Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Thalamus

12 The Effect and Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture on Motion Sickness in Mice

Authors: Chanya Inprasit, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Motion sickness (MS) is an acute disorder that occurs in healthy persons without considering gender, age or ethnicity worldwide. All signs and symptoms of MS are the results of confliction and mismatch among neural signal inputs. It is known that no singular remedy works for everybody, and electroacupuncture (EA) is one of the popular alternative therapies used for MS. Our study utilized a mouse model in order to exclude any psychological factors of MS and EA. Mice lack an emetic reflex. Therefore pica behavior, which is a normal consumption of non-nutritive substances, was found to measure the response of MS in mice. In the laboratory, Kaolin was used as a non-nutrient food substance instead of natural substances lacking nutritional value such as wood, cloth, charcoal, soil or grass. It was hypothesized that EA treatment could reduce the symptoms of MS through the TRPV1 pathways. The results of pica behavior showed a significantly increased intake of kaolin in the MS group throughout the experiment period. Moreover, the Kaolin intake of the EA group decreased to the average baseline of the control group. There was no recorded difference in the food and water intake of each group. The results indicated an increase of the TRPV1, pERK, pJNK and pmTOR protein levels in the thalamus after MS stimulation, and a significant decrease in the EA group compared with that of the control group. These findings suggest that TRPV1 pathways are associated in MS mechanisms and can be reduced by EA.

Keywords: electroacupuncture, motion sickness, Thalamus, TRPV1

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11 Relationship between Pushing Behavior and Subcortical White Matter Lesion in the Acute Phase after Stroke

Authors: Yuji Fujino, Kazu Amimoto, Kazuhiro Fukata, Masahide Inoue, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Shigeru Makita

Abstract:

Aim: Pusher behavior (PB) is a disorder in which stroke patients shift their body weight toward the affected side of the body (the hemiparetic side) and push away from the non-hemiparetic side. These patients often use further pushing to resist any attempts to correct their position to upright. It is known that the subcortical white matter lesion (SWML) usually correlates of gait or balance function in stroke patients. However, it is unclear whether the SWML influences PB. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the damage of SWML affects the severity of PB on acute stroke patients. Methods: Fourteen PB patients without thalamic or cortical lesions (mean age 73.4 years, 17.5 days from onset) participated in this study. Evaluation of PB was performed according to the Scale for Contraversive Pushing (SCP) for sitting and/or standing. We used modified criteria wherein the SCP subscale scores in each section of the scale were >0. As a clinical measurement, patients were evaluated by the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS). For the depiction of SWML, we used T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging. The degree of damage on SWML was assessed using the Fazekas scale. Patients were divided into two groups in the presence of SWML (SWML+ group; Fazekas scale grade 1-3, SWML- group; Fazekas scale grade 0). The independent t-test was used to compare the SCP and SIAS. This retrospective study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: In SWML+ group, the SCP was 3.7±1.0 points (mean±SD), the SIAS was 28.0 points (median). In SWML- group, the SCP was 2.0±0.2 points, and the SIAS was 31.5 points. The SCP was significantly higher in SWML+ group than in SWML- group (p<0.05). The SIAS was not significant in both groups (p>0.05). Discussion: It has been considered that the posterior thalamus is the neural structures that process the afferent sensory signals mediating graviceptive information about upright body orientation in humans. Therefore, many studies reported that PB was typically associated with unilateral lesions of the posterior thalamus. However, the result indicates that these extra-thalamic brain areas also contribute to the network controlling upright body posture. Therefore, SMWL might induce dysfunction through malperfusion in distant thalamic or other structurally intact neural structures. This study had a small sample size. Therefore, future studies should be performed with a large number of PB patients. Conclusion: The present study suggests that SWML can be definitely associated with PB. The patients with SWML may be severely incapacitating.

Keywords: pushing behavior, subcortical white matter lesion, acute phase, stroke

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10 Exploring the Neural Correlates of Different Interaction Types: A Hyperscanning Investigation Using the Pattern Game

Authors: Beata Spilakova, Daniel J. Shaw, Radek Marecek, Milan Brazdil

Abstract:

Hyperscanning affords a unique insight into the brain dynamics underlying human interaction by simultaneously scanning two or more individuals’ brain responses while they engage in dyadic exchange. This provides an opportunity to observe dynamic brain activations in all individuals participating in interaction, and possible interbrain effects among them. The present research aims to provide an experimental paradigm for hyperscanning research capable of delineating among different forms of interaction. Specifically, the goal was to distinguish between two dimensions: (1) interaction structure (concurrent vs. turn-based) and (2) goal structure (competition vs cooperation). Dual-fMRI was used to scan 22 pairs of participants - each pair matched on gender, age, education and handedness - as they played the Pattern Game. In this simple interactive task, one player attempts to recreate a pattern of tokens while the second player must either help (cooperation) or prevent the first achieving the pattern (competition). Each pair played the game iteratively, alternating their roles every round. The game was played in two consecutive sessions: first the players took sequential turns (turn-based), but in the second session they placed their tokens concurrently (concurrent). Conventional general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed activations throughout a diffuse collection of brain regions: The cooperative condition engaged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC); in the competitive condition, significant activations were observed in frontal and prefrontal areas, insula cortices and the thalamus. Comparisons between the turn-based and concurrent conditions revealed greater precuneus engagement in the former. Interestingly, mPFC, PCC and insulae are linked repeatedly to social cognitive processes. Similarly, the thalamus is often associated with a cognitive empathy, thus its activation may reflect the need to predict the opponent’s upcoming moves. Frontal and prefrontal activation most likely represent the higher attentional and executive demands of the concurrent condition, whereby subjects must simultaneously observe their co-player and place his own tokens accordingly. The activation of precuneus in the turn-based condition may be linked to self-other distinction processes. Finally, by performing intra-pair correlations of brain responses we demonstrate condition-specific patterns of brain-to-brain coupling in mPFC and PCC. Moreover, the degree of synchronicity in these neural signals related to performance on the game. The present results, then, show that different types of interaction recruit different brain systems implicated in social cognition, and the degree of inter-player synchrony within these brain systems is related to nature of the social interaction.

Keywords: brain-to-brain coupling, hyperscanning, pattern game, social interaction

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9 Physiology of Temporal Lobe and Limbic System

Authors: Khaled A. Abdel-Sater

Abstract:

There are four areas of the temporal lobe. Primary auditory area (areas 41 and 42); it is for the perception of auditory impulse, auditory association area (area 22, 21, and 20): Areas 21 and 20 are for understanding and interpretation of auditory sensation, recognition of language, and long-term memories. Area 22, also called Wernicke’s area, and a sensory speech centre. It is for interpretation of auditory and visual information, formation of thoughts in the mind, and choice of words to be used. Ideas and thoughts originate in it. The limbic system is a part of cortical and subcortical structure forming a ring around the brainstem. Cortical structures are the orbitofrontal area, subcallosal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. Subcortical structures are the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, paraolfactory area, anterior nucleus of the thalamus portions of the basal ganglia. There are several physiological functions of the limbic system, including regulation of behavior, motivation, and emotion.

Keywords: limbic system, motivation, emotions, temporal lobe

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8 Reduction of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 for Chronic Pain and Depression Co-Morbidity through Electroacupuncture and Gene Deletion in Mice Brain

Authors: Bernice Lottering, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Chronic pain and depression have an estimated 80% rate of comorbidity with unsatisfactory treatment interventions signifying the importance of developing effective therapeutic interventions for a serious chronic condition affecting a large majority of the global population. Chronic pain is defined as persistent pain presenting for over 3 months. This disease state increases the risk of developing depression in comparison to healthy individuals. In the current study, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was used to induce cell-mediated chronic inflammatory pain in a murine model. Significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was induced, alongside observable depression-like behaviors. These conditions were attenuated through the use of electroacupuncture (EA). Similarly, these effects were also investigated with respect to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), by analyzing the effects of TRPV1 gene deletion on the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression. The expression of the TRPV1 inflammatory response, and related downstream molecules, including protein kinases (PKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transcriptional factors, were significantly reduced in the thalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of CFA-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1 was also found to be reduced in the aforementioned areas, suggesting potential application and validity in a clinical setting. Our study determined the prospective therapeutic effects of EA in the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain and depression comorbidity and provides a novel and detailed mechanism underlying EA-mediated analgesia. These findings may be relevant in the utilization of clinical intervention approaches related to chronic pain and depression comorbidity.

Keywords: chronic pain, depression, NMDA, prefrontal cortex, TRPV1

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7 Distraction from Pain: An fMRI Study on the Role of Age-Related Changes in Executive Functions

Authors: Katharina M. Rischer, Angelika Dierolf, Ana M. Gonzalez-Roldan, Pedro Montoya, Fernand Anton, Marian van der Meulen

Abstract:

Even though age has been associated with increased and prolonged episodes of pain, little is known about potential age-related changes in the ˈtop-downˈ modulation of pain, such as cognitive distraction from pain. The analgesic effects of distraction result from competition for attentional resources in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region that is also involved in executive functions. Given that the PFC shows pronounced age-related atrophy, distraction may be less effective in reducing pain in older compared to younger adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on task-related analgesia and the underpinning neural mechanisms, with a focus on the role of executive functions in distraction from pain. In a first session, 64 participants (32 young adults: 26.69 ± 4.14 years; 32 older adults: 68.28 ± 7.00 years) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. In a second session, participants underwent a pain distraction paradigm, while fMRI images were acquired. In this paradigm, participants completed a low (0-back) and a high (2-back) load condition of a working memory task while receiving either warm or painful thermal stimuli to their lower arm. To control for age-related differences in sensitivity to pain and perceived task difficulty, stimulus intensity, and task speed were individually calibrated. Results indicate that both age groups showed significantly reduced activity in a network of regions involved in pain processing when completing the high load distraction task; however, young adults showed a larger neural distraction effect in different parts of the insula and the thalamus. Moreover, better executive functions, in particular inhibitory control abilities, were associated with a larger behavioral and neural distraction effect. These findings clearly demonstrate that top-down control of pain is affected in older age, and could explain the higher vulnerability for older adults to develop chronic pain. Moreover, our findings suggest that the assessment of executive functions may be a useful tool for predicting the efficacy of cognitive pain modulation strategies in older adults.

Keywords: executive functions, cognitive pain modulation, fMRI, PFC

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6 Concepts of Instrumentation Scheme for Thought Transfer

Authors: Rai Sachindra Prasad

Abstract:

Thought is physical force. This has been well recognized but hardly translated visually or otherwise in the sense of its transfer from one individual to another. In the present world of chaos and disorder with yawning gaps between right and wrong thinking individuals, if it is possible to transfer the right thoughts to replace the wrong ones it would indeed be a great achievement in the present situation of the world which is torn with violence with dangerous thoughts of individuals. Moreover, such a possibility would completely remove the barrier of language between two persons, which at times proves to be a great obstacle in realizing a desired purpose. If a proper instrumentation scheme containing appropriate transducers and electronics is designed and implemented to realize this thought ransfer phenomenon, this would prove to be extremely useful when properly used. Considering the advancements already made in recording the nerve impulses in the brain, which are electrical events of very short durations that move along the axon, it is conceivable that this may be used to good effect in implementing the scheme. In such a proposition one shoud consider the roles played by pineal body, pituitary gland and ‘association’ areas. Pioneer students of brain have thought that associations or connections between sensory input and motor output were made in these areas. It is currently believed that rather than being regions of simple sensory-motor connections, the association areas process and integrate sensory information relayed to them from the primary sensory areas of the cortex and from the thalamus, after the information has been processed, it may be sent to motor areas to be acted upon. Again, even though the role played by pineal body is not known fully to neurologists its interconnection with pituitary gland is a matter of great significance to the ‘Rishis’ and; Seers’ s described in Vedas and Puranas- the ancient Holy books of Hindus. If the pineal body is activated through meditation it would control the pituitary gland thereby the individual’s thoughts and acts. Thus, if thoughts can be picked up by special transducers, these can be connected to suitable electronics circuitry to amplify the signals. These signals in the form of electromagnetic waves can then be transmitted using modems for long distance transmission and eventually received by or passed on to a subject of interest through another set of electronics circuit and devices.

Keywords: modems, pituitary gland, pineal body, thought transfer

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5 Ischemic Stroke Detection in Computed Tomography Examinations

Authors: Allan F. F. Alves, Fernando A. Bacchim Neto, Guilherme Giacomini, Marcela de Oliveira, Ana L. M. Pavan, Maria E. D. Rosa, Diana R. Pina

Abstract:

Stroke is a worldwide concern, only in Brazil it accounts for 10% of all registered deaths. There are 2 stroke types, ischemic (87%) and hemorrhagic (13%). Early diagnosis is essential to avoid irreversible cerebral damage. Non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) is one of the main diagnostic techniques used due to its wide availability and rapid diagnosis. Detection depends on the size and severity of lesions and the time spent between the first symptoms and examination. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a subjective method that increases the detection rate. The aim of this work was to implement an image segmentation system to enhance ischemic stroke and to quantify the area of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke lesions in CT scans. We evaluated 10 patients with NECT examinations diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Analyzes were performed in two axial slices, one at the level of the thalamus and basal ganglion and one adjacent to the top edge of the ganglionic structures with window width between 80 and 100 Hounsfield Units. We used different image processing techniques such as morphological filters, discrete wavelet transform and Fuzzy C-means clustering. Subjective analyzes were performed by a neuroradiologist according to the ASPECTS scale to quantify ischemic areas in the middle cerebral artery region. These subjective analysis results were compared with objective analyzes performed by the computational algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that the morphological filters actually improve the ischemic areas for subjective evaluations. The comparison in area of the ischemic region contoured by the neuroradiologist and the defined area by computational algorithm showed no deviations greater than 12% in any of the 10 examination tests. Although there is a tendency that the areas contoured by the neuroradiologist are smaller than those obtained by the algorithm. These results show the importance of a computer aided diagnosis software to assist neuroradiology decisions, especially in critical situations as the choice of treatment for ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, image processing, CT scans, Fuzzy C-means

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4 Virtual Reality in COVID-19 Stroke Rehabilitation: Preliminary Outcomes

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini

Abstract:

Background: There is growing evidence that Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) can be a consequence of Covid-19 infection. Understanding novel treatment approaches are important in optimizing patient outcomes. Case: This case explores the use of Virtual Reality (VR) in the treatment of a 23-year-old COVID-positive female presenting with left hemiparesis in August 2020. Imaging showed right globus pallidus, thalamus, and internal capsule ischemic stroke. Conventional rehabilitation was started two weeks later, with virtual reality (VR) included. This game-based virtual reality (VR) technology developed for stroke patients was based on upper extremity exercises and functions for stroke. Physical examination showed left hemiparesis with muscle strength 3/5 in the upper extremity and 4/5 in the lower extremity. The range of motion of the shoulder was 90-100 degrees. The speech exam showed a mild decrease in fluency. Mild lower lip dynamic asymmetry was seen. Babinski was positive on the left. Gait speed was decreased (75 steps per minute). Intervention: Our game-based VR system was developed based on upper extremity physiotherapy exercises for post-stroke patients to increase the active, voluntary movement of the upper extremity joints and improve the function. The conventional program was initiated with active exercises, shoulder sanding for joint ROMs, walking shoulder, shoulder wheel, and combination movements of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints, alternative flexion-extension, pronation-supination movements, Pegboard and Purdo pegboard exercises. Also, fine movements included smart gloves, biofeedback, finger ladder, and writing. The difficulty of the game increased at each stage of the practice with progress in patient performances. Outcome: After 6 weeks of treatment, gait and speech were normal and upper extremity strength was improved to near normal status. No adverse effects were noted. Conclusion: This case suggests that VR is a useful tool in the treatment of a patient with covid-19 related CVA. The safety of newly developed instruments for such cases provides new approaches to improve the therapeutic outcomes and prognosis as well as increased satisfaction rate among patients.

Keywords: covid-19, stroke, virtual reality, rehabilitation

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3 Sweet to Bitter Perception Parageusia: Case of Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Territory Diaschisis

Authors: I. S. Gandhi, D. N. Patel, M. Johnson, A. R. Hirsch

Abstract:

Although distortion of taste perception following a cerebrovascular event may seem to be a frivolous consequence of a classic stroke presentation, altered taste perception places patients at an increased risk for malnutrition, weight loss, and depression, all of which negatively impact the quality of life. Impaired taste perception can result from a wide variety of cerebrovascular lesions to various locations, including pons, insular cortices, and ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Wallenberg syndrome, also known as a lateral medullary syndrome, has been described to impact taste; however, specific sweet to bitter taste dysgeusia from a territory infarction is an infrequent event; as such, a case is presented. One year prior to presentation, this 64-year-old right-handed woman, suffered a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm rupture with resultant infarction, culminating in a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. One and half months after this event, she noticed the gradual onset of lack of ability to taste sweet, to eventually all sweet food tasting bitter. Since the onset of her chemosensory problems, the patient has lost 60-pounds. Upon gustatory testing, the patient's taste threshold showed ageusia to sucrose and hydrochloric acid, while normogeusia to sodium chloride, urea, and phenylthiocarbamide. The gustatory cortex is made in part by the right insular cortex as well as the right anterior operculum, which are primarily involved in the sensory taste modalities. In this model, sweet is localized in the posterior-most along with the rostral aspect of the right insular cortex, notably adjacent to the region responsible for bitter taste. The sweet to bitter dysgeusia in our patient suggests the presence of a lesion in this localization. Although the primary lesion in this patient was located in the right medulla of the brainstem, neurodegeneration in the rostal and posterior-most aspect, of the right insular cortex may have occurred due to diaschisis. Diaschisis has been described as neurophysiological changes that occur in remote regions to a focal brain lesion. Although hydrocephalus and vasospasm due to aneurysmal rupture may explain the distal foci of impairment, the gradual onset of dysgeusia is more indicative of diaschisis. The perception of sweet, now tasting bitter, suggests that in the absence of sweet taste reception, the intrinsic bitter taste of food is now being stimulated rather than sweet. In the evaluation and treatment of taste parageusia secondary to cerebrovascular injury, prophylactic neuroprotective measures may be worthwhile. Further investigation is warranted.

Keywords: diaschisis, dysgeusia, stroke, taste

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2 A New Perspective in Cervical Dystonia: Neurocognitive Impairment

Authors: Yesim Sucullu Karadag, Pinar Kurt, Sule Bilen, Nese Subutay Oztekin, Fikri Ak

Abstract:

Background: Primary cervical dystonia is thought to be a purely motor disorder. But recent studies revealed that patients with dystonia had additional non-motor features. Sensory and psychiatric disturbances could be included into the non-motor spectrum of dystonia. The Basal Ganglia receive inputs from all cortical areas and throughout the thalamus project to several cortical areas, thus participating to circuits that have been linked to motor as well as sensory, emotional and cognitive functions. However, there are limited studies indicating cognitive impairment in patients with cervical dystonia. More evidence is required regarding neurocognitive functioning in these patients. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate neurocognitive profile of cervical dystonia patients in comparison to healthy controls (HC) by employing a detailed set of neuropsychological tests in addition to self-reported instruments. Methods: Totally 29 (M/F: 7/22) cervical dystonia patients and 30 HC (M/F: 10/20) were included into the study. Exclusion criteria were depression and not given informed consent. Standard demographic, educational data and clinical reports (disease duration, disability index) were recorded for all patients. After a careful neurological evaluation, all subjects were given a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests: Self report of neuropsychological condition (by visual analogue scale-VAS, 0-100), RAVLT, STROOP, PASAT, TMT, SDMT, JLOT, DST, COWAT, ACTT, and FST. Patients and HC were compared regarding demographic, clinical features and neurocognitive tests. Also correlation between disease duration, disability index and self report -VAS were assessed. Results: There was no difference between patients and HCs regarding socio-demographic variables such as age, gender and years of education (p levels were 0.36, 0.436, 0.869; respectively). All of the patients were assessed at the peak of botulinum toxine effect and they were not taking an anticholinergic agent or benzodiazepine. Dystonia patients had significantly impaired verbal learning and memory (RAVLT, p<0.001), divided attention and working memory (ACTT, p<0.001), attention speed (TMT-A and B, p=0.008, 0.050), executive functions (PASAT, p<0.001; SDMT, p= 0.001; FST, p<0.001), verbal attention (DST, p=0.001), verbal fluency (COWAT, p<0.001), visio-spatial processing (JLOT, p<0.001) in comparison to healthy controls. But focused attention (STROOP-spontaneous correction) was not different between two groups (p>0.05). No relationship was found regarding disease duration and disability index with any neurocognitive tests. Conclusions: Our study showed that neurocognitive functions of dystonia patients were worse than control group with the similar age, sex, and education independently clinical expression like disease duration and disability index. This situation may be the result of possible cortical and subcortical changes in dystonia patients. Advanced neuroimaging techniques might be helpful to explain these changes in cervical dystonia patients.

Keywords: cervical dystonia, neurocognitive impairment, neuropsychological test, dystonia disability index

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1 Pathomorphological Markers of the Explosive Wave Action on Human Brain

Authors: Sergey Kozlov, Juliya Kozlova

Abstract:

Introduction: The increased attention of researchers to an explosive trauma around the world is associated with a constant renewal of military weapons and a significant increase in terrorist activities using explosive devices. Explosive wave is a well known damaging factor of explosion. The most sensitive to the action of explosive wave in the human body are the head brain, lungs, intestines, urine bladder. The severity of damage to these organs depends on the distance from the explosion epicenter to the object, the power of the explosion, presence of barriers, parameters of the body position, and the presence of protective clothing. One of the places where a shock wave acts, in human tissues and organs, is the vascular endothelial barrier, which suffers the greatest damage in the head brain and lungs. The objective of the study was to determine the pathomorphological changes of the head brain followed the action of explosive wave. Materials and methods of research: To achieve the purpose of the study, there have been studied 6 male corpses delivered to the morgue of Municipal Institution "Dnipropetrovsk regional forensic bureau" during 2014-2016 years. The cause of death of those killed was a military explosive injury. After a visual external assessment of the head brain, for histological study there was conducted the 1 x 1 x 1 cm/piece sampling from different parts of the head brain, i.e. the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital sites, and also from the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, thalamus, walls of the lateral ventricles, the bottom of the 4th ventricle. Pieces of the head brain were immersed in 10% formalin solution for 24 hours. After fixing, the paraffin blocks were made from the material using the standard method. Then, using a microtome, there were made sections of 4-6 micron thickness from paraffin blocks which then were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic analysis was performed using a light microscope with x4, x10, x40 lenses. Results of the study: According to the results of our study, injuries of the head brain were divided into macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic injuries were marked according to the results of visual assessment of haemorrhages under the membranes and into the substance, their nature, and localisation, areas of softening. In the microscopic study, our attention was drawn to both vascular changes and those of neurons and glial cells. Microscopic qualitative analysis of histological sections of different parts of the head brain revealed a number of structural changes both at the cellular and tissue levels. Typical changes in most of the studied areas of the head brain included damages of the vascular system. The most characteristic microscopic sign was the separation of vascular walls from neuroglia with the formation of perivascular space. Along with this sign, wall fragmentation of these vessels, haemolysis of erythrocytes, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces were found. In addition to damages of the cerebrovascular system, destruction of the neurons, presence of oedema of the brain tissue were observed in the histological sections of the brain. On some sections, the head brain had a heterogeneous step-like or wave-like nature. Conclusions: The pathomorphological microscopic changes in the brain, identified in the study on the died of explosive traumas, can be used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with other characteristic signs of explosive trauma in forensic and pathological studies. The complex of microscopic signs in the head brain, i.e. separation of blood vessel walls from neuroglia with the perivascular space formation, fragmentation of walls of these blood vessels, erythrocyte haemolysis, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces is the direct indication of explosive wave action.

Keywords: blast wave, neurotrauma, human, brain

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