Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Gülbeyaz Baran Durmaz

23 Problems Encountered during the Education Process in Hakkari

Authors: Mukadder Baran, Medine Baran Türkan, Gülbeyaz Baran Durmaz


The objective of this work is to collect and evaluate the thoughts about Hakkari's education system of the highschool pupils of the city of Hakkari. To this end, semi-directed questionnaire forms were used. The samples of this work are made up of 24 pupils studying at four different highschools. In order to analyze the data collected, the content analysis method was used. According to the results of this work, the following factors bear an influence on the conditions of education in Hakkari: political environment, feudal resources, family, teacher, geographic conditions, social environment, transportation, difficulties related to economic resources or the access to information. Proceeding from these results, we believe that the bettermen of the conditions of education in Hakkari will improve the pupils' level of achievement. In turn, the rise in educational levels will lay the ground for a more effective participation in democratic processes. In this manner, the rise in educational level will result in a progress in society and ensure the more active participation of individuals in the socio-economic process.

Keywords: economic resources, education, political environment, poverty

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22 An Investigation on Physics Teachers’ Views Towards Context Based Learning Approach

Authors: Medine Baran, Abdulkadir Maskan, Mehmet Ikbal Yetişir, Mukadder Baran, Azmi Türkan, Şeyma Yaşar


The purpose of this study was to determine the views of physics teachers from several secondary schools in Turkey towards context-based learning approach. In the study, the context-based learning opinion questionnaire developed by the researchers for use as the data collection tool was piloted with 250 physics teachers. The questionnaire examined by the researchers and field experts was initially made up of 53 items. Following the evaluation process of the questionnaire, it included 37 items. In this way, the reliability and validity process of the measurement tool was completed. In the end, the finalized questionnaire was applied to 144 physics teachers from several secondary schools in different cities in Turkey (F:73, M:71). In the study, the participants were determined based on ease of reaching them. The results revealed no remarkable difference between the views of the physics teachers with respect to their gender, region and school. However, when the items in the questionnaire were considered, it was found that the participants interestingly agreed on some of the choices in the items. Depending on this, it was found that there were high levels of differences between the frequencies of those who agreed and those who disagreed with the 16 items in the questionnaire. Therefore, as the following phase of the present study, further research has been planned using the same questions. Based on these questions, which received opposite responses, physics teachers will be asked for their views about the results of the study using the interview technique, one of qualitative research techniques. In this way, the results will be evaluated both by the researchers and by the participants, and the problems and difficulties will be determined. As a result, related suggestions can be put forward.

Keywords: context bases learning, physics teachers, views

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21 A Tagging Algorithm in Augmented Reality for Mobile Device Screens

Authors: Doga Erisik, Ahmet Karaman, Gulfem Alptekin, Ozlem Durmaz Incel


Augmented reality (AR) is a type of virtual reality aiming to duplicate real world’s environment on a computer’s video feed. The mobile application, which is built for this project (called SARAS), enables annotating real world point of interests (POIs) that are located near mobile user. In this paper, we aim at introducing a robust and simple algorithm for placing labels in an augmented reality system. The system places labels of the POIs on the mobile device screen whose GPS coordinates are given. The proposed algorithm is compared to an existing one in terms of energy consumption and accuracy. The results show that the proposed algorithm gives better results in energy consumption and accuracy while standing still, and acceptably accurate results when driving. The technique provides benefits to AR browsers with its open access algorithm. Going forward, the algorithm will be improved to more rapidly react to position changes while driving.

Keywords: accurate tagging algorithm, augmented reality, localization, location-based AR

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20 Comparison Study on Characterization of Various Fly Ashes for Heavy Metal Adsorption

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, N. Baran Acarali, A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin


Fly ash is a waste material of coal firing thermal plants that is released from thermal power plants. It was defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward which are taken up by the flue gases. The emerging amount of fly ash in the world is approximately 600 million tons per year. In our country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year until 2020. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of various fly ashes (Tuncbilek, Catalagzi, Orhaneli) like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, fly ashes were characterized. For this purpose; analyses such as XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR were performed.

Keywords: adsorbent, fly ash, heavy metal, waste

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19 The Cadmium Adsorption Study by Using Seyitomer Fly Ash, Diatomite and Molasses in Wastewater

Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Moroydor Derun, E. Cinar, A. S. Kipcak, N. Baran Acarali, S. Piskin


Fly ash is an important waste, produced in thermal power plants which causes very important environmental pollutions. For this reason the usage and evaluation the fly ash in various areas are very important. Nearly, 15 million tons/year of fly ash is produced in Turkey. In this study, usage of fly ash with diatomite and molasses for heavy metal (Cd) adsorption from wastewater is investigated. The samples of Seyitomer region fly ash were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) then diatomite (0 and 1% in terms of fly ash, w/w) and molasses (0-0.75 mL) were pelletized under 30 MPa of pressure for the usage of cadmium (Cd) adsorption in wastewater. After the adsorption process, samples of Seyitomer were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). As a result, it is seen that the usage of Seyitomer fly ash is proper for cadmium (Cd) adsorption and an optimum adsorption yield with 52% is found at a compound with Seyitomer fly ash (10 g), diatomite (0.5 g) and molasses (0.75 mL) at 2.5 h of reaction time, pH:4, 20ºC of reaction temperature and 300 rpm of stirring rate.

Keywords: heavy metal, fly ash, molasses, diatomite, adsorption, wastewater

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18 Cellulose Supported Heterogeneous Pd(II) Catalyst for Synthesis of Biaryls

Authors: Talat Baran


The Suzuki C(sp2)-C(sp2) coupling reaction is considered to be one of the best ways for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. There are many studies reporting the catalytic performance of palladium catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions. Natural biopolymer (such as zeolite, carbon, silica, and chitosan) supporting catalysts have been lately attracted interest because of their low-cost, nontoxicity, and eco-friendliness. One of the most important natural biopolymer is cellulose, which is widely considered as an eco-friendly biopolymer due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable nature. In this study, (1) cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst was synthesized (2) its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR, SEM/EDAX, XRD, TG-DTG, ICP-OES techniques (3) to investigate the performance of the catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions by using microwave irradiation technique (4) reusability of the catalyst was done under optimum conditions. This cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst exhibited high selectivity and efficiency in Suzuki coupling reactions under mild conditions (50°C). High TON and TOF values were recorded for the catalyst. Also, the reusability tests showed the catalysts could be used for several times in consequence of reusability tests.

Keywords: palladium, cellulose, Schiff base, reusability

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17 Prospective Teachers’ Comments on Both Students’ Misconceptions and Their

Authors: Mihriban Hacisalihoğlu Karadeniz, Figen Bozkuş, Tuğba Baran, Ümit Akar


Creating the correct symmetry of conceptual knowledge about students, conceptual information about the symmetry of the instructors is important. However, teachers’, the students should be aware of the existing misconceptions and be able to develop strategies to correct these misconceptions. In this study, the purpose, the prospective teachers’, the students’ explanations for corrections of misconceptions and misconceptions were asked to be introduced. The working group during the 2012-2013 academic year, Kocaeli University Faculty of Education Mathematics Education consists of studying at the twenty-six prospective teachers. The study adopted a qualitative approach. The data prepared by the researchers were obtained with an open-ended test. As a result of analysis of the data, prospective with teaching the concept of symmetry observed in more developed practical solutions. These solutions are focused on the method, students utilization mirrors, paper folding, such as using a square piece of registration of events. Prospective teachers’ who think this way, students observed that overlooked the creation of conceptual knowledge.

Keywords: symmetry concepts, misconceptions, elementary mathematics, prospective teachers-students

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16 New 5’-O- and 6-Substituted Purine Nucleoside Analogs: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity on Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Meral Tuncbilek, Duygu Sac, Irem Durmaz, Rengul Cetin Atalay


Nucleoside analogs are a pharmacologically diverse family that includes cytotoxic compounds, antiviral agents, and immunosuppressive molecules. Purine nucleoside derivatives such as fludarabine, cladribine, and pentostatin are significant drugs used in chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In this study, we synthesized novel purine ribonucleoside analogs containing a 4-(4-substituted phenylsulfonyl) piperazine in the substituent at N6- and O-substituted sulfonyl group at 5’-position as putative cytotoxic agents. The newly obtained compounds were then characterized for their cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines. The 5’, 6-disubstituted 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)purine derivatives (44-67) were readily obtained from commercially available inosine in seven steps in very cost effective synthesis approach. The newly synthesized compounds were first evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against human liver (Huh7), colon (HCT116) and breast (MCF7) carcinoma cell lines. The IC50 values were in micromolar concentrations with 5’, 6-disubstituted purine nucleoside derivatives. Time-dependent IC50 values for each molecule were also calculated in comparison with known cytotoxic agents Camptothecin (CPT), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Cladribine, Pentostatine and Fludarabine. N6-(4-trifluoromethyl phenyl) / N6-(4-bromophenyl) and 5’-O-(4-methoxybenzene sulfonyl) / 5’-O-(benzenesulfonyl) derivatives 54, 64 displayed the best cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 8.8, 7 µM against MCF7 cell line. The N6-(4-methylphenyl) analog 50 was also very active (IC50= 10.7 μM) against HCT116 cell line. Furthermore, compound 64 had a better cytotoxic activity than the known cell growth inhibitors 5-FU and Fludarabine on Huh7 (1.5 vs 30.7, 29.9 μM for 5-FU and Fludarabine).

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, Huh7, HCT116, MCF7, nucleoside, synthesis

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15 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (N-(Pyridin-2-Ylmethylidene)Pyridin-2-Amine: Thermal and Conductivity Properties

Authors: Nuray Yılmaz Baran


The conjugated Schiff base polymers which are also called as polyazomethines are promising materials for various applications due to their good thermal resistance semiconductive, liquid crystal, fiber forming, nonlinear optical outstanding photo- and electroluminescence and antimicrobial properties. In recent years, polyazomethines have attracted intense attention of researchers especially due to optoelectronic properties which have made its usage possible in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells (SCs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and photorefractive holographic materials (PRHMs). In this study, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine Schiff base was synthesized from condensation reaction of 2-aminopyridine with 2-pyridine carbaldehyde. Polymerization of Schiff base was achieved by polycondensation reaction using NaOCl oxidant in methanol medium at various time and temperatures. The synthesized Schiff base monomer and polymer (Poly(N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine)) was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XRD techniques. Molecular weight distribution and the surface morphology of the polymer was determined by GPC and SEM-EDAX techniques. Thermal behaviour of the monomer and polymer was investigated by TG/DTG, DTA and DSC techniques.

Keywords: polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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14 Teacher Professional Development Programs on K-12 Engineering Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Canan Mesutoglu, Evrim Baran


Teachers have a prominent role in facilitating the place of engineering in K-12 classrooms. This study addresses the need to understand how teacher professional development programs focusing on K-12 engineering education can be designed and delivered more effectively. A systematic review of the literature on such programs can offer possible ideas and recommendations. The purpose of this study is to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed articles published on K-12 engineering education teacher professional development programs. The methodology that guided the study was comprised of four phases: search, selection, coding, and synthesis. The search phase included articles published in the time period between 2000 and 2016. With a comprehensive search in databases, inclusion criteria were applied. This was followed by evaluation of the quality of articles with a checklist, and finally analysis of the results. The results revealed two categories of themes. These were 1) five themes related to the overarching agenda of the PD programs, and 2) five themes related to the instructional techniques of the PD programs. Finally, core elements were generated to guide the design and delivery of teacher PD programs for K-12 engineering education. The results aimed to provide a conceptual basis for future research and practice on teacher PD programs for K-12 engineering education.

Keywords: core elements, K-12 engineering education, systematic literature review, teacher professional development programs

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13 Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Schiff Base Supported Pd(II) Catalyst and Its Application in Suzuki Coupling Reactions

Authors: Talat Baran


Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reactions are powerful ways for synthesis of biaryls compounds and so far different palladium sources as have been used in catalyst systems. However, the high cost of the ligands using as support materials for palladium ion and so researchers have explored alternative low-cost support materials such as silica, cellule and zeolite. A natural polymer chitosan is suitable for support material because of it unique properties such as eco-friendly, renewable, abundant, low cost, biodegradable and it has free reactive -NH2 and –OH groups. Especially, pendant amino groups of chitosan can easily react with carbonyl groups of aldehyde or ketone by Schiff base formation and thus palladium ions can coordinate with imine groups of Schiff base. This purpose, in this study, firstly a new chitosan Schiff base supported palladium (II) catalyst was synthesized and its chemical structure was characterized with FT-IR, SEM/EDAX, XRD, TG-DTG, ICP-OES and magnetic moment techniques. Then catalytic performance of the catalyst was investigated in Suzuki cross coupling reactions under simple and fast microwave heating methods. Also, recycle activity of palladium catalyst was tested under optimum condition and the catalyst showed long life time. At the end of catalytic performance tests of chitosan supported palladium (II) catalysts indicated high turnover numbers, turnover frequency and selectivity with very small loading catalyst

Keywords: catalyst, chitosan, Schiff base, Suzuki coupling

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12 How Context and Problem Based Learning Effects Students Behaviors in Teaching Thermodynamics

Authors: Mukadder Baran, Mustafa Sözbilir


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicabillity of the Context- and Problem-Based Learning (CPBL) in general chemistry course to the subject of “Thermodynamics” but also the influence of CPBL on students’ achievement, retention of knowledge, their interest, attitudes, motivation and problem-solving skills. The study group included 13 freshman students who were selected with the sampling method appropriate to the purpose among those taking the course of General Chemistry within the Program of Medical Laboratory Techniques at Hakkari University. The application was carried out in the Spring Term of the academic year of 2012-2013. As the data collection tool, Lesson Observation form were used. In the light of the observations held, it was revealed that CPBL increased the students’ intragroup and intergroup communication skills as well as their self-confidence and developed their skills in time management, presentation, reporting, and technology use; and that they were able to relate chemistry to daily life. Depending on these findings, it could be suggested that the area of use of CPBL be widened; that seminars related to constructive methods be organized for teachers. In this way, it is believed that students will not be passive in the group any longer. In addition, it was concluded that in order to avoid the negative effects of the socio-cultural structure on the education system, research should be conducted in places where there is socio-cultural obstacles, and appropriate solutions should be suggested and put into practice.

Keywords: chemistry, education, science, context-based learning

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11 The Investigation of Women Civil Engineers’ Identity Development through the Lens of Recognition Theory

Authors: Hasan Sungur, Evrim Baran, Benjamin Ahn, Aliye Karabulut Ilgu, Chris Rehmann, Cassandra Rutherford


Engineering identity contributes to the professional and educational persistence of women engineers. A crucial factor contributing to the development of the engineering identity is recognition. Those without adequate recognition often do not succeed in positively building their identities. This research draws on Honneth’s recognition theory to identify factors impacting women civil engineers’ feelings of recognition as civil engineers. A survey was composed and distributed to 330 female alumni who graduated from the Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering at Iowa State University in the last ten years. The survey items include demographics, perceptions of the identity of civil engineering, and factors that influence the recognition of civil engineering identities, such as views of society and family. Descriptive analysis of the survey responses revealed that the perceptions of civil engineering varied widely. Participants’ definitions of civil engineering included the terms: construction, design, and infrastructure. Almost half of the participants reported that the major reason to study civil engineering was their interest in the subject matter, and most reported that they were proud to be civil engineers. Many study participants reported that their parents see them as civil engineers. Treatment of institutions and the workplace were also considered as having a significant impact on the recognition of women civil engineers. Almost half of the participants reported that they felt isolated or ignored at work because of their gender. This research emphasizes the importance of recognition for the development of the civil engineering identity of women

Keywords: civil engineering, gender, identity, recognition

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10 System Identification of Timber Masonry Walls Using Shaking Table Test

Authors: Timir Baran Roy, Luis Guerreiro, Ashutosh Bagchi


Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as bridges, dams, high-rise buildings etc. There had been a substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as natural frequency, modal damping, and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototypes of such walls have been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated, and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

Keywords: frequency domain decomposition (fdd), modal parameters, signal processing, stochastic subspace identification (ssi), time domain decomposition

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9 A Coupled Stiffened Skin-Rib Fully Gradient Based Optimization Approach for a Wing Box Made of Blended Composite Materials

Authors: F. Farzan Nasab, H. J. M. Geijselaers, I. Baran, A. De Boer


A method is introduced for the coupled skin-rib optimization of a wing box where mass minimization is the objective and local buckling is the constraint. The structure is made of composite materials where continuity of plies in multiple adjacent panels (blending) has to be satisfied. Blending guarantees the manufacturability of the structure; however, it is a highly challenging constraint to treat and has been under debate in recent research in the same area. To fulfill design guidelines with respect to symmetry, balance, contiguity, disorientation and percentage rule of the layup, a reference for the stacking sequences (stacking sequence table or SST) is generated first. Then, an innovative fully gradient-based optimization approach in relation to a specific SST is introduced to obtain the optimum thickness distribution all over the structure while blending is fulfilled. The proposed optimization approach aims to turn the discrete optimization problem associated with the integer number of plies into a continuous one. As a result of a wing box deflection, a rib is subjected to load values which vary nonlinearly with the amount of deflection. The bending stiffness of a skin affects the wing box deflection and thus affects the load applied to a rib. This indicates the necessity of a coupled skin-rib optimization approach for a more realistic optimized design. The proposed method is examined with the optimization of the layup of a composite stiffened skin and rib of a wing torsion box subjected to in-plane normal and shear loads. Results show that the method can successfully prescribe a valid design with a significantly cheap computation cost.

Keywords: blending, buckling optimization, composite panels, wing torsion box

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8 Genotyping of Rotaviruses in Pediatric Patients with Gastroenteritis by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Aysegul Bukulmez


Objective: Acute diarrhea disease in children is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and is a leading cause of mortality, and it is the most common agent responsible for acute gastroenteritis in developing countries. With hospitalized children suffering from acute enteric disease up to 50% of the analyzed specimen were positive for rotavirus. Further molecular surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemic gastroenteritis and could provide data needed for the introduction of vaccination programmes in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of viral etiology of the gastroenteritis in children aged 0-6 years with acute gastroenteritis and to determine predominant genotypes of rotaviruses in the province of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Methods: An epidemiological study on rotavirus was carried out during 2016. Fecal samples obtained from the 144 rotavirus positive children with 0-6 years of ages and applied to the Pediatric Diseases Outpatient of ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University with the complaint of diarrhea. Bacterial agents causing gastroenteritis were excluded by using bacteriological culture methods and finally, no growth observed. Rotavirus antigen was examined by both the immunochromatographic (One Step Rotavirus and Adenovirus Combo Test, China) and ELISA (Premier Rotaclone, USA) methods in stool samples. Rotavirus RNA was detected by using one step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). G and P genotypes were determined using RT-PCR with consensus primers of VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results: Of the total 144 rotavirus antigen-positive samples with RT-PCR, 4 (2,8%) were rejected, 95 (66%) were examined, and 45 (31,2%) have not been examined for PCR yet. Ninety-one (95,8%) of the 95 examined samples were found to be rotavirus positive with RT-PCR. Rotavirus subgenotyping distributions in G, P and G/P genotype groups were determined as; G1:45%, G2:27%, G3:13%, G9:13%, G4:1% and G12:1% for G genotype, and P[4]:33%, P[8]:66%, P[10]:1% for P genotype, and G1P[8]:%37, G2P[4]:%21, G3P[8]:%10, G4P[8]:%1, G9P[8]:%8, G2P[8]:%3 for G/P genotype . Not common genotype combination were %20 in G/P genotype. Conclusions: This study subscribes to the global agreement of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus which will be useful in guiding the alternative and application of rotavirus vaccines or effective control and interception. Determining the diversity and rates of rotavirus genotypes will definitely provide guidelines for developing the most suitable vaccine.

Keywords: gastroenteritis, genotyping, rotavirus, RT-PCR

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7 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(2-[[4-(Dimethylamino)Benzylidene] Amino]Phenol) in Organic Medium: Investigation of Thermal Stability, Conductivity, and Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Nuray Yilmaz Baran, Mehmet Saçak


Schiff base polymers are one class of conjugated polymers, also called as poly(azomethines). They have drawn the attention of researchers in recent years due to their some properties such as, optoelectronic, semiconductive, and photovoltaic, antimicrobial activities and high thermal stability. In this study, Poly(2-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino] phenol) P(2-DBAP), which is a Schiff base polymer, was synthesized by an oxidative polycondensation reaction of -[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (2-DBAP) with oxidants NaOCl, H₂O₂ and O₂ in various organic medium. At the end of the polymerizations carried out at various temperatures and time, maximum conversion of the monomer to the polymer could be obtained as around 93.7 %. The structures of the monomer and polymer were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and ¹HNMR techniques. Thermal analysis of the polymer was identified by TG-DTG and DTA techniques, and the thermal degradation behavior was supported by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymer were found to be 26337, 9860 g/mol 2.67, respectively. The change of electrical conductivity value of the P(2-DBAP) doped with iodine vapor at different temperatures and time was investigated its maximum was measured by increasing 10¹⁰ fold as 2 x10⁻⁴ Scm⁻¹ after doping for 48 h at 60 °C. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of P(2-DBAP) Schiff base and its polymer were also investigated against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively.

Keywords: conductive properties, polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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6 Cytotoxic Effect of Biologically Transformed Propolis on HCT-116 Human Colon Cancer Cells

Authors: N. Selvi Gunel, L. M. Oktay, H. Memmedov, B. Durmaz, H. Kalkan Yildirim, E. Yildirim Sozmen


Object: Propolis which consists of compounds that are accepted as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, immune-modulator and cytotoxic, is frequently used in current therapeutic applications. However, some of them result in allergic side effects, causing consumption to be restricted. Previously our group has succeeded in producing a new biotechnological product which was less allergenic. In this study, we purpose to optimize production conditions of this biologically-transformed propolis and determine the cytotoxic effects of obtained new products on colon cancer cell line (HCT-116). Method: Firstly, solid propolis samples were dissolved in water after weighing, grinding and sizing (sieve-35mesh) and applied 40 kHz/10 min ultrasonication. Samples were prepared according to inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum in two different proportions (2.5% and 3.5%). Chromatographic analyzes of propolis were performed by UPLC-MS/MS (Waters, Milford, MA) system. Results were analysed by UPLC-MS/MS system MassLynx™ 4.1 software. HCT-116 cells were treated with propolis examples at 25-1000 µg/ml concentrations and cytotoxicity were measured by using WST-8 assay at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Samples with biological transformation were compared with the non-transformed control group samples. Our experiment groups were formed as follows: untreated (group 1), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min (group 2), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min and inoculated 2.5% L. plantarum L1 strain (group 3), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min and inoculated 3.5% L. plantarum L3 strain (group 4). Obtained data were calculated with Graphpad Software V5 and analyzed by two-way ANOVA test followed by Bonferroni test. Result: As a result of our study, the cytotoxic effect of propolis samples on HCT-116 cells was evaluated. There was a 7.21 fold increase in group 3 compared to group 2 in the concentration of 1000 µg/ml, and it was a 6.66 fold increase in group 3 compared to group 1 at the end of 24 hours. At the end of 48 hours, in the concentration of 500 µg/ml, it was determined 4.7 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 3. At the same time, in the concentration of 750 µg/ml it was determined 2.01 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 3 and in the same concentration, it was determined 3.1 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 2. Also, at the 72 hours, in the concentration of 750 µg/ml, it was determined 2.42 fold increase in group 3 according to group 2 and in the same time, in the concentration of 1000 µg/ml, it was determined 2.13 fold increase in group 4 according to group 2. According to cytotoxicity results, the group which were ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10min and inoculated 3.5% L. plantarum L3-strain had a higher cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: It is known that bioavailability of propolis is halved in six months. The data obtained from our results indicated that biologically-transformed propolis had more cytotoxic effect than non-transformed group on colon cancer cells. Consequently, we suggested that L. plantarum-transformation provides both reduction of allergenicity and extension of bioavailability period by enhancing healthful polyphenols.

Keywords: bio-transformation, propolis, colon cancer, cytotoxicity

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5 Investigating University Students' Attitudes towards Infertility in Terms of Socio-Demographic Variables

Authors: Yelda Kağnıcı, Seçil Seymenler, Bahar Baran, Erol Esen, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Diğdem M. Siyez


Infertility is the inability to reproduce after twelve months or longer unprotected sexual relationship. Although infertility is not a life threatening illness, it is considered as a serious problem for both the individual and the society. At this point, the importance of examining attitudes towards infertility is critical. Negative attitudes towards infertility may postpone individuals’ help seeking behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate university students’ attitudes towards infertility in terms of socio-demographic variables (gender, age, taking sexual health education, existence of an infertile individual in the social network, plans about having child and behaviors about health). The sample of the study was 9693 university students attending to 21 universities in Turkey. Of the 9693 students, % 51.6 (n = 5002) were female, % 48.4 (n = 4691) were male. The data was collected by Attitudes toward Infertility Scale developed by researchers and Personal Information Form. In data analysis first frequencies were calculated, then in order to test whether there were significant differences in attitudes towards infertility scores of university students in terms of socio-demographic variables, one way ANOVA was conducted. According to the results, it was found that female students, students who had sexual health education, who have sexual relationship experience, who have an infertile individual in their social networks, who have child plans, who have high caffeine usage and who use alcohol regularly have more positive attitudes towards infertility. On the other hand, attitudes towards infidelity did not show significant differences in terms of age and cigarette usage. When the results of the study were evaluated in general, it was seen that university students’ attitudes towards infertility were negative. The attitudes of students who have high caffeine and alcohols usage were high. It can be considered that these students are aware that their social habits are risky. Female students’ positive attitudes might be explained by their gender role. The results point out that in order to decrease university students’ negative attitudes towards infertility, there is a necessity to develop preventive programs in universities.

Keywords: infertility, attitudes, sex, university students

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4 Effects of Additional Pelvic Floor Exercise on Sexual Function, Quality of Life and Pain Intensity in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Emel Sonmezer, Hayri Baran Yosmaoglu


The negative impact of chronic pain syndromes on sexual function has been reported in several studies; however, the influences of treatment strategies on sexual dysfunction have not been evaluated widely. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pelvic floor exercise on sexual dysfunction in female patients with chronic low back pain. Forty-two patient with chronic low back pain were enrolled this study. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 received conventional physiotherapy consist of heat therapy, ergonomic education, William flexion exercise during 6 weeks. Group 2 received pelvic floor exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used for the assessment of sexual function. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analogue Scale. Quality of life was assessed with World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale. All measurements were taken before and after treatment. In conventional physiotherapy group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,003), physical health (p=0,011), psychological health (p=0,042) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,042), lubrication (p=0,028) and pain (p= 0,034) subscales of FSFI. In additional pelvic floor exercise group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,005), physical health (p=0,012) psychological health (p=0,039) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,024), lubrication (p=0,011), orgasm (p=0,035) and pain (p= 0,015) subscales and total score (p=0,016) of FSFI. Total FSFI score (p=0,025) and orgasm (p=0,017) subscale of FSFI were significantly higher for the additional pelvic floor exercise group than the conventional physiotherapy group.The outcome of this study suggested that conventional physiotherapy may contribute to improve pain, quality of life and some parameters of the sexual function in patients with low back pain. Although additional pelvic floor exercise did not reveal more treatment effect in terms of quality of life and pain intensity, it caused significant improvement in sexual function. It is recommended that pelvic floor exercise should be added to treatment programs in order to manage sexual dysfunction more effectively in patients with chronic low back pain.

Keywords: physiotherapy, chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, pelvic floor

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3 Determination of the Needs for Development of Infertility Psycho-Educational Program and the Design of a Website about Infertility for University Students

Authors: Bahar Baran, Şirin Nur Kaptan, D.Yelda Kağnıcı, Erol Esen, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Diğdem M Siyez


It is known that some factors associated with infertility have preventable characteristics and that young people's knowledge levels in this regard are inadequate, but very few studies focus on effective prevention studies on infertility. Psycho-educational programs have an important place for infertility prevention efforts. Nowadays, considering the households' utilization rates from technology and the Internet, it seems that young people have applied to websites as a primary source of information related to a health problem they have encountered. However, one of the prerequisites for the effectiveness of websites or face-to-face psycho-education programs is to consider the needs of participants. In particular, it is expected that these programs will be appropriate to the cultural infrastructure and the diversity of beliefs and values in society. The aim of this research is to determine what university students want to learn about infertility and fertility and examine their views on the structure of the website. The sample of the research consisted of 9693 university students who study in 21 public higher education programs in Turkey. 51.6 % (n = 5002) were female and 48.4% (n = 4691) were male. The Needs Analysis Questionnaire developed by the researchers was used as data collection tool in the research. In the analysis of the data, descriptive analysis was conducted in SPSS software. According to the findings, among the topics that university students wanted to study about infertility and fertility, the first topics were 'misconceptions about infertility' (94.9 %), 'misconceptions about sexual behaviors' (94.6 %), 'factors affecting infertility' (92.8 %), 'sexual health and reproductive health' (92.5 %), 'sexually transmitted diseases' (92.7 %), 'sexuality and society' (90.9 %), 'healthy life (help centers)' (90.4 %). In addition, the questions about how the content of the website should be designed for university students were analyzed descriptively. According to the results, 91.5 % (n = 8871) of the university students proposed to use frequently asked questions and their answers, 89.2 % (n = 8648) stated that expert video should be included, 82.6 % (n = 8008) requested animations and simulations, 76.1 % (n = 7380) proposed different content according to sex and 66 % (n = 6460) proposed different designs according to sex. The results of the research indicated that the findings are similar to the contents of the program carried out in other countries in terms of the topics to be studied. It is suggested to take into account the opinions of the participants during the design of website.

Keywords: infertility, prevention, psycho-education, web based education

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2 Development of Infertility Prevention Psycho-Education Program for University Students and Evaluation of Its Effectiveness

Authors: Digdem M. Siyez, Bariscan Ozturk, Erol Esen, Ender Siyez, Yelda Kagnici, Bahar Baran


Infertility is a reproductive disease identified with the absence of pregnancy after regular unprotected sexual intercourse that has been lasting for 12 months or more. Some of the factors that cause infertility, which has been considered as a social and societal issue since the first days of the humankind, are preventable. These are veneral diseases, age, the frequency of the intercourse and its timing, drug use, bodyweight, environmental and professional conditions. Having actual information about the reproductive health is essential to take protective and preventive measures, and it is accepted as the most effective way to reduce the rate of infertility. However, during the literature review, it has been observed that there are so few studies that focus on the prevention of the infertility. The aim of this study is to develop a psycho-education program to reduce infertility among university students and also to evaluate the program’s effectiveness. It is believed that this program will increase the information level about infertility among the university students, help them to adopt healthy attitudes, develop life skills, create awareness about the risk factors and also contribute to the literature. Throughout the study, first, the contents of sexual/reproductive health programs developed for university students were examined by the researches. Besides, “Views about Reproductive Health Psycho-education Program Survey” was developed and applied to 10221 university students from 21 universities. In accordance with the literature and the university students’ views about reproductive health psycho-education program consisting of 9 sessions each of which lasts for 90 minutes was developed. The pilot program was carried out with 16 volunteer undergraduate students attending to a state university. During the evaluation of the pilot study, at the end of each session “Session Evaluation Form” and at the end of the entire program “Program Evaluation Form” were administered to the participants. Besides, one week after the end of the program, a focus group with half of the group, and individual interviews with the rest were conducted. Based on the evaluations, it was determined that the session duration is enough, the teaching methods meet the expectation, the techniques applied are appropriate and clear, and the materials are adequate. Also, an extra session was added to psycho-education program based on the feedbacks of the participants. In order to evaluate program’s effectiveness, Solomon control group design will be used. According to this design, the research has 2 experiment groups and 2 control groups. The participants who voluntarily participated in the research after the announcement of the psycho-education program were divided into experiment and control groups. In the experiment 1 and control 1 groups, “Personal Information Test”, “Infertility Information Test” and “Infertility Attitude Scale”, “Self Identification Inventory” and “Melbourne Decision Scale” were administered as a preliminary test. Currently, at the present stage, psycho-education still continues. After this 10-week program, the same tests will be administered again as the post-tests. The decision upon which statistical method will be applied in the analysis will be made afterwards according to whether the data meets the presuppositions or not.

Keywords: infertility, prevention, psycho-education, reproductive health

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1 The Design and Development of Online Infertility Prevention Education in the Frame of Mayer's Multimedia Learning Theory

Authors: B. Baran, S. N. Kaptanoglu, M. Ocal, Y. Kagnici, E. Esen, E. Siyez, D. M. Siyez


Infertility is the fact that couples cannot have children despite 1 year of unprotected sexual life. Infertility can be considered as an important problem affecting not only sexual life but also social and psychological conditions of couples. Learning about information about preventable factors related to infertility during university years plays an important role in preventing a possible infertility case in older ages. The possibility to facilitate access to information with the internet has provided the opportunity to reach a broad audience in the diverse learning environments and educational environment. Moreover, the internet has become a basic resource for the 21st-century learners. Providing information about infertility over the internet will enable more people to reach in a short time. When studies conducted abroad about infertility are examined, interactive websites and online education programs come to the fore. In Turkey, while there is no comprehensive online education program for university students, it seems that existing studies are aimed to make more advertisements for doctors or hospitals. In this study, it was aimed to design and develop online infertility prevention education for university students. Mayer’s Multimedia Learning Theory made up the framework for the online learning environment in this study. The results of the needs analysis collected from the university students in Turkey who were selected with sampling to represent the audience for online learning contributed to the design phase. In this study, an infertility prevention online education environment designed as a 4-week education was developed by explaining the theoretical basis and needs analysis results. As a result; in the development of the online environment, different kind of visual aids that will increase teaching were used in the environment of online education according to Mayer’s principles of extraneous processing (coherence, signaling, spatial contiguity, temporal contiguity, redundancy, expectation principles), essential processing (segmenting, pre-training, modality principles) and generative processing (multimedia, personalization, voice principles). For example, the important points in reproductive systems’ expression were emphasized by visuals in order to draw learners’ attention, and the presentation of the information was also supported by the human voice. In addition, because of the limited knowledge of university students in the subject, the issue of female reproductive and male reproductive systems was taught before preventable factors related to infertility. Furthermore, 3D video and augmented reality application were developed in order to embody female and male reproductive systems. In conclusion, this study aims to develop an interactive Online Infertility Prevention Education in which university students can easily access reliable information and evaluate their own level of knowledge about the subject. It is believed that the study will also guide the researchers who want to develop online education in this area as it contains design-stage decisions of interactive online infertility prevention education for university students.

Keywords: infertility, multimedia learning theory, online education, reproductive health

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