303 Sliding Mode Control of a Bus Suspension System

Authors: Mujde Turkkan, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surface, are to be suppressed via suspension systems. In this paper, sliding mode control for a half bus model with air suspension system is presented. The bus is modelled as five degrees of freedom (DoF) system. The mathematical model of the half bus is developed using Lagrange Equations. For time domain analysis, the bus model is assumed to travel at certain speed over the bump road. The numerical results of the analysis indicate that the sliding mode controllers can be effectively used to suppress the vibrations and to improve the ride comfort of the busses.

Keywords: active suspension system, air suspension, bus model, sliding mode control

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
302 Retrofitted Semi-Active Suspension System for a Eelectric Model Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh

Abstract:

A 40 steps manual adjusting shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system for a four-wheel drive electric vehicle. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. A fuzzy logic controller was designed to derive appropriate damping target based on vehicle running condition for semi-active suspension system to follow. The damping ratio control of each wheel axis suspension system is executed with a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC). Different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: semi-active suspension, electric vehicle, fuzzy sliding mode control, accelerometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
301 Dry Friction Occurring in the Suspensions for Passive and Switchable Damper Systems and Its Effect on Ride Comfort

Authors: Aref M. A. Soliman, Mahmoud A. Hassan

Abstract:

In all vehicle suspension, there is a dry friction. One of the various active suspensions, which have been shown to have considerable practical potential, is a switchable damper suspension system. In this paper, vehicle ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems as affected by the value of frictional force generated in springs is discussed. A mathematical model of a quarter vehicle model for two setting switchable damper suspension system with dry friction force is developed to evaluate vehicle ride comfort in terms of suspension performance criteria. The vehicle itself is treated as a rigid body undergoing vertical motions. Comparisons between passive and switchable damper suspensions systems with dry friction force in terms of ride performance are also discussed. The results showed that the ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems was deteriorated due to dry friction occurring in the suspensions. The two setting switchable damper with and without dry friction force gives better ride improvements compared with the passive suspension system. Also, the obtained results show an optimum value of damping ratio of the passive suspension system.

Keywords: ride comfort, dry friction, switchable damper, passive suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
300 Sliding Mode Controller for Active Suspension System on a Passenger Car Model

Authors: Nouby M. Ghazaly, Ahmed O. Moaaz, Mostafa Makrahy

Abstract:

The main purpose of a car suspension system is to reduce the vibrations resulting from road roughness. The main objective of this research paper is to decrease vibration and improve passenger comfort through controlling car suspension system using sliding mode control techniques. The mathematical model for passive and active suspensions systems for quarter car model which subject to excitation from different road profiles is obtained. The active suspension system is synthesized based on sliding mode control for a quarter car model. The performance of the sliding mode control is determined through computer simulations using MATLAB and SIMULINK toolbox. The simulated results plotted in time domain, and root mean square values. It is found that active suspension system using sliding mode control improves the ride comfort and decrease vibration.

Keywords: quarter car model, active suspension system, sliding mode control, road profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
299 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: celestite, contact angle, suspension stability, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
298 Controller Design for Active Suspension System of 1/4 Car with Unknown Mass and Time-Delay

Authors: Ali Al-Zughaibi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of the quarter car active suspension system with unknown mass, unknown time-delay and road disturbance. The objective of designing the controller by deriving a control law to achieve stability of the system and convergence that can considerably improve the ride comfort and road disturbance handling. Thus is accomplished by using Routh-Herwitz criterion and based on some assumptions. A mathematical proof is given to show the ability of the designed controller to ensure stability and convergence of the active suspension system and dispersion oscillation of system with unknown mass, time-delay and road disturbances. Simulations were also performed for controlling quarter car suspension, where the results obtained from these simulations verify the validity of the proposed design.

Keywords: active suspension system, time-delay, disturbance rejection, dynamic uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
297 Intelligent Semi-Active Suspension Control of a Electric Model Vehicle System

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh

Abstract:

A four-wheel drive electric vehicle was built with hub DC motors and FPGA embedded control structure. A 40 steps manual adjusting motorcycle shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. An intelligent fuzzy logic controller was proposed to real-time search appropriate damping ratio based on vehicle running condition. Then, a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) is employed to regulate the target damping ratio of each wheel axis semi-active suspension system. Finally, different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension and compare with that of passive system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: acceleration, FPGA, Fuzzy sliding mode control, semi-active suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
296 Simulation of a Control System for an Adaptive Suspension System for Passenger Vehicles

Authors: S. Gokul Prassad, S. Aakash, K. Malar Mohan

Abstract:

In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.

Keywords: automobile suspension, MATLAB, control system, PID, PSO

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
295 Optimization Process for Ride Quality of a Nonlinear Suspension Model Based on Newton-Euler’ Augmented Formulation

Authors: Mohamed Belhorma, Aboubakar S. Bouchikhi, Belkacem Bounab

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This paper addresses modeling a Double A-Arm suspension, a three-dimensional nonlinear model has been developed using the multibody systems formalism. Dynamical study of the different components responses was done, particularly for the wheel assembly. To validate those results, the system was constructed and simulated by RecurDyn, a professional multibody dynamics simulation software. The model has been used as the Objectif function in an optimization algorithm for ride quality improvement.

Keywords: double A-Arm suspension, multibody systems, ride quality optimization, dynamic simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
294 Robust State feedback Controller for an Active Suspension System

Authors: Hussein Altartouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of the active suspension system using robust state feedback controller implemented for a half car model. This system represents a mechatronic system which contains all the essential components to be considered a complete mechatronic system. This system must adapt different conditions which are difficult to compromise, such as disturbances, slippage, and motion on rough road (that contains rocks, stones, and other miscellanies). Some current automobile suspension systems use passive components only by utilizing spring and damping coefficient with fixed rates. Vehicle suspensions systems are used to provide good road handling and improve passenger comfort. Passive suspensions only offer compromise between these two conflicting criteria. Active suspension poses the ability to reduce the traditional design as a compromise between handling and comfort by directly controlling the suspensions force actuators. In this study, the robust state feedback controller implemented to the active suspensions system for half car model.

Keywords: half-car model, active suspension system, state feedback, road profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
293 Influence of AgNO3 Treatment on the Flavonolignan Production in Cell Suspension Culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Authors: Anna Vildová, H. Hendrychová, J. Kubeš, L. Tůmová

Abstract:

The abiotic elicitation is one of the methods for increasing the secondary metabolites production in plant tissue cultures and it seems to be more effective than traditional strategies. This study verified the use of silver nitrate as elicitor to enhance flavonolignans and flavonoid taxifolin production in suspension culture of Sylibum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Silver nitrate in various concentrations (5.887.10-3 mol/L, 5.887.10-4 mol/L, 5.887.10-5 mol/L) was used as elicitor. The content of secondary metabolites in cell suspension cultures was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples were taken after 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours of treatment. The highest content of taxifolin production (2.2 mg.g-1) in cell suspension culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. was detected after silver nitrate (5.887.10-4 mol/L) treatment and 72 h application. Flavonolignans such as silybinA, silybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilybin A, isosilybin B were not produced by cell suspension culture of S. marianum after elicitor treatment. Our results show that the secondarymetabolites could be released from S. marianum cells into the nutrient medium by changed permeability of cell wall.

Keywords: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., elicitation, silver nitrate, taxifolin

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
292 Active Linear Quadratic Gaussian Secondary Suspension Control of Flexible Bodied Railway Vehicle

Authors: Kaushalendra K. Khadanga, Lee Hee Hyol

Abstract:

Passenger comfort has been paramount in the design of suspension systems of high speed cars. To analyze the effect of vibration on vehicle ride quality, a vertical model of a six degree of freedom railway passenger vehicle, with front and rear suspension, is built. It includes car body flexible effects and vertical rigid modes. A second order linear shaping filter is constructed to model Gaussian white noise into random rail excitation. The temporal correlation between the front and rear wheels is given by a second order Pade approximation. The complete track and the vehicle model are then designed. An active secondary suspension system based on a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal control method is designed. The results show that the LQG control method reduces the vertical acceleration, pitching acceleration and vertical bending vibration of the car body as compared to the passive system.

Keywords: active suspension, bending vibration, railway vehicle, vibration control

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
291 Vibration Control of a Tracked Vehicle Driver Seat via Magnetorheological Damper

Authors: Wael Ata

Abstract:

Tracked vehicles are exposed to severe operating conditions during their battlefield. The suspension system of such vehicles plays a crucial role in the mitigation of vibration transmitted from unevenness to vehicle hull and consequently to the crew. When the vehicles are crossing the road with high speeds, the driver is subjected to a high magnitude of vibration dose. This is because of the passive suspension system of the tracked vehicle lack the effectiveness to withstand induced vibration from irregular terrains. This paper presents vibration control of a semi-active seat suspension incorporating Magnetorheological (MR) damper fitted to a driver seat of an amphibious tracked vehicle (BMP-1). A half vehicle model featuring the proposed semi-active seat suspension is developed and its governing equations are derived. Two controllers namely; skyhook and fuzzy logic skyhook based to suppress the vibration dose at driver’s seat are formulated. The results show that the controlled MR suspension seat along with the vehicle model has substantially suppressed vibration levels at the driver’s seat under bump and sinusoidal excitations

Keywords: Tracked Vehicles, MR dampers, Skyhook controller, fuzzy logic controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
290 Stability Analysis of Hossack Suspension Systems in High Performance Motorcycles

Authors: Ciro Moreno-Ramirez, Maria Tomas-Rodriguez, Simos A. Evangelou

Abstract:

A motorcycle's front end links the front wheel to the motorcycle's chassis and has two main functions: the front wheel suspension and the vehicle steering. Up to this date, several suspension systems have been developed in order to achieve the best possible front end behavior, being the telescopic fork the most common one and already subjected to several years of study in terms of its kinematics, dynamics, stability and control. A motorcycle telescopic fork suspension model consists of a couple of outer tubes which contain the suspension components (coil springs and dampers) internally and two inner tubes which slide into the outer ones allowing the suspension travel. The outer tubes are attached to the frame through two triple trees which connect the front end to the main frame through the steering bearings and allow the front wheel to turn about the steering axis. This system keeps the front wheel's displacement in a straight line parallel to the steering axis. However, there exist alternative suspension designs that allow different trajectories of the front wheel with the suspension travel. In this contribution, the authors investigate an alternative front suspension system (Hossack suspension) and its influence on the motorcycle nonlinear dynamics to identify and reduce stability risks that a new suspension systems may introduce in the motorcycle dynamics. Based on an existing high-fidelity motorcycle mathematical model, the front end geometry is modified to accommodate a Hossack suspension system. It is characterized by a double wishbone design that varies the front end geometry on certain maneuverings and, consequently, the machine's behavior/response. It consists of a double wishbone structure directly attached to the chassis. In here, the kinematics of this system and its impact on the motorcycle performance/stability are analyzed and compared to the well known telescopic fork suspension system. The framework of this research is the mathematical modelling and numerical simulation. Full stability analyses are performed in order to understand how the motorcycle dynamics may be affected by the newly introduced front end design. This study is carried out by a combination of nonlinear dynamical simulation and root-loci methods. A modal analysis is performed in order to get a deeper understanding of the different modes of oscillation and how the Hossack suspension system affects them. The results show that different kinematic designs of a double wishbone suspension systems do not modify the general motorcycle's stability. The normal modes properties remain unaffected by the new geometrical configurations. However, these normal modes differ from one suspension system to the other. It is seen that the normal modes behaviour depends on various important dynamic parameters, such as the front frame flexibility, the steering damping coefficient and the centre of mass location.

Keywords: nonlinear mechanical systems, motorcycle dynamics, suspension systems, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
289 Design and Development of an Innovative MR Damper Based on Intelligent Active Suspension Control of a Malaysia's Model Vehicle

Authors: L. Wei Sheng, M. T. Noor Syazwanee, C. J. Carolyna, M. Amiruddin, M. Pauziah

Abstract:

This paper exhibits the alternatives towards active suspension systems revised based on the classical passive suspension system to improve comfort and handling performance. An active Magneto rheological (MR) suspension system is proposed as to explore the active based suspension system to enhance performance given its freedom to independently specify the characteristics of load carrying, handling, and ride quality. Malaysian quarter car with two degrees of freedom (2DOF) system is designed and constructed to simulate the actions of an active vehicle suspension system. The structure of a conventional twin-tube shock absorber is modified both internally and externally to comprehend with the active suspension system. The shock absorber peripheral structure is altered to enable the assembling and disassembling of the damper through a non-permanent joint whereby the stress analysis of the designed joint is simulated using Finite Element Analysis. Simulation on the internal part where an electrified copper coil of 24AWG is winded is done using Finite Element Method Magnetics to measure the magnetic flux density inside the MR damper. The primary purpose of this approach is to reduce the vibration transmitted from the effects of road surface irregularities while maintaining solid manoeuvrability. The aim of this research is to develop an intelligent control system of a consecutive damping automotive suspension system. The ride quality is improved by means of the reduction of the vertical body acceleration caused by the car body when it experiences disturbances from speed bump and random road roughness. Findings from this research are expected to enhance the quality of ride which in return can prevent the deteriorating effect of vibration on the vehicle condition as well as the passengers’ well-being.

Keywords: active suspension, FEA, magneto rheological damper, Malaysian quarter car model, vibration control

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
288 Eight Weeks of Suspension Systems Training on Fat Mass, Jump and Physical Fitness Index in Female

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Su Yun Chen, Hon Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Greater core stability may benefit sports performance by providing a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities. Core stability exercises on instability device (such as the TRX suspension systems) were found to be able to induce higher core muscle activity than performing on a stable surface. However, high intensity interval TRX suspension exercises training on sport performances remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity TRX suspension training could improve sport performance. Twenty-four healthy university female students (age 19.0 years, height 157.9 cm, body mass 51.3 kg, fat mass 25.2 %) were voluntarily participated in this study. After a familiarization session, each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30 seconds, followed by 30 seconds break, two times per week for eight weeks while each exercise session was increased by 10 seconds every week. The results showed that the fat mass (about 12.92%) decreased significantly, sit and reach test (9%), 1 minute sit-up test (17.5%), standing broad jump (4.8%), physical fitness index (10.3%) increased significantly after 8-week high intensity TRX suspension training. Hence, eight weeks of high intensity interval TRX suspension exercises training can improve hamstring flexibility, trunk endurance, jump ability, aerobic fitness and fat mass percentage decreased substantially.

Keywords: core endurance, jump, flexibility, cardiovascular fitness

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
287 Condition Monitoring of Vehicle Suspension - A Machine Learning Proposal

Authors: Alexandra Baicoianu, Patric Stanoiu, Marian Velea, Calin Husar

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Current trends involve machine learning techniques, Artificial Intelligence, etc., in most Industry4.0 specific research directions. In the automotive industry, but not only, but methods and new machine learning algorithms also appear in order to mainly shorten the development time of new components and their validation. The aim of this paper is to generate an input set of data, starting from a classic system existing in the Simcenter Amesim platform, use it as input data in a machine learning analysis and validate the new proposed machine learning methodology. This approach seeks to analyze a vehicle suspension model by using an artificial neural network. Essential for this work are the data sets on which the neural network is trained, as these require an exceptional degree of accuracy and robustness for the result to be as close as possible to mathematical calculations. The final aim is to help create a model enabling the prediction of the values of the vehicle’s suspension travel, speed and acceleration.

Keywords: condition monitoring, car suspension, hyper tuning, stochastic gradient descent, neural network builder, sim center amesim

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
286 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz

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Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator, time delay, vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
285 Analysis of the Suspension Rocker of Formula SAE Prototype by Finite Element Method

Authors: Jessyca A. Bessa, Darlan A. Barroso, Jonas P. Reges, Auzuir R. Alexandria

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This work aims to study the rocker. This is a device of the suspension of Formula SAE vehicle that receives efforts from the motion scrolling of the vehicle and transmits them to the chassis frame minimized by a momentum ratio and smoothed by the set spring - damper. A review of parameters used in vehicle dynamics and a geometric analysis of the forces and stresses caused by such was carried out. The main function of the rocker is to reduce the force transmitted to the frame due to movement of rolling and subsequent application of the suspension. This functions is taken as satisfactory, since the force applied to the wheel and which would be transmitted to the chassis is reduced from 3833.9N to 3496.48N. From these values can be further more detailed simulations using the finite element method aimed at mass reduction or even rocker manufacturing feasibility aluminum. Then, the analysis by the finite element method was applied. This analysis uses the theory of discretization of systems and examines the strength of the component based on the distortion energy, determining the maximum straining experienced by the component and the region of higher demand.

Keywords: rocker, suspension, the finite element method, mechatronics engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
284 Modeling of a Vehicle Wheel System having a Built-in Suspension Structure Consisted of Radially Deployed Colloidal Spokes between Hub and Rim

Authors: Barenten Suciu

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In this work, by replacing the traditional solid spokes with colloidal spokes, a vehicle wheel with a built-in suspension structure is proposed. Following the background and description of the wheel system, firstly, a vibration model of the wheel equipped with colloidal spokes is proposed, and based on such model the equivalent damping coefficients and spring constants are identified. Then, a modified model of a quarter-vehicle moving on a rough pavement is proposed in order to estimate the transmissibility of vibration from the road roughness to vehicle body. In the end, the optimal design of the colloidal spokes and the optimum number of colloidal spokes are decided in order to minimize the transmissibility of vibration, i.e., to maximize the ride comfort of the vehicle.

Keywords: built-in suspension, colloidal spoke, intrinsic spring, vibration analysis, wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
283 The Effects of Total Resistance Exercises Suspension Exercises Program on Physical Performance in Healthy Individuals

Authors: P. Cavlan, B. Kırmızıgil

Abstract:

Introduction: Each exercise in suspension exercises offer the use of gravity and body weight; and is thought to develop the equilibrium, flexibility and body stability necessary for daily life activities and sports, in addition to creating the correct functional force. Suspension exercises based on body weight focus the human body as an integrated system. Total Resistance Exercises (TRX) suspension training that physiotherapists, athletic health clinics, exercise centers of hospitals and chiropractic clinics now use for rehabilitation purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance in healthy individuals. Method: Healthy subjects divided into two groups; the study group and the control group with 40 individuals for each, between ages 20 to 45 with similar gender distributions. Study group had 2 sessions of suspension exercises per week for 8 weeks and control group had no exercises during this period. All the participants were given explosive strength, flexibility, strength and endurance tests before and after the 8 week period. The tests used for evaluation were respectively; standing long jump test and single leg (left and right) long jump tests, sit and reach test, sit up and back extension tests. Results: In the study group a statistically significant difference was found between prior- and final-tests in all evaluations, including explosive strength, flexibility, core strength and endurance of the group performing TRX exercises. These values were higher than the control groups’ values. The final test results were found to be statistically different between the study and control groups. Study group showed development in all values. Conclusions: In this study, which was conducted with the aim of investigating and comparing the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance, the results of the prior-tests of both groups were similar. There was no significant difference between the prior and the final values in the control group. It was observed that in the study group, explosive strength, flexibility, strength, and endurance development was achieved after 8 weeks. According to these results, it was shown that TRX suspension exercise program improved explosive strength, flexibility, especially core strength and endurance; therefore the physical performance. Based on the results of our study, it was determined that the physical performance, an indispensable requirement of our life, was developed by the TRX suspension system. We concluded that TRX suspension exercises can be used to improve the explosive strength and flexibility in healthy individuals, as well as developing the muscle strength and endurance of the core region. The specific investigations could be done in this area so that programs that emphasize the TRX's physical performance features could be created.

Keywords: core strength, endurance, explosive strength, flexibility, physical performance, suspension exercises

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
282 Influence of Shock Absorber Condition on the Vertical Dynamic Load Applied on the Pavement by a Truck’s Front Suspension

Authors: Pablo Kubo, Cassio Paiva, Adelino Ferreira

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The main objective of this research study is to present the results of the influence of shock absorber condition, from a truck front suspension, on the vertical dynamic load applied on the pavement. For the measurements, it has been used a durability test track located in Brazil. The shock absorber conditions were new, used and failed with a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension, the maximum allowed load for front axle according to Brazilian legislation. By applying relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation on the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the load applied on the pavement. Although, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology in order to analyze the influence on the variation of the quarter car model variants.

Keywords: damage, shock absorber, vertical dynamic load, absorber

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
281 Effect of Rainflow Cycle Number on Fatigue Lifetime of an Arm of Vehicle Suspension System

Authors: Hatem Mrad, Mohamed Bouazara, Fouad Erchiqui

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Fatigue, is considered as one of the main cause of mechanical properties degradation of mechanical parts. Probability and reliability methods are appropriate for fatigue analysis using uncertainties that exist in fatigue material or process parameters. Current work deals with the study of the effect of the number and counting Rainflow cycle on fatigue lifetime (cumulative damage) of an upper arm of the vehicle suspension system. The major part of the fatigue damage induced in suspension arm is caused by two main classes of parameters. The first is related to the materials properties and the second is the road excitation or the applied force of the passenger’s number. Therefore, Young's modulus and road excitation are selected as input parameters to conduct repetitive simulations by Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. Latin hypercube sampling method is used to generate these parameters. Response surface method is established according to fatigue lifetime of each combination of input parameters according to strain-life method. A PYTHON script was developed to automatize finite element simulations of the upper arm according to a design of experiments.

Keywords: fatigue, monte carlo, rainflow cycle, response surface, suspension system

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
280 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract:

The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: acoustic radiation force, cell proliferation, regenerative medicine, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
279 New Suspension Mechanism for a Formula Car using Camber Thrust

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara

Abstract:

The basic ability of a vehicle is the ability to “run”, “turn” and “stop”. The safeness and comfort during a drive on various road surfaces and speed depends on the performance of these basic abilities of the vehicle. Stability and maneuverability of a vehicle is vital in automotive engineering. Stability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to revert back to a stable state during a drive when faced with crosswind and irregular road conditions. Maneuverability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to change direction during a drive swiftly based on the steering of the driver. The stability and maneuverability of a vehicle can also be defined as the driving stability of the vehicle. Since fossil fueled vehicle is the main type of transportation today, the environmental factor in automotive engineering is also vital. By improving the fuel efficiency of the vehicle, the overall carbon emission will be reduced thus reducing the effect of global warming and greenhouse gas on the Earth. Another main focus of the automotive engineering is the safety performance of the vehicle especially with the worrying increase of vehicle collision every day. With better safety performance on a vehicle, every driver will be more confidence driving every day. Next, let us focus on the “turn” ability of a vehicle. By improving this particular ability of the vehicle, the cornering limit of the vehicle can be improved thus increasing the stability and maneuverability factor. In order to improve the cornering limit of the vehicle, a study to find the balance between the steering systems, the stability of the vehicle, higher lateral acceleration and the cornering limit detection must be conducted. The aim of this research is to study and develop a new suspension system that that will boost the lateral acceleration of the vehicle and ultimately improving the cornering limit of the vehicle. This research will also study environmental factor and the stability factor of the new suspension system. The double wishbone suspension system is widely used in four-wheel vehicle especially for high cornering performance sports car and racing car. The double wishbone designs allow the engineer to carefully control the motion of the wheel by controlling such parameters as camber angle, caster angle, toe pattern, roll center height, scrub radius, scuff and more. The development of the new suspension system will focus on the ability of the new suspension system to optimize the camber control and to improve the camber limit during a cornering motion. The research will be carried out using the CAE analysis tool. Using this analysis tool we will develop a JSAE Formula Machine equipped with the double wishbone system and also the new suspension system and conduct simulation and conduct studies on performance of both suspension systems.

Keywords: automobile, camber thrust, cornering force, suspension

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278 Comparison of Two Fuzzy Skyhook Control Strategies Applied to an Active Suspension

Authors: Reginaldo Cardoso, Magno Enrique Mendoza Meza

Abstract:

This work focuses on simulation and comparison of two control skyhook techniques applied to a quarter-car of the active suspension. The objective is to provide comfort to the driver. The main idea of skyhook control is to imagine a damper connected to an imaginary sky; thus, the feedback is performed with the resultant force between the imaginary and the suspension damper. The first control technique is the Mandani fuzzy skyhook and the second control technique is a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy skyhook controller, in the both controllers the inputs are the relative velocity between the two masses and the vehicle body velocity, the output of the Mandani fuzzy skyhook is the coefficient of imaginary damper viscous-friction and the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy skyhook is the force. Finally, we compared the techniques. The Mandani fuzzy skyhook showed a more comfortable response to the driver, followed closely by the Takagi- Sugeno fuzzy skyhook.

Keywords: active suspention, Mandani, quarter-car, skyhook, Sugeno

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
277 Fracture and Dynamic Behavior of Leaf Spring Suspension

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, S. Attou, H. Kebir

Abstract:

Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components they are still frequently used, especially in commercial vehicles. Being able to capture the leaf spring characteristics is of significant importance for vehicle handling dynamics studies. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. It needs to have excellent fatigue life. The objective of this work is its use of Abaqus software to locate the most stressed areas and predict the areas in which it occurs in fatigue and crack of leaf spring and calculate the stress and frequencies of this model.

Keywords: leaf spring, crack, stress, natural frequencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
276 Early Evaluation of Long-Span Suspension Bridges Using Smartphone Accelerometers

Authors: Ekin Ozer, Maria Q. Feng, Rupa Purasinghe

Abstract:

Structural deterioration of bridge systems possesses an ongoing threat to the transportation networks. Besides, landmark bridges’ integrity and safety are more than sole functionality, since they provide a strong presence for the society and nations. Therefore, an innovative and sustainable method to inspect landmark bridges is essential to ensure their resiliency in the long run. In this paper, a recently introduced concept, smartphone-based modal frequency estimation is addressed, and this paper targets to authenticate the fidelity of smartphone-based vibration measurements gathered from three landmark suspension bridges. Firstly, smartphones located at the bridge mid-span are adopted as portable and standalone vibration measurement devices. Then, their embedded accelerometers are utilized to gather vibration response under operational loads, and eventually frequency domain characteristics are deduced. The preliminary analysis results are compared with the reference publications and high-quality monitoring data to validate the usability of smartphones on long-span landmark suspension bridges. If the technical challenges such as high period of vibration, low amplitude excitation, embedded smartphone sensor features, sampling, and citizen engagement are tackled, smartphones can provide a novel and cost-free crowdsourcing tool for maintenance of these landmark structures. This study presents the early phase findings from three signature structures located in the United States.

Keywords: smart and mobile sensing, structural health monitoring, suspension bridges, vibration analysis

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275 Plant Cell Culture to Produce Valuable Natural Products

Authors: Jehad Dumireih, Malak Dmirieh, Michael Wink

Abstract:

The present work is aimed to use plant cell suspension cultures of Crataegus monogyna for biosynthesis of valuable natural products by using quercetin as an inexpensive precursor. Suspension cell cultures of C. monogyna were established by using Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L kinetin. Cells were harvested from the cultures and extracted by using methanol and ethyl acetate; then the extracts were used for the identification of isoquercetin by HPLC and by mass spectrometry. The incubation of the cells with 0.24 mM quercetin for one week resulted in an 16 fold increase of isoquercetin biosynthesis; the growth rate of the cells increased by 20%. Moreover, the biosynthesis of isoquercetin was enhanced by 40% when we divided the added quercetin into three portions each one with concentration 0.12 mM supplied at 3 days intervals. In addition, we didn’t find any positive effects of adding different concentrations the precursors phenylalanine (0.2 mM) and galactose to the cell cultures. In conclusion, the efficiency of the biotransformation of quercetin into isoquercetin depended on the concentration quercetin, its incubation time and the way of its administration. The results of the present work suggest that the biotechnological methods such as cell suspension cultures could be successfully used to obtain highly valuable natural product starting from inexpensive compound.

Keywords: biosynthesis, biotransformation, Crataegus, isoquercetin

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274 Fabrication of Al/Al2O3 Functionally Graded Composites via Centrifugal Method by Using a Polymeric Suspension

Authors: Majid Eslami

Abstract:

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit heterogeneous microstructures in which the composition and properties gently change in specified directions. The common type of FGMs consist of a metal in which ceramic particles are distributed with a graded concentration. There are many processing routes for FGMs. An important group of these methods is casting techniques (gravity or centrifugal). However, the main problem of casting molten metal slurry with dispersed ceramic particles is a destructive chemical reaction between these two phases which deteriorates the properties of the materials. In order to overcome this problem, in the present investigation a suspension of 6061 aluminum and alumina powders in a liquid polymer was used as the starting material and subjected to centrifugal force for making FGMs. The size rang of these powders was 45-63 and 106-125 μm. The volume percent of alumina in the Al/Al2O3 powder mixture was in the range of 5 to 20%. PMMA (Plexiglas) in different concentrations (20-50 g/lit) was dissolved in toluene and used as the suspension liquid. The glass mold contaning the suspension of Al/Al2O3 powders in the mentioned liquid was rotated at 1700 rpm for different times (4-40 min) while the arm length was kept constant (10 cm) for all the experiments. After curing the polymer, burning out the binder, cold pressing and sintering , cylindrical samples (φ=22 mm h=20 mm) were produced. The density of samples before and after sintering was quantified by Archimedes method. The results indicated that by using the same sized alumina and aluminum powders particles, FGM sample can be produced by rotation times exceeding 7 min. However, by using coarse alumina and fine alumina powders the sample exhibits step concentration. On the other hand, using fine alumina and coarse alumina results in a relatively uniform concentration of Al2O3 along the sample height. These results are attributed to the effects of size and density of different powders on the centrifugal force induced on the powders during rotation. The PMMA concentration and the vol.% of alumina in the suspension did not have any considerable effect on the distribution of alumina particles in the samples. The hardness profiles along the height of samples were affected by both the alumina vol.% and porosity content. The presence of alumina particles increased the hardness while increased porosity reduced the hardness. Therefore, the hardness values did not show the expected gradient in same sample. The sintering resulted in decreased porosity for all the samples investigated.

Keywords: FGM, powder metallurgy, centrifugal method, polymeric suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 141