Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Wei Cong

22 Study of Structural Health Monitoring System for Vam Cong Cable-Stayed Bridge

Authors: L. M. Chinh


Vam Cong Bridge beside Can Tho Bridge is the next cable-stayed bridge spanning the Hau River, connecting Lap Vo district with Thot Not district. After construction by the end of 2018, the Vam Cong Bridge with Cao Lanh Bridge will help to improve the road network in this region of Mekong Delta. For this bridge, the SHM system also had designed for two stages – construction stage and exploitation stage. At the moment over 65% of the bridge construction had completed, and the bridge will be completed at the end of 2018. During the construction stage, the SHM system had been install to monitor behaviors of the bridge. Based on the study of the design documentation of the SHM system of the Vam Cong Bridge and site visit during construction work, many designs and installation errors have been detected. In this paper author thoroughly analyzed the pros and cons of this SHM system, simultaneously make conclusions and recommendations for this system. Specially concentrated on the possibility of implementing the acoustic emission method (AE) into this SHM system, which is an alternative to the further development of the system, enabling a full and cost-effective solution for the bridge management, which is of utmost importance for the service life and safe operation of the bridge.

Keywords: SHM system, design and installation, Vam Cong bridge, construction stage, acoustic emission method (AE)

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21 A Sociological Investigation on the Population and Public Spaces of Nguyen Cong Tru, a Soviet-Style Collective Housing Complex in Hanoi in Regards to Its New Community-Focused Architectural Design

Authors: Duy Nguyen Do, Bart Julien Dewancker


Many Soviet-style collective housing complexes (also known as KTT) were built since the 1960s in Hanoi to support the post-war population growth. Those low-rise buildings have created well-knitted, robust communities, so much to the point that in most complexes, all families in one housing block would know each other, occasionally interact and provide supports in need. To understand how the community of collective housing complexes have developed and maintained in order to adapt their advantages into modern housing designs, the study is executed on the site of Nguyen Cong Tru KTT. This is one of the oldest KTT in Hanoi, completed in 1954. The complex also has an unique characteristic that is closely related to its community: the symbiotic relationship with Hom – a flea market that has been co-developing with Nguyen Cong Tru KTT since its beginning. The research consists of three phases: the first phase is a sociological investigation with Nguyen Cong Tru KTT’s current residents and a site survey on the complex’s economic and architectural characteristics. In the second phase, the collected data is analyzed to find out people’s opinions with the KTT’s concerning their satisfaction with the current housing status, floor plan organization, community, the relationship between the KTT’s dedicated public spaces with the flea market and their usage. Simultaneously, the master plan and gathered information regarding current architectural characteristics of the complex are also inspected. On the third phase, the analyses’ results will provide information regarding the issues, positive trends and significant historical features of the complex’s architecture in order to generate suitable proposals for the redesigning project of Nguyen Cong Tru KTT, a design focused on vitalizing modern apartments’ communities.

Keywords: collective house community, collective house public space, community-focused, redesigning Nguyen Cong Tru KTT, sociological investigation

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20 Methanation Catalyst for Low CO Concentration

Authors: Hong-Fang Ma, Cong-yi He, Hai-Tao Zhang, Wei-Yong Ying, Ding-Ye Fang


A Ni-based catalyst supported by γ-Al2O3 was prepared by impregnation method, and the catalyst was used in a low CO and CO2 concentration methanation system. The effect of temperature, pressure and space velocity on the methanation reaction was investigated in an experimental fixed-bed reactor. The methanation reaction was operated at the conditions of 190-240°C, 3000-24000ml•g-1•h-1 and 1.5-3.5MPa. The results show that temperature and space velocity play important role on the reaction. With the increase of reaction temperature the CO and CO2 conversion increase and the selectivity of CH4 increase. And with the increase of the space velocity the conversion of CO and CO2 and the selectivity of CH4 decrease sharply.

Keywords: coke oven gas, methanntion, catalyst, fixed bed, performance

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19 Design of Torque Actuator in Hybrid Multi-DOF System with Taking into Account Magnetic Saturation

Authors: Hyun-Seok Hong, Tae-Chul Jeong, Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee


In this paper, proposes to replace the three-phase SPM for tilting by a single-phase torque actuator of the hybrid multi-DOF system. If a three-phase motor for tilting SPM as acting as instantaneous, low electricity use efficiency, controllability is bad disadvantages. It uses a single-phase torque actuator has a high electrical efficiency compared, good controllability. Thus this will have a great influence on the development and practical use of the system. This study designed a single phase torque actuator in consideration of the magnetic saturation. And compared the SPM and FEM analysis and validation through testing of the production model.

Keywords: hybrid multi-DOF system, SPM, torque actuator, UAV, drone

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18 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin


Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, accelerometer, single-axis rotation modulation

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17 ELectromagnetic-Thermal Coupled Analysis of PMSM with Cooling Channel

Authors: Hyun-Woo Jun, Tae-Chul Jeong, Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee


The paper presents the electromagnetic-thermal flow coupled analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which has cooling channel in stator core for forced air cooling. Unlike the general PMSM design, to achieve ohmic loss reduction for high efficiency, cooling channel actively used in the stator core. Equivalent thermal network model was made to analyze the effect of the formation of the additional flow path in the core. According to the shape and position changing of the channel design, electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis results were reviewed.

Keywords: coupled problems, electric motors, equivalent circuits, fluid flow, thermal analysis

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16 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin


Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation

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15 Core Loss Influence on MTPA Current Vector Variation of Synchronous Reluctance Machine

Authors: Huai-Cong Liu, Tae Chul Jeong, Ju Lee


The aim of this study was to develop an electric circuit method (ECM) to ascertain the core loss influence on a Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) in the condition of the maximum torque per ampere (MTPA). SynRM for fan usually operates on the constant torque region, at synchronous speed the MTPA control is adopted due to current vector. However, finite element analysis (FEA) program is not sufficient exactly to reflect how the core loss influenced on the current vector. This paper proposed a method to calculate the current vector with consideration of core loss. The precision of current vector by ECM is useful for MTPA control. The result shows that ECM analysis is closer to the actual motor’s characteristics by testing with a 7.5kW SynRM drive System.

Keywords: core loss, SynRM, current vector, magnetic saturation, maximum torque per ampere (MTPA)

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14 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin


Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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13 Analytical Modeling of Equivalent Magnetic Circuit in Multi-segment and Multi-barrier Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Huai-Cong Liu,Tae Chul Jeong,Ju Lee


This paper describes characteristic analysis of a synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM)’s rotor with the Multi-segment and Multi-layer structure. The magnetic-saturation phenomenon in SynRM is often appeared. Therefore, when modeling analysis of SynRM the calculation of nonlinear magnetic field needs to be considered. An important influence factor on the convergence process is how to determine the relative permeability. An improved method, which ensures the calculation, is convergence by linear iterative method for saturated magnetic field. If there are inflection points on the magnetic curve,an optimum convergence method of solution for nonlinear magnetic field was provided. Then the equivalent magnetic circuit is calculated, and d,q-axis inductance can be got. At last, this process is applied to design a 7.5Kw SynRM and its validity is verified by comparing with the result of finite element method (FEM) and experimental test data.

Keywords: SynRM, magnetic-saturation, magnetic circuit, analytical modeling

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12 A General Iterative Nonlinear Programming Method to Synthesize Heat Exchanger Network

Authors: Rupu Yang, Cong Toan Tran, Assaad Zoughaib


The work provides an iterative nonlinear programming method to synthesize a heat exchanger network by manipulating the trade-offs between the heat load of process heat exchangers (HEs) and utilities. We consider for the synthesis problem two cases, the first one without fixed cost for HEs, and the second one with fixed cost. For the no fixed cost problem, the nonlinear programming (NLP) model with all the potential HEs is optimized to obtain the global optimum. For the case with fixed cost, the NLP model is iterated through adding/removing HEs. The method was applied in five case studies and illustrated quite well effectiveness. Among which, the approach reaches the lowest TAC (2,904,026$/year) compared with the best record for the famous Aromatic plants problem. It also locates a slightly better design than records in literature for a 10 streams case without fixed cost with only 1/9 computational time. Moreover, compared to the traditional mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach, the iterative NLP method opens a possibility to consider constraints (such as controllability or dynamic performances) that require knowing the structure of the network to be calculated.

Keywords: heat exchanger network, synthesis, NLP, optimization

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11 Emotions and Message Sharing on the Chinese Microblog

Authors: Yungeng Xie, Cong Liu, Yi Liu, Xuanao Wan


The study aims to explore microblog users’ emotion expression and sharing behaviors on the Chinese microblog (Weibo). The first theme of study analyzed whether microblog emotions impact readers’ message sharing behaviors, specifically, how the strength of emotion (positive and negative) in microblog messages facilitate/inhibit readers’ sharing behaviors. The second theme compared the differences among the three types of microblog users (i.e., verified enterprise users, verified individual users and unverified users) in terms of their profiles and microblog behaviors. A total of 7114 microblog messages about 24 hot public events in China were sampled from Sina Weibo. The first study results show that strength of negative emotions that microblog messages carry significantly increase the possibility of the message being shared. The second study results indicate that there are significant differences across the three types of users in terms of their emotion expression and its influence on microblog behaviors.

Keywords: emotion expression, information diffusion, microblog, sharing

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10 An Investigation of Passivation Technology in Stainless Steel Alloy

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Rick Wang, Yan-Cong Liao


Passivation is a kind of surface treatment for material to reinforce the corrosion resistance specially the stainless alloy. Passive film, is to getting more potential compared to their status before passivation. An oxidation film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel, which has a strong corrosion resistance ability after passivation treatment. In this research, a new passivation technology is proposed for a special stainless alloy which contains a 12-14% Chromium. This method includes the A-A-A (alkaline-acid-alkaline) process basically, which was developed by Carpenter that can neutralize trapped acid. Besides, a corrosion resistant coating layer was obtained by immersing the parts in a water bath of mineral oil at high temperature. Salt spray test ASTM B368 was conducted to investigated performance of corrosion resistant of the passivated stainless steel alloy parts. Results show much better corrosion resistant that followed a coating process after A-A-A Passivation process, than only using A-A-A process. The passivation time is with more than 380 hours of salt spray test ASTM B368, which is equal to 3000 hours of Salt spray test ASTM B117. Proposed passivation method of stainless steel can be completed in about 3 hours.

Keywords: passivation, alkaline-acid-alkaline, stainless steel, salt spray test

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9 A Comparative Study of Global Power Grids and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Using GIS Technology

Authors: Wenhao Wang, Xinzhi Xu, Limin Feng, Wei Cong


This paper comprehensively investigates current development status of global power grids and fossil energy pipelines (oil and natural gas), proposes a standard visual platform of global power and fossil energy based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. In this visual platform, a series of systematic visual models is proposed with global spatial data, systematic energy and power parameters. Under this visual platform, the current Global Power Grids Map and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Map are plotted within more than 140 countries and regions across the world. Using the multi-scale fusion data processing and modeling methods, the world’s global fossil energy pipelines and power grids information system basic database is established, which provides important data supporting global fossil energy and electricity research. Finally, through the systematic and comparative study of global fossil energy pipelines and global power grids, the general status of global fossil energy and electricity development are reviewed, and energy transition in key areas are evaluated and analyzed. Through the comparison analysis of fossil energy and clean energy, the direction of relevant research is pointed out for clean development and energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition, geographic information system, fossil energy, power systems

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8 Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Membrane Distillation Bioreactor for Wastewater Reuse

Authors: Duong Cong Chinh, Shiao-Shing Chen, Le Quang Huy


Membrane distillation (MD) is actually claimed to be a cost-effective separation process when waste heat, alternative energy sources, or wastewater are used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that a thermophilic anaerobic granular bioreactor is integrated with membrane distillation (ThAnMDB) was investigated. In this study, the laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor (1.2 litter) was set-up. The bioreactor was maintained at temperature 55 ± 2°C, hydraulic retention time = 0.5 days, organic loading rates of 7 and 10 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m³/day. Side-stream direct contact membrane distillation with the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane area was 150 cm². The temperature of the distillate was kept at 25°C. Results show that distillate flux was 19.6 LMH (Liters per square meter per hour) on the first day and gradually decreased to 6.9 LMH after 10 days, and the membrane was not wet. Notably, by directly using the heat from the thermophilic anaerobic for MD separation process, all distilled water from wastewater was reuse as fresh water (electrical conductivity < 120 µs/cm). The ThAnMDB system showed its high pollutant removal performance: chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 99.6 to 99.9%, NH₄⁺ from 60 to 95%, and PO₄³⁻ complete removal. In addition, methane yield was from 0.28 to 0.34 lit CH₄/gram COD removal (80 – 97% of the theoretical) demonstrated that the ThAnMDB system was quite stable. The achievement of the ThAnMDB is not only in removing pollutants and reusing wastewater but also in absolutely unnecessarily adding alkaline to the anaerobic bioreactor system.

Keywords: high rate anaerobic digestion, membrane distillation, thermophilic anaerobic, wastewater reuse

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7 Correlation between Physical Fitness and Performance and Grade of Table Tennis of Middle School Students

Authors: Yisong Cong, Mingming Guo, Xiaozan Wang, Yizhi Zhang, Qingqing Yuan


This study is to test the correlation between the Physical Fitness (PF) of middle school students and their performance and sports grade of table tennis. Methods: 398 middle school students from Shanghai Tongji No.2 Middle School participated in the study, including 232 boys and 166 girls. Each participant participated in the Chinese Students’ Physical Fitness Test (CSPFT), including BMI, 50-meter running, vital capacity, sitting body flexion, standing long jump, 800-meter running, 1000-meter running, pull-ups, and sit-ups. Test scores were converted to a percentage score according to the CSPFT guidelines. In addition, each student participated in the Nation Junior Table Tennis grade test, and completed the table tennis sports grade assessment of 1-9. Results: There is a significant positive correlation between the scores of multiple PF tests and the total scores of table tennis, such as BMI (r = 0.15, p < 0.01), standing long jump (r = 0.15, p < 0.05), 800-meter run (r = 0.02, p <0.01); The scores of multiple PF are positively correlated with table tennis grade, such as vital capacity (r = 0.1, p < 0.01) and 50-meter running (r = 0.18, p < 0.05). At the same time, the sit-ups performance showed a significant negative correlation with the table tennis performance (r = -0.08, p < 0.01); There is no significant correlation between the other PF indicators and the performance and grade of table tennis. Conclusions: This study shows that there is a corresponding relationship between some PF indicators of middle school students and their table tennis performance and table tennis grade,but the specific form and reason of the relationship need to be further explored.

Keywords: middle school students, physical fitness, table tennis grade, table tennis performance

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6 Changes in Blood Pressure in a Longitudinal Cohort of Vietnamese Women

Authors: Anh Vo Van Ha, Yun Zhao, Luat Cong Nguyen, Tan Khac Chu, Phung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Ngoc Pham, Colin W. Binns, Andy H. Lee


This study aims to study longitudinal changes in blood pressure (BP) during the 1-year postpartum period and to evaluate the influence of parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational age at delivery and postpartum maternal weight. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 883 singleton Vietnamese women was conducted in Hanoi, Haiphong, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam during 2015-2017. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation, pre-eclampsia, and hypoglycemia was excluded from analysis. BP was repeatedly measured at discharge, 6 and 12 months postpartum using automatic blood pressure monitors. Linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to describe changes occurring during pregnancy to 1-year postpartum. Parity, self-reported prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal age and gestational age at delivery will be treated as time-invariant variables and measured maternal weight will be treated as a time-varying variable in models. Women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.20 mmHg, 95% CI [0.12, 0.28]. Similarly, women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.15 mmHg, 95% CI [0.08, 0.23]. These differences were both statistically significant, P < 0.001. There were no differences in SBP and DBP depending on parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and gestational age at delivery. Compared with discharge measurement, SBP was significantly higher in 6 months postpartum, 6.91 mmHg, 95% CI [6.22, 7.59], and 12 months postpartum, 6.39 mmHg, 95% CI [5.64, 7.15]. Similarly, DBP was also significantly higher in 6 and months postpartum than at discharge, 10.46 mmHg 95% CI [9.75, 11.17], and 11.33 mmHg 95% CI [10.54, 12.12]. In conclusion, BP measured repeatedly during the postpartum period (6 and 12 months postpartum) showed a statistically significant increase, compared with after discharge from the hospital. Maternal weight was a significant predictor of postpartum blood pressure over the 1-year postpartum period.

Keywords: blood pressure, maternal weight, postpartum, Vietnam

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5 A Study of the Interactions between the Inter-City Traffic System and the Spatial Structure Evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from Time and Space Dimensions

Authors: Zhang Cong, Cai Runlin, Jia Fengjiao


The evolution of the urban agglomeration spatial structure requires strong support of the inter-city traffic system. And the inter-city traffic system can not only meet the demand of the urban agglomeration transportation but also guide the economic development. To correctly understand the relationship between inter-city traffic planning and urban agglomeration can help the urban agglomeration coordinated developing with the inter-city traffic system. The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most representative urban agglomerations in China with strong economic vitality, high city levels, diversified urban space form, and improved transport infrastructure. With the promotion of industrial division in the Yangtze River Delta and the regional travel facilitation brought by inter-city traffic, the urban agglomeration is characterized by highly increasing of inter-city transportation demand, the urbanization of regional traffic, adjacent regional transportation links breaking administrative boundaries, the networked channels and so on. Therefore, the development of inter-city traffic system presents new trends and challenges. This paper studies the interactions between inter-city traffic system and regional economic growth, regional factor flow, and regional spatial structure evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from two dimensions of time and space. On this basis, the adaptability of inter-city traffic development mode and urban agglomeration space structure is analyzed. First of all, the coordination between urban agglomeration planning and inter-city traffic planning is judged from the planning level. Secondly, the coordination between inter-city traffic elements and industries and population distributions is judged from the perspective of space. Finally, the coordination of the cross-regional planning and construction of inter-city traffic system is judged. The conclusions can provide an empirical reference for intercity traffic planning in Yangtze River Delta region and other urban agglomerations, and it is also of great significance to optimize the allocation of urban agglomerations and the overall operational efficiency.

Keywords: evolution, interaction, inter-city traffic system, spatial structure

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4 Modelling Dengue Disease With Climate Variables Using Geospatial Data For Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam

Authors: Thi Thanh Nga Pham, Damien Philippon, Alexis Drogoul, Thi Thu Thuy Nguyen, Tien Cong Nguyen


Mekong River Delta region of Vietnam is recognized as one of the most vulnerable to climate change due to flooding and seawater rise and therefore an increased burden of climate change-related diseases. Changes in temperature and precipitation are likely to alter the incidence and distribution of vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever. In this region, the peak of the dengue epidemic period is around July to September during the rainy season. It is believed that climate is an important factor for dengue transmission. This study aims to enhance the capacity of dengue prediction by the relationship of dengue incidences with climate and environmental variables for Mekong River Delta of Vietnam during 2005-2015. Mathematical models for vector-host infectious disease, including larva, mosquito, and human being were used to calculate the impacts of climate to the dengue transmission with incorporating geospatial data for model input. Monthly dengue incidence data were collected at provincial level. Precipitation data were extracted from satellite observations of GSMaP (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation), land surface temperature and land cover data were from MODIS. The value of seasonal reproduction number was estimated to evaluate the potential, severity and persistence of dengue infection, while the final infected number was derived to check the outbreak of dengue. The result shows that the dengue infection depends on the seasonal variation of climate variables with the peak during the rainy season and predicted dengue incidence follows well with this dynamic for the whole studied region. However, the highest outbreak of 2007 dengue was not captured by the model reflecting nonlinear dependences of transmission on climate. Other possible effects will be discussed to address the limitation of the model. This suggested the need of considering of both climate variables and another variability across temporal and spatial scales.

Keywords: infectious disease, dengue, geospatial data, climate

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3 Map UI Design of IoT Application Based on Passenger Evacuation Behaviors in Underground Station

Authors: Meng-Cong Zheng


When the public space is in an emergency, how to quickly establish spatial cognition and emergency shelter in the closed underground space is the urgent task. This study takes Taipei Station as the research base and aims to apply the use of Internet of things (IoT) application for underground evacuation mobility design. The first experiment identified passengers' evacuation behaviors and spatial cognition in underground spaces by wayfinding tasks and thinking aloud, then defined the design conditions of User Interface (UI) and proposed the UI design.  The second experiment evaluated the UI design based on passengers' evacuation behaviors by wayfinding tasks and think aloud again as same as the first experiment. The first experiment found that the design conditions that the subjects were most concerned about were "map" and hoping to learn the relative position of themselves with other landmarks by the map and watch the overall route. "Position" needs to be accurately labeled to determine the location in underground space. Each step of the escape instructions should be presented clearly in "navigation bar." The "message bar" should be informed of the next or final target exit. In the second experiment with the UI design, we found that the "spatial map" distinguishing between walking and non-walking areas with shades of color is useful. The addition of 2.5D maps of the UI design increased the user's perception of space. Amending the color of the corner diagram in the "escape route" also reduces the confusion between the symbol and other diagrams. The larger volume of toilets and elevators can be a judgment of users' relative location in "Hardware facilities." Fire extinguisher icon should be highlighted. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. However, "Compass and return to present location" are less used in underground space.

Keywords: evacuation behaviors, IoT application, map UI design, underground station

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2 Behavioral Mapping and Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Meeting-Point Design in an International Airport

Authors: Meng-Cong Zheng, Yu-Sheng Chen


The meeting behavior is a pervasive kind of interaction, which often occurs between the passenger and the shuttle. However, the meeting point set up at the Taoyuan International Airport is too far from the entry-exit, often causing passengers to stop searching near the entry-exit. When the number of people waiting for the rush hour increases, it often results in chaos in the waiting area. This study tried to find out what is the key factor to promote the rapid finding of each other between the passengers and the pick-ups. Then we implemented several design proposals to improve the meeting behavior of passengers and pick-ups based on behavior mapping and post-occupancy evaluation to enhance their meeting efficiency in unfamiliar environments. The research base is the reception hall of the second terminal of Taoyuan International Airport. Behavioral observation and mapping are implemented on the entry of inbound passengers into the welcome space, including the crowd distribution of the people who rely on the separation wall in the waiting area, the behavior of meeting and the interaction between the inbound passengers and the pick-ups. Then we redesign the space planning and signage design based on post-occupancy evaluation to verify the effectiveness of space plan and signage design. This study found that passengers ignore existing meeting-point designs which are placed on distant pillars at both ends. The position of the screen affects the area where the receiver is stranded, causing the pick-ups to block the passenger's moving line. The pick-ups prefer to wait where it is easy to watch incoming passengers and where it is closest to the mode of transport they take when leaving. Large visitors tend to gather next to landmarks, and smaller groups have a wide waiting area in the lobby. The location of the meeting point chosen by the pick-ups is related to the view of the incoming passenger. Finally, this study proposes an improved design of the meeting point, setting the traffic information in it, so that most passengers can see the traffic information when they enter the country. At the same time, we also redesigned the pick-ups desk to improve the efficiency of passenger meeting.

Keywords: meeting point design, post-occupancy evaluation, behavioral mapping, international airport

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1 Isolation and Structural Elucidation of 20 Hydroxyecdystone from Vitex doniana Sweet Stem Bark

Authors: Mustapha A. Tijjani, Fanna I. Abdulrahman, Irfan Z. Khan, Umar K. Sandabe, Cong Li


Air dried sample V. doniana after collection and identification was extracted with ethanol and further partition with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Ethanolic extract (11.9g) was fractionated on a silica gel accelerated column chromatography using solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Each eluent fractions (150ml aliquots) were collected and monitored with thin layer chromatography. Fractions with similar Rf values from same solvents system were pooled together. Phytochemical test of all the fractions were performed using standard procedure. Complete elution yielded 48 fractions (150ml/fraction) which were pooled to 24 fractions base on the Rf values. It was further recombined and 12 fractions were obtained on the basis on Rf values and coded Vd1 to Vd12 fractions. Vd8 was further eluted with ethylacetate and methanol and gave fourteen sub fractions Vd8-a, -Vd8-m. Fraction Vd8-a (56mg) gave a white crystal compound coded V1. It was further checked on TLC and observed under ultraviolet lamp and was found to give a single spot. The Rf values were calculated to be 0.433. The melting point was determined using Gallenkamp capillary melting point apparatus and found to be 241-243°C uncorrected. Characterization of the isolated compound coded V1 was done using FT-infra-red spectroscopy, HNMR, 13CNMR(1and 2D) and HRESI-MS. The IR spectrum of compound V1 shows prominent peaks that corresponds to OHstr (3365cm-1) and C=0 (1652cm-1) etc. This spectrum suggests that among the functional moiety in compound V1 are the carbonyl and hydroxyl group. The 1H NMR (400 MHz) spectrum of compound V1 in DMSO-d6 displayed five singlet signals at δ 0.72 (3H, s, H-18), 0.79 (3H, s, H-19), 1.03 (3H, s, H-21), 1.04 (3H, s, H-26), 1.06 (3H, s, H-27) each integrating for three protons indicating the five methyl functional groups present in the compound. It further showed a broad singlet at δ 5.58 integrated for 1 H due to an olefinic H-atom adjacent to the carbonyl carbon atom. Three signals at δ 3.10 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, H-22), 3.59 (m, 1H, 2H-a) and 3.72 (m, 1H, 3H-e), each integrating for one proton is due to oxymethine protons indicating that three oxymethine H-atoms are present in the compound. These all signals are characteristic to the ecdysteroid skeletons. The 13C-NMR spectrum showed the presence of 27 carbon atoms, suggesting that may be steroid skeleton. The DEPT-135 experiment showed the presence of five CH3, eight CH2, and seven CH groups, and seven quaternary C-atoms. The molecular formula was established as C27H44O7 by high resolution electron spray ionization-mass spectroscopy (HRESI-MS) positive ion mode m/z 481.3179. The signals in mass spectrum are 463, 445, and 427 peaks corresponding to losses of one, two, three, or four water molecules characteristic for ecdysterone skeleton reported in the literature. Based on the spectral analysis (HNMR, 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC, IR, HRESI-MS) the compound V1 is thus concluded to have ecdysteriod skeleton and conclusively conforms with 2β, 3β 14α, 20R, 22R, 25-hexahydroxy-5 β cholest-7-ene-6- one, or 2, 3, 14, 20, 22, 25 hexahydroxy cholest-7-ene-6-one commonly known as 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Keywords: vitex, phytochemical, purification, isolation, chromatography, spectroscopy

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