Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Xiong Xiaolei

41 Periodic Topology and Size Optimization Design of Tower Crane Boom

Authors: Wu Qinglong, Zhou Qicai, Xiong Xiaolei, Zhang Richeng


In order to achieve the layout and size optimization of the web members of tower crane boom, a truss topology and cross section size optimization method based on continuum is proposed considering three typical working conditions. Firstly, the optimization model is established by replacing web members with web plates. And the web plates are divided into several sub-domains so that periodic soft kill option (SKO) method can be carried out for topology optimization of the slender boom. After getting the optimized topology of web plates, the optimized layout of web members is formed through extracting the principal stress distribution. Finally, using the web member radius as design variable, the boom compliance as objective and the material volume of the boom as constraint, the cross section size optimization mathematical model is established. The size optimization criterion is deduced from the mathematical model by Lagrange multiplier method and Kuhn-Tucker condition. By comparing the original boom with the optimal boom, it is identified that this optimization method can effectively lighten the boom and improve its performance.

Keywords: tower crane boom, topology optimization, size optimization, periodic, SKO, optimization criterion

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40 Analysis of Underground Logistics Transportation Technology and Planning Research: Based on Xiong'an New Area, China

Authors: Xia Luo, Cheng Zeng


Under the promotion of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council in 2017, Xiong'an New Area is the third crucial new area in China established after Shenzhen and Shanghai. Its constructions' significance lies in mitigating Beijing's non-capital functions and exploring a new mode of optimizing development in densely populated and economically intensive areas. For this purpose, developing underground logistics can assume the role of goods distribution in the capital, relieve the road transport pressure in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, adjust and optimize the urban layout and spatial structure of it. Firstly, the construction planning of Xiong'an New Area and underground logistics development are summarized, especially the development status abroad, the development trend, and bottlenecks of underground logistics in China. This paper explores the technicality, feasibility, and necessity of four modes of transportation. There are pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) technology, the CargoCap technology, cable hauled mule, and automatic guided vehicle (AGV). The above technical parameters and characteristics are introduced to relevant experts or scholars. Through establishing an indicator system, carrying out a questionnaire survey with the Delphi method, the final suggestion is obtained: China should develop logistics vehicles similar to CargoCap, adopting rail mode and driverless mode. Based on China's temporal and spatial logistics demand and the geographical pattern of Xiong'an New Area, the construction scale, technical parameters, node location, and other vital parameters of underground logistics are planned. In this way, we hope to speed up the new area's construction and the logistics industry's innovation.

Keywords: the Xiong'an new area, underground logistics, contrastive analysis, CargoCap, logistics planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
39 An Integrated Label Propagation Network for Structural Condition Assessment

Authors: Qingsong Xiong, Cheng Yuan, Qingzhao Kong, Haibei Xiong


Deep-learning-driven approaches based on vibration responses have attracted larger attention in rapid structural condition assessment while obtaining sufficient measured training data with corresponding labels is relevantly costly and even inaccessible in practical engineering. This study proposes an integrated label propagation network for structural condition assessment, which is able to diffuse the labels from continuously-generating measurements by intact structure to those of missing labels of damage scenarios. The integrated network is embedded with damage-sensitive features extraction by deep autoencoder and pseudo-labels propagation by optimized fuzzy clustering, the architecture and mechanism which are elaborated. With a sophisticated network design and specified strategies for improving performance, the present network achieves to extends the superiority of self-supervised representation learning, unsupervised fuzzy clustering and supervised classification algorithms into an integration aiming at assessing damage conditions. Both numerical simulations and full-scale laboratory shaking table tests of a two-story building structure were conducted to validate its capability of detecting post-earthquake damage. The identifying accuracy of a present network was 0.95 in numerical validations and an average 0.86 in laboratory case studies, respectively. It should be noted that the whole training procedure of all involved models in the network stringently doesn’t rely upon any labeled data of damage scenarios but only several samples of intact structure, which indicates a significant superiority in model adaptability and feasible applicability in practice.

Keywords: autoencoder, condition assessment, fuzzy clustering, label propagation

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38 Software Engineering Revolution Driven by Complexity Science

Authors: Jay Xiong, Li Lin


This paper introduces a new software engineering paradigm based on complexity science, called NSE (Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm). The purpose of establishing NSE is to help software development organizations double their productivity, half their cost, and increase the quality of their products in several orders of magnitude simultaneously. NSE complies with the essential principles of complexity science. NSE brings revolutionary changes to almost all aspects in software engineering. NSE has been fully implemented with its support platform Panorama++.

Keywords: complexity science, software development, software engineering, software maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
37 A New Realization of Multidimensional System for Grid Sensor Network

Authors: Yang Xiong, Hua Cheng


In this paper, for the basic problem of wireless sensor network topology control and deployment, the Roesser model in rectangular grid sensor networks is presented. In addition, a general constructive realization procedure will be proposed. The procedure enables a distributed implementation of linear systems on a sensor network. A non-trivial example is illustrated.

Keywords: grid sensor networks, Roesser model, state-space realization, multidimensional systems

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36 Revolutionary Solutions for Modeling and Visualization of Complex Software Systems

Authors: Jay Xiong, Li Lin


Existing software modeling and visualization approaches using UML are outdated, which are outcomes of reductionism and the superposition principle that the whole of a system is the sum of its parts, so that with them all tasks of software modeling and visualization are performed linearly, partially, and locally. This paper introduces revolutionary solutions for modeling and visualization of complex software systems, which make complex software systems much easy to understand, test, and maintain. The solutions are based on complexity science, offering holistic, automatic, dynamic, virtual, and executable approaches about thousand times more efficient than the traditional ones.

Keywords: complex systems, software maintenance, software modeling, software visualization

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35 Secure Image Retrieval Based on Orthogonal Decomposition under Cloud Environment

Authors: Y. Xu, L. Xiong, Z. Xu


In order to protect data privacy, image with sensitive or private information needs to be encrypted before being outsourced to the cloud. However, this causes difficulties in image retrieval and data management. A secure image retrieval method based on orthogonal decomposition is proposed in the paper. The image is divided into two different components, for which encryption and feature extraction are executed separately. As a result, cloud server can extract features from an encrypted image directly and compare them with the features of the queried images, so that the user can thus obtain the image. Different from other methods, the proposed method has no special requirements to encryption algorithms. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can achieve better security and better retrieval precision.

Keywords: secure image retrieval, secure search, orthogonal decomposition, secure cloud computing

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34 Research on Fuzzy Test Framework Based on Concolic Execution

Authors: Xiong Xie, Yuhang Chen


Vulnerability discovery technology is a significant field of the current. In this paper, a fuzzy framework based on concolic execution has been proposed. Fuzzy test and symbolic execution are widely used in the field of vulnerability discovery technology. But each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. During the path generation stage, path traversal algorithm based on generation is used to get more accurate path. During the constraint solving stage, dynamic concolic execution is used to avoid the path explosion. If there is external call, the concolic based on function summary is used. Experiments show that the framework can effectively improve the ability of triggering vulnerabilities and code coverage.

Keywords: concolic execution, constraint solving, fuzzy test, vulnerability discovery

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33 Introduction of Integrated Image Deep Learning Solution and How It Brought Laboratorial Level Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Results to Everyone

Authors: Zhuang Hou, Xiaolei Cao


The general public and medical professionals recognized the importance of accurately measuring and storing blood oxygen levels and heart rate during the COVID-19 pandemic. The demand for accurate contactless devices was motivated by the need for cross-infection reduction and the shortage of conventional oximeters, partially due to the global supply chain issue. This paper evaluated a contactless mini program HealthyPai’s heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurements compared with other wearable devices. In the HR study of 185 samples (81 in the laboratory environment, 104 in the real-life environment), the mean absolute error (MAE) ± standard deviation was 1.4827 ± 1.7452 in the lab, 6.9231 ± 5.6426 in the real-life setting. In the SpO2 study of 24 samples, the MAE ± standard deviation of the measurement was 1.0375 ± 0.7745. Our results validated that HealthyPai utilizing the Integrated Image Deep Learning Solution (IIDLS) framework, can accurately measure HR and SpO2, providing the test quality at least comparable to other FDA-approved wearable devices in the market and surpassing the consumer-grade and research-grade wearable standards.

Keywords: remote photoplethysmography, heart rate, oxygen saturation, contactless measurement, mini program

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32 Layout Design Optimization of Spars under Multiple Load Cases of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

Authors: Yu Li, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong


The spar layout will affect the wing’s stiffness characteristics, and irrational spar arrangement will reduce the overall bending and twisting resistance capacity of the wing. In this paper, the active structural stiffness design theory is used to match the stiffness-center axis position and load-cases under the corresponding multiple flight conditions, in order to achieve better stiffness properties of the wing. The combination of active stiffness method and principle of stiffness distribution is proved to be reasonable supplying an initial reference for wing designing. The optimized layout of spars is eventually obtained, and the high-aspect-ratio wing will have better stiffness characteristics.

Keywords: active structural stiffness design theory, high-aspect-ratio wing, flight load cases, layout of spars

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
31 Inventory Policy with Continuous Price Reduction in Solar Photovoltaic Supply Chain

Authors: Xiangrong Liu, Chuanhui Xiong


With the concern of large pollution emissions from coal-fired power plants and new commitment to green energy, global solar power industry was emerging recently. Due to the advanced technology, the price of solar photovoltaic(PV) module was reduced at a fast rate, which arose an interesting but challenge question to solar supply chain. This research is modeling the inventory strategies for a PV supply chain with a PV manufacturer, an assembler and an end customer. Through characterizing the manufacturer's and PV assembler's optimal decision in decentralized and centralized situation, this study shed light on how to improve supply chain performance through parameters setting in the contract design. The results suggest the assembler to lower the optimal stock level gradually each period before price reduction and set up a newsvendor base-stock policy in all periods after price reduction. As to the PV module manufacturer, a non-stationary produce-up-to policy is optimal.

Keywords: photovoltaic, supply chain, inventory policy, base-stock policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
30 A Coupling Study of Public Service Facilities and Land Price Based on Big Data Perspective in Wuxi City

Authors: Sisi Xia, Dezhuan Tao, Junyan Yang, Weiting Xiong


Under the background of Chinese urbanization changing from incremental development to stock development, the completion of urban public service facilities is essential to urban spatial quality. As public services facilities is a huge and complicated system, clarifying the various types of internal rules associated with the land market price is key to optimizing spatial layout. This paper takes Wuxi City as a representative sample location and establishes the digital analysis platform using urban price and several high-precision big data acquisition methods. On this basis, it analyzes the coupling relationship between different public service categories and land price, summarizing the coupling patterns of urban public facilities distribution and urban land price fluctuations. Finally, the internal mechanism within each of the two elements is explored, providing the reference of the optimum layout of urban planning and public service facilities.

Keywords: public service facilities, land price, urban spatial morphology, big data

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29 Identifying Dominant Anaerobic Microorganisms for Degradation of Benzene

Authors: Jian Peng, Wenhui Xiong, Zheng Lu


An optimal recipe of amendment (nutrients and electron acceptors) was developed and dominant indigenous benzene-degrading microorganisms were characterized in this study. Lessons were learnt from the development of the optimal amendment recipe: (1) salinity and substantial initial concentration of benzene were detrimental for benzene biodegradation; (2) large dose of amendments can shorten the lag time for benzene biodegradation occurrence; (3) toluene was an essential co-substance for promoting benzene degradation activity. The stable isotope probing study identified incorporation 13C from 13C-benzene into microorganisms, which can be considered as a direct evidence of the occurrence of benzene biodegradation. The dominant mechanism for benzene removal was identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to be nitrate reduction. Microbial analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal RNA) demonstrated that members of genus Dokdonella spp., Pusillimonas spp., and Advenella spp. were predominant within the microbial community and involved in the anaerobic benzene bioremediation.

Keywords: benzene, enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, stable isotope probing, biosep biotrap

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
28 Research on Control Strategy of Differential Drive Assisted Steering of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

Authors: J. Liu, Z. P. Yu, L. Xiong, Y. Feng, J. He


According to the independence, accuracy and controllability of the driving/braking torque of the distributed drive electric vehicle, a control strategy of differential drive assisted steering was designed. Firstly, the assisted curve under different speed and steering wheel torque was developed and the differential torques were distributed to the right and left front wheels. Then the steering return ability assisted control algorithm was designed. At last, the joint simulation was conducted by CarSim/Simulink. The result indicated: the differential drive assisted steering algorithm could provide enough steering drive-assisted under low speed and improve the steering portability. Along with the increase of the speed, the provided steering drive-assisted decreased. With the control algorithm, the steering stiffness of the steering system increased along with the increase of the speed, which ensures the driver’s road feeling. The control algorithm of differential drive assisted steering could avoid the understeer under low speed effectively.

Keywords: differential assisted steering, control strategy, distributed drive electric vehicle, driving/braking torque

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27 Growth of Non-Polar a-Plane AlGaN Epilayer with High Crystalline Quality and Smooth Surface Morphology

Authors: Abbas Nasir, Xiong Zhang, Sohail Ahmad, Yiping Cui


Non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayers of high structural quality have been grown on r-sapphire substrate by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer with variable aluminium concentration was used to improve the structural quality of the non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayer. The characterisations were carried out by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall effect measurement. The XRD and AFM results demonstrate that the Al-composition-graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer significantly improved the crystalline quality and the surface morphology of the top layer. A low root mean square roughness 1.52 nm is obtained from AFM, and relatively low background carrier concentration down to 3.9×  cm-3 is obtained from Hall effect measurement.

Keywords: non-polar AlGaN epilayer, Al composition-graded AlGaN layer, root mean square, background carrier concentration

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26 Evaluation of Short-Term Load Forecasting Techniques Applied for Smart Micro-Grids

Authors: Xiaolei Hu, Enrico Ferrera, Riccardo Tomasi, Claudio Pastrone


Load Forecasting plays a key role in making today's and future's Smart Energy Grids sustainable and reliable. Accurate power consumption prediction allows utilities to organize in advance their resources or to execute Demand Response strategies more effectively, which enables several features such as higher sustainability, better quality of service, and affordable electricity tariffs. It is easy yet effective to apply Load Forecasting at larger geographic scale, i.e. Smart Micro Grids, wherein the lower available grid flexibility makes accurate prediction more critical in Demand Response applications. This paper analyses the application of short-term load forecasting in a concrete scenario, proposed within the EU-funded GreenCom project, which collect load data from single loads and households belonging to a Smart Micro Grid. Three short-term load forecasting techniques, i.e. linear regression, artificial neural networks, and radial basis function network, are considered, compared, and evaluated through absolute forecast errors and training time. The influence of weather conditions in Load Forecasting is also evaluated. A new definition of Gain is introduced in this paper, which innovatively serves as an indicator of short-term prediction capabilities of time spam consistency. Two models, 24- and 1-hour-ahead forecasting, are built to comprehensively compare these three techniques.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, smart micro grid, linear regression, artificial neural networks, radial basis function network, gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
25 Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft

Authors: Meiyuan Zheng, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong


A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skidding, and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done, which enables it to have good takeoff and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skidding on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.

Keywords: landing gear, multi-function, leaf spring, skidding

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
24 Research on Straightening Process Model Based on Iteration and Self-Learning

Authors: Hong Lu, Xiong Xiao


Shaft parts are widely used in machinery industry, however, bending deformation often occurred when this kind of parts is being heat treated. This parts needs to be straightened to meet the requirement of straightness. As for the pressure straightening process, a good straightening stroke algorithm is related to the precision and efficiency of straightening process. In this paper, the relationship between straightening load and deflection during the straightening process is analyzed, and the mathematical model of the straightening process has been established. By the mathematical model, the iterative method is used to solve the straightening stroke. Compared to the traditional straightening stroke algorithm, straightening stroke calculated by this method is much more precise; because it can adapt to the change of material performance parameters. Considering that the straightening method is widely used in the mass production of the shaft parts, knowledge base is used to store the data of the straightening process, and a straightening stroke algorithm based on empirical data is set up. In this paper, the straightening process control model which combine the straightening stroke method based on iteration and straightening stroke algorithm based on empirical data has been set up. Finally, an experiment has been designed to verify the straightening process control model.

Keywords: straightness, straightening stroke, deflection, shaft parts

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23 Optimal Design of Propellant Grain Shape Based on Structural Strength Analysis

Authors: Chen Xiong, Tong Xin, Li Hao, Xu Jin-Sheng


Experiment and simulation researches on the structural integrity of propellant grain in solid rocket motor (SRM) with high volumetric fraction were conducted. First, by using SRM parametric modeling functions with secondary development tool Python of ABAQUS, the three dimensional parameterized modeling programs of star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain were accomplished. Then, the mechanical properties under different loads for star shaped grain were obtained with the application of automatically established finite element model in ABAQUS. Next, several optimization algorithms are introduced to optimize the star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain. After meeting the demands of burning surface changes and volumetric fraction, the optimum three dimensional shapes of grain were obtained. Finally, by means of parametric modeling functions, pressure data of SRM’s cold pressurization test was directly applied to simulation of grain in terms of mechanical performance. The results verify the reliability and practical of parameterized modeling program of SRM.

Keywords: cold pressurization test, ğarametric modeling, structural integrity, propellant grain, SRM

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22 A Near Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study on Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

Authors: Reza Vakili, Xiaolei Fan, Alex Walton


The first near ambient pressure (NAP)-XPS study of CO oxidation over Pt nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into Zr-based UiO (UiO for Universitetet i Oslo) MOFs was carried out. For this purpose, the MOF-based Catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation ([email protected]) and linker design ([email protected]) methods along with [email protected]₂ as the control catalyst. Firstly, the as-synthesized catalysts were reduced in situ prior to the operando XPS analysis. The existence of Pt(II) species was proved in UiO-67 by observing Pt 4f core level peaks at a high binding energy of 72.6 ± 0.1 eV. However, by heating the [email protected] catalyst in situ to 200 °C under vacuum, the higher BE components disappear, leaving only the metallic Pt 4f doublet, confirming the formation of Pt NPs. The complete reduction of [email protected] is achieved at 250 °C and 1 mbar H₂. To understand the chemical state of Pt NPs in UiO-67 during catalytic turnover, we analyzed the Pt 4f region using operando NAP-XPS in the temperature-programmed measurements (100-260 °C) with reference to [email protected]₂ catalyst. CO conversion during NAP-XPS experiments with the stoichiometric mixture shows that [email protected] has a better CO turnover frequency (TOF, 0.066 s⁻¹ at 260 °C) than the other two (ca. 0.055 s⁻¹). Pt 4f peaks only show one chemical species present at all temperatures, but the core level BE shifts change as a function of reaction temperature, i.e., Pt 4f peak from 71.8 eV at T < 200 °C to 71.2 eV at T > 200 °C. As this higher BE state of 71.8 eV was not observed after in situ reductions of the catalysts and only once the CO/O₂ mixture was introduced, we attribute it to the surface saturation of Pt NPs with adsorbed CO. In general, the quantitative analysis of Pt 4f data from the operando NAP-XPS experiments shows that the surface chemistry of the Pt active phase in the two [email protected] catalysts is the same, comparable to that of [email protected]₂. The observed difference in the catalytic activity can be attributed to the particle sizes of Pt NPs, as well as the dispersion of active phase in the support, which are different in the three catalysts.

Keywords: CO oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, MOFs, Metal Organic Frameworks, NAP-XPS, Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

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21 Design and Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System Injector-I Cryomodule

Authors: Rui-Xiong Han, Rui Ge, Shao-Peng Li, Lin Bian, Liang-Rui Sun, Min-Jing Sang, Rui Ye, Ya-Ping Liu, Xiang-Zhen Zhang, Jie-Hao Zhang, Zhuo Zhang, Jian-Qing Zhang, Miao-Fu Xu


The Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (C-ADS) uses a high-energy proton beam to bombard the metal target and generate neutrons to deal with the nuclear waste. The Chinese ADS proton linear has two 0~10 MeV injectors and one 10~1500 MeV superconducting linac. Injector-I is studied by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under construction in the Beijing, China. The linear accelerator consists of two accelerating cryomodules operating at the temperature of 2 Kelvin. This paper describes the structure and thermal performances analysis of the cryomodule. The analysis takes into account all the main contributors (support posts, multilayer insulation, current leads, power couplers, and cavities) to the static and dynamic heat load at various cryogenic temperature levels. The thermal simulation analysis of the cryomodule is important theory foundation of optimization and commissioning.

Keywords: C-ADS, cryomodule, structure, thermal simulation, static heat load, dynamic heat load

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
20 Spectral Response Measurements and Materials Analysis of Ageing Solar Photovoltaic Modules

Authors: Fang-Yi Su, Zhen-Xiong Chen, Chi-Rung Li, Yung-Kuan Tseng


The design and reliability of solar photovoltaic modules are essential for the development of solar energy, and people are still trying to further extend the life of PV modules to increase their efficiency to this day. Spectrum response measurement is one of the testing methods that is often used in the calibration and improvement of PV modules, as the different wavelengths of the spectral response can reflect the characteristics of the solar cell layers. In this study, this technology along with material analysis methods was used to gain a more comprehensive insight into the failure mode of PV modules. Spectrum response measurement and material analysis methods such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry were used to analyse non-packaged and packaged monocrystalline silicon solar cells before and after the accelerated ageing test. The results were first compared to each other before investigating the properties and material structure of solar cells under different conditions before and after degradation. The study provided a more in depth understanding of the ageing degradation mechanism of solar cells, the different spectral response results due to variations in degradation material, and their corresponding performance.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic module, degradation, failure mode analysis, solar cell, spectrum response measurement

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19 Experimental Investigation on Residual Stresses in Welded Medium-Walled I-shaped Sections Fabricated from Q460GJ Structural Steel Plates

Authors: Qian Zhu, Shidong Nie, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Guoxin Dai


GJ steel is a new type of high-performance structural steel which has been increasingly adopted in practical engineering. Q460GJ structural steel has a nominal yield strength of 460 MPa, which does not decrease significantly with the increase of steel plate thickness like normal structural steel. Thus, Q460GJ structural steel is normally used in medium-walled welded sections. However, research works on the residual stress in GJ steel members are few though it is one of the vital factors that can affect the member and structural behavior. This article aims to investigate the residual stresses in welded I-shaped sections fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates by experimental tests. A total of four full scale welded medium-walled I-shaped sections were tested by sectioning method. Both circular curve correction method and straightening measurement method were adopted in this study to obtain the final magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, this paper also explores the interaction between flanges and webs. And based on the statistical evaluation of the experimental data, a multilayer residual stress model is proposed.

Keywords: Q460GJ structural steel, residual stresses, sectioning method, welded medium-walled I-shaped sections

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18 The Mechanical Response of a Composite Propellant under Harsh Conditions

Authors: Xin Tong, Jin-sheng Xu, Xiong Chen, Ya Zheng


The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant under harsh conditions. It describes two tests involving uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates (ranging from 0.0005 s-1 to 1.5 s-1), temperatures (ranging from 223 K to 343 K) and high-cycle fatigue tests under low-temperature (223 K, frequencies were set at 50, 100, 150 Hz) using DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer). To highlight the effect of small pre-strain on fatigue properties of HTPB propellant, quasi-static stretching was carried out before fatigue loading, and uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rates were successively applied. The results reveal that flow stress of propellant increases with reduction in temperature and rise in strain rate, and the strain rate-temperature equivalence relationship could be described by TTSP (time-temperature superposition principle) incorporating a modified WLF equation. Moreover, the rate of performance degradations and damage accumulation of propellant during fatigue tests increased with increasing strain amplitude and loading frequencies, while initial quasi-static loading has a negative effect on fatigue properties by comparing stress-strain relations after fatigue tests.

Keywords: fatigue, HTPB propellant, tensile properties, time-temperature superposition principle

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17 Overall Stability of Welded Q460GJ Steel Box Columns: Experimental Study and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Zhou Xiong, Kang Shao Bo, Yang Bo


To date, high-performance structural steel has been widely used for columns in construction practices due to its significant advantages over conventional steel. However, the same design approach with conventional steel columns is still adopted in the design of high-performance steel columns. As a result, its superior properties cannot be fully considered in design. This paper conducts a test and finite element analysis on the overall stability behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns. In the test, four steel columns with different slenderness and width-to-thickness ratio were compressed under an axial compression testing machine. And finite element models were established in which material nonlinearity and residual stress distributions of test columns were included. Then, comparisons were made between test results and finite element result, it showed that finite element analysis results are agree well with the test result. It means that the test and finite element model are reliable. Then, we compared the test result with the design value calculated by current code, the result showed that Q460GJ steel box columns have the higher overall buckling capacity than the design value. It is necessary to update the design curves for Q460GJ steel columns so that the overall stability capacity of Q460GJ box columns can be designed appropriately.

Keywords: axial compression, box columns, global buckling, numerical simulations, Q460GJ steel

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16 On-The-Fly Cross Sections Generation in Neutron Transport with Wide Energy Region

Authors: Rui Chen, Shu-min Zhou, Xiong-jie Zhang, Ren-bo Wang, Fan Huang, Bin Tang


During the temperature changes in reactor core, the nuclide cross section in reactor can vary with temperature, which eventually causes the changes of reactivity. To simulate the interaction between incident neutron and various materials at different temperatures on the nose, it is necessary to generate all the relevant reaction temperature-dependent cross section. Traditionally, the real time cross section generation method is used to avoid storing huge data but contains severe problems of low efficiency and adaptability for narrow energy region. Focused on the research on multi-temperature cross sections generation in real time during in neutron transport, this paper investigated the on-the-fly cross section generation method for resolved resonance region, thermal region and unresolved resonance region, and proposed the real time multi-temperature cross sections generation method based on double-exponential formula for resolved resonance region, as well as the Neville interpolation for thermal and unresolved resonance region. To prove the correctness and validity of multi-temperature cross sections generation based on wide energy region of incident neutron, the proposed method was applied in critical safety benchmark tests, which showed the capability for application in reactor multi-physical coupling simulation.

Keywords: cross section, neutron transport, numerical simulation, on-the-fly

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15 Improve B-Tree Index’s Performance Using Lock-Free Hash Table

Authors: Zhanfeng Ma, Zhiping Xiong, Hu Yin, Zhengwei She, Aditya P. Gurajada, Tianlun Chen, Ying Li


Many RDBMS vendors use B-tree index to achieve high performance for point queries and range queries, and some of them also employ hash index to further enhance the performance as hash table is more efficient for point queries. However, there are extra overheads to maintain a separate hash index, for example, hash mapping for all data records must always be maintained, which results in more memory space consumption; locking, logging and other mechanisms are needed to guarantee ACID, which affects the concurrency and scalability of the system. To relieve the overheads, Hash Cached B-tree (HCB) index is proposed in this paper, which consists of a standard disk-based B-tree index and an additional in-memory lock-free hash table. Initially, only the B-tree index is constructed for all data records, the hash table is built on the fly based on runtime workload, only data records accessed by point queries are indexed using hash table, this helps reduce the memory footprint. Changes to hash table are done using compare-and-swap (CAS) without performing locking and logging, this helps improve the concurrency and avoid contention. The hash table is also optimized to be cache conscious. HCB index is implemented in SAP ASE database, compared with the standard B-tree index, early experiments and customer adoptions show significant performance improvement. This paper provides an overview of the design of HCB index and reports the experimental results.

Keywords: B-tree, compare-and-swap, lock-free hash table, point queries, range queries, SAP ASE database

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14 Object Oriented Fault Tree Analysis Methodology

Authors: Yi Xiong, Tao Kong


Traditional safety, risk and reliability analysis approaches are problem-oriented, which make it great workload when analyzing complicated and huge system, besides, too much repetitive work would to do if the analyzed system composed by many similar components. It is pressing need an object and function oriented approach to maintain high consistency with problem domain. A new approach is proposed to overcome these shortcomings of traditional approaches, the concepts: class, abstract, inheritance, polymorphism and encapsulation are introduced into FTA and establish the professional class library that the abstractions of physical objects in real word, four areas relevant information also be proposed as the establish help guide. The interaction between classes is completed by the inside or external methods that mapping the attributes to base events through fully search the knowledge base, which forms good encapsulation. The object oriented fault tree analysis system that analyze and evaluate the system safety and reliability according to the original appearance of the problem is set up, where could mapped directly from the class and object to the problem domain of the fault tree analysis. All the system failure situations can be analyzed through this bottom-up fault tree construction approach. Under this approach architecture, FTA approach is developed, which avoids the human influence of the analyst on analysis results. It reveals the inherent safety problems of analyzed system itself and provides a new way of thinking and development for safety analysis. So that object oriented technology in the field of safety applications and development, safety theory is conducive to innovation.

Keywords: FTA, knowledge base, object-oriented technology, reliability analysis

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13 Spatial Differentiation Patterns and Influencing Mechanism of Urban Greening in China: Based on Data of 289 Cities

Authors: Fangzheng Li, Xiong Li


Significant differences in urban greening have occurred in Chinese cities, which accompanied with China's rapid urbanization. However, few studies focused on the spatial differentiation of urban greening in China with large amounts of data. The spatial differentiation pattern, spatial correlation characteristics and the distribution shape of urban green space ratio, urban green coverage rate and public green area per capita were calculated and analyzed, using Global and Local Moran's I using data from 289 cities in 2014. We employed Spatial Lag Model and Spatial Error Model to assess the impacts of urbanization process on urban greening of China. Then we used Geographically Weighted Regression to estimate the spatial variations of the impacts. The results showed: 1. a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in urban greening values, and the differentiation patterns were featured by the administrative grade and the spatial agglomeration simultaneously; 2. it revealed that urbanization has a negative correlation with urban greening in Chinese cities. Among the indices, the the proportion of secondary industry, urbanization rate, population and the scale of urban land use has significant negative correlation with the urban greening of China. Automobile density and per capita Gross Domestic Product has no significant impact. The results of GWR modeling showed that the relationship between urbanization and urban greening was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggested significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on urban greening.

Keywords: China’s urbanization, geographically weighted regression, spatial differentiation pattern, urban greening

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12 Lateral Torsional Buckling Investigation on Welded Q460GJ Structural Steel Unrestrained Beams under a Point Load

Authors: Yue Zhang, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Mohamed Elchalakanic, Shidong Nie


This study aims to investigate the lateral torsional buckling of I-shaped cross-section beams fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates. Both experimental and numerical simulation results are presented in this paper. A total of eight specimens were tested under a three-point bending, and the corresponding numerical models were established to conduct parametric studies. The effects of some key parameters such as the non-dimensional member slenderness and the height-to-width ratio, were investigated based on the verified numerical models. Also, the results obtained from the parametric studies were compared with the predictions calculated by different design codes including the Chinese design code (GB50017-2003, 2003), the new draft version of Chinese design code (GB50017-201X, 2012), Eurocode 3 (EC3, 2005) and the North America design code (ANSI/AISC360-10, 2010). These comparisons indicated that the sectional height-to-width ratio does not play an important role to influence the overall stability load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ structural steel beams with welded I-shaped cross-sections. It was also found that the design methods in GB50017-2003 and ANSI/AISC360-10 overestimate the overall stability and load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ welded I-shaped cross-section beams.

Keywords: experimental study, finite element analysis, global stability, lateral torsional buckling, Q460GJ structural steel

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