Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8267

Search results for: economic resources

8267 The Relationship between Resource Sharing and Economic Resilience: An Empirical Analysis of Firms’ Resilience from the Perspective of Resource Dependence Theory

Authors: Alfredo R. Roa-Henriquez

Abstract:

This paper is about organizational-level resilience and decision-making in the face of natural hazards. Research on resilience emerged to explain systems’ ability to absorb and recover in the midst of adversity and uncertainty from natural disasters, crises, and other disruptive events. While interest in resilience has accelerated, research multiplied, and the number of policies and implementations of resilience to natural hazards has increased over the last several years, mainly at the level of communities and regions, there has been a dearth of empirical work on resilience at the level of the firm. This paper uses empirical data and a sample selection model to test some hypotheses related to the firm’s dependence on critical resources, the sharing of resources and its economic resilience. The objective is to understand how the sharing of resources among organizations is related to economic resilience. Empirical results that are obtained from a sample of firms affected by Superstorm Sandy and Hurricane Harvey indicate that there is unobserved heterogeneity that explains the strategic behavior of firms in the post-disaster and that those firms that are more likely to resource share are also the ones that exhibit higher economic resilience. The impact of property damage on the sharing of resources and economic resilience is explored.

Keywords: economic resilience, resource sharing, critical resources, strategic management

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8266 The Impact of Water Resources on Economic and Social Development in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid Alotaibi

Abstract:

The geographical location of the State of Kuwait contributed significantly to the suffering of Kuwait in the past, due to the scarcity of natural water resources and the inability of the State's financial resources to provide other water resources to meet the needs of the population. The problem of water scarcity in Kuwait remained until the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, as the country's economic conditions revived with the emergence and export of oil; which was clearly reflected in the steady growth of the population. To cope with this population, increase, it was necessary to expand the various development programs to include all sectors of the state. The process of development and urbanization could not start without finding solutions to the problem of water shortage in Kuwait. The only option for officials to meet the needs of the population and the different sectors of water development is the desalination of seawater. This process necessitated the establishment of six desalination plants along the coast of Kuwait and extended freshwater arteries to reach everywhere on the land. However, this does not mean that the problem of water shortage has been completely solved. The desalination plants are not meeting the country's future water needs, especially considering the increasing population growth. These stations are nearing completion and they need to be replaced, renovation and maintenance, require significant expenses. Therefore, it was necessary for scientific research to address the issue of water in Kuwait, whether in the field of development of existing resources or in the field of rationalization of consumption and protection of available resources. The study focused on how to address the increasing demand for water resulting from population increase, the impact of water on economic and social development, the prospects of water resources in Kuwait and its ability to meet the needs of the country by 2030.

Keywords: economic, development, Kuwait, social, water resources

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8265 An Approach to Consumption of Exhaustible Resources Based on Islamic Justice and Hartwick Criteria

Authors: Hamed Najafi, Ghasem Nikjou

Abstract:

Nowadays, there is an increasing attention to the resources scarcity issues. Because of failure in present patterns in the field of the allocation of exhaustible resources between generations and the challenges related to economic justice supply, it is supposed, to present a pattern from the Islamic perspective in this essay. By using content analysis of religious texts, we conclude that governments should remove the gap which is exists between the per capita income of the poor and their minimum consumption (necessary consumption). In order to preserve the exhaustible resources for poor people) not for all), between all generations, government should invest exhaustible resources on endless resources according to Hartwick’s criteria and should spend these benefits for poor people. But, if benefits did not cover the gap between minimum consumption and per capita income of poor levels in one generation, in this case, the government is responsible for covering this gap through the direct consumption of exhaustible resources. For an exact answer to this question, ‘how much of exhaustible resources should expense to maintain justice between generations?’ The theoretical and mathematical modeling has been used and proper function has been provided. The consumption pattern is presented for economic policy makers in Muslim countries, and non-Muslim even, it can be useful.

Keywords: exhaustible resources, Islamic justice, intergenerational justice, distribution of resources, Hartwick criteria

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8264 The Relationship between Democracy, Freedom and Economic Development

Authors: Ugur Karakaya, Hasan Bulent Kantarcı

Abstract:

In this study, firstly democratic thoughts which directly or indirectly affect economic development and/or the interaction between authoritarian regimes and the economic development and the direction and channels of this interaction were studied and then the study tried to determine how democracy affects economic development. It was concluded that the positive contributions of democracy to economic development were more determinant than the effects that were either negative or restrictive in terms of development. When compared to autocracy, since democracy is more successful in managing social conflicts, ensuring political stability and preventing social disasters such as famine, it contributes more to economic development. Democracy also facilitates delegation of authority, provides a stable investment environment and accelerates mobilization of resources in accordance with economic growth/development. Democracy leads to an increase in human capital accumulation and increases the growth rate through reducing income inequality. It can be said that democratic regimes are the most appropriate ones in terms of increasing economic performance and supporting economic development through their strong institutional structures and the assurance they will ensure in property rights.

Keywords: democracy, economic growth, economic freedom, autocratic regime

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8263 Transforming the Human Resources of the Company in Innovation Factors: Educational Tools

Authors: Ciolomic Ioana Andreea, Farcas Teodora, Tiron-Tudor Adriana

Abstract:

Investments in research and innovation are widely acknowledged as being crucial drivers for economic growth, for job-creation and to secure social and economic welfare. The aim of this article is to disseminate the results of a Leonardo da Vinci Innovation Transfer project, AdapTykes Adaptation of trainings based up on the Finnish Workplace Development Programme. This project aims to analyses the adaptability of the Finnish model to the economic and political environment of the two emergent countries Romania and Hungary, in order to develop workplace innovation. The focus of this paper is to present the adaptability of the Finnish model to the Romanian context.

Keywords: innovation, human resources, education, tools

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8262 An Application of Contingent Valuation Method in Valuing Protected Area: A Case Study of Pulau Kukup National Parks

Authors: A. Mukrimah, M. Mohd Parid, H. F. Lim

Abstract:

Wetland ecosystem has valuable resources that contribute to national income generation and public well-being, either directly by resources that have a market value or indirectly by resources that have no market value. Economic approach is used to evaluate the resources to determine the best use of wetland resources and should be emphasized in policy development planning. This approach is to prevent imbalance in the allocation of resources and welfare benefits. A case study was conducted in 2016 to assess the economic value of wetland ecosystem services at Pulau Kukup National Parks (PKNP). This study has applied dichotomous choice survey design Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to investigate empirically the willingness-to-pay (WTP) by the public. The study interviewed 400 household respondents at Pontian, Johor. Analysis showed 81% of household interviewed were willing to contribute to the Wetland Conservation Trust Fund. The results also indicated that on average a household was willing to pay RM87 annually. By taking into account 21,664 households in Pontian district in 2016, public’s contribution to conserves wetland ecosystem at PKNP was calculated to be RM1, 884,334. From the public’s interest to contribute to the conservation of wetland ecosystem services at PKNP, it indicates that more concerted effort is needed by both the federal and state governments to conserve and rehabilitate the mangrove ecosystem in Malaysia.

Keywords: environmental economy, economic valuation, choice experiment, Pulau Kukup national parks

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8261 Optimal Allocation of Multiple Emergency Resources for a Single Potential Accident Node: A Mixed Integer Linear Program

Authors: Yongjian Du, Jinhua Sun, Kim M. Liew, Huahua Xiao

Abstract:

Optimal allocation of emergency resources before a disaster is of great importance for emergency response. In reality, the pre-protection for a single critical node where accidents may occur is common. In this study, a model is developed to determine location and inventory decisions of multiple emergency resources among a set of candidate stations to minimize the total cost based on the constraints of budgetary and capacity. The total cost includes the economic accident loss which is accorded with probability distribution of time and the warehousing cost of resources which is increasing over time. A ratio is set to measure the degree of a storage station only serving the target node that becomes larger with the decrease of the distance between them. For the application of linear program, it is assumed that the length of travel time to the accident scene of emergency resources has a linear relationship with the economic accident loss. A computational experiment is conducted to illustrate how the proposed model works, and the results indicate its effectiveness and practicability.

Keywords: emergency response, integer linear program, multiple emergency resources, pre-allocation decisions, single potential accident node

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8260 Problems Encountered during the Education Process in Hakkari

Authors: Mukadder Baran, Medine Baran Türkan, Gülbeyaz Baran Durmaz

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to collect and evaluate the thoughts about Hakkari's education system of the highschool pupils of the city of Hakkari. To this end, semi-directed questionnaire forms were used. The samples of this work are made up of 24 pupils studying at four different highschools. In order to analyze the data collected, the content analysis method was used. According to the results of this work, the following factors bear an influence on the conditions of education in Hakkari: political environment, feudal resources, family, teacher, geographic conditions, social environment, transportation, difficulties related to economic resources or the access to information. Proceeding from these results, we believe that the bettermen of the conditions of education in Hakkari will improve the pupils' level of achievement. In turn, the rise in educational levels will lay the ground for a more effective participation in democratic processes. In this manner, the rise in educational level will result in a progress in society and ensure the more active participation of individuals in the socio-economic process.

Keywords: economic resources, education, political environment, poverty

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8259 Impact of Human Resources Accounting on Employees' Performance in Organization

Authors: Hamid Saremi, Shida Hanafi

Abstract:

In an age of technology and economics, human capital has important and axial role in the organization and human resource accounting has a wide perception to key resources of organization i.e. human resources. Human resources accounting is new branch of accounting that has Short-lived and generally deals to a range of policies and measures that are related to various aspects of human resources and It gives importance to an organization's most important asset is its human resources and human resource management is the key to success in an organization and to achieve this important matter must review and evaluation of human resources data be with knowledge of accounting based on empirical studies and methods of measurement and reporting of human resources accounting information. Undoubtedly human resource management without information cannot be done and take decision and human resources accounting is practical way to inform the decision makers who are committed to harnessing human resources,, human resources accounting with applying accounting principles in the organization and is with conducting basic research on the extent of the of human resources accounting information" effect of employees' personal performance. In human resource accounting analysis and criteria and valuation of cost and manpower valuating is as the main resource in each Institute. Protection of human resources is a process that according to human resources accounting is for organization profitability. In fact, this type of accounting can be called as a major source in measurement and trends of costs and human resources valuation in each institution. What is the economic value of such assets? What is the amount of expenditures for education and training of professional individuals to value in asset account? What amount of funds spent should be considered as lost opportunity cost? In this paper, according to the literature of human resource accounting we have studied the human resources matter and its objectives and topic of the importance of human resource valuation on employee performance review and method of reporting of human resources according to different models.

Keywords: human resources, human resources, accounting, human capital, human resource management, valuation and cost of human resources, employees, performance, organization

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8258 Financial and Human Resources of Terrorism

Authors: Abdurrahman Karacabey

Abstract:

Threat paradigm has shifted throughout the history. Considering conjuncture of our time, a major threat for humanity is terrorism. Although variety of reasons are influential, financial, and human resources are the vital needs for terrorist groups. It is known that terrorism is a significant term while taking decisions in diplomatic, politic, and military issues. Even though the methods to provide resources for terrorism are quite similar, there are still some differences for deterrent terrorist groups being active in various regions of the globe. Due to social and psychological reasons activists have generally similar excuses to join terrorist groups.At the same time, terrorists’ fiscal activities to secure permanence of terrorism, occupy the politics of the countries. Besides, preventive actions are expensive creating huge burdens in host nation’s economy. This paper elaborates on how ISIS is providing human and economic resources, course of actions to overcome ISIS is on the agenda of all countries.

Keywords: financial resources, human resources, isis, terrorism

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8257 Challenges of Sustainable Marine Fishing in Ghana

Authors: Eric K. W. Aikins

Abstract:

Traditionally, Ghana is a marine fishing country. The fishing industry dominated by artisanal marine fishing helps Ghana to meet its fish and protein requirements. Also, it provides employment for most coastal dwellers that depend on fishing as their main economic enterprise. Nonetheless, the marine fishing industry is confronted with challenges that have contributed to a declining fish production in recent past decade. Bad fishing practices and the general limited knowledge on sustainable management of fisheries resources are the limiting factors that affect sustainable fish production and sustainable marine biodiversity management in Ghana. This paper discusses the challenges and strategies for attaining and maintaining sustainable marine fishing in Ghana as well as the state of marine fishing in Ghana. It concludes that an increase in the level of involvement of local fishers in the management of fisheries resources of the country could help local fishers to employ sustainable fisheries resources exploitation methods that could result in an improvement in the spatio-economic development and wellbeing of affected fishing communities in particular and Ghana in general.

Keywords: pair trawling, sargassum, spatio-economic development, sustainable marine fishing

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8256 The Impact of Entrepreneur to Develop Economy in Indonesia

Authors: Alif Nur Irvan, M. Varaby Wahyu

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that have a lot of natural resources and as one of the most populous people in the world. In the last few years, the world economic is growing rapid, and then Indonesia must be able to develop his economy like the other country. The number of graduates in Indonesia always increase every year and the employment in Indonesia is getting decreased, this situation leads to rise unemployment in Indonesia. Limited employment makes people look for the ways to live decently. From this situation, entrepreneurs become an alternative in Indonesia to develop the economy. Being an entrepreneur means being able to find opportunities to utilize existing resources to take advantage of these opportunities. With the increasing number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia can increase employment, improve the quality of life, income distribution, utilize and mobilize resources to improve national productivity, and improve the welfare of government. The main sources for economic growth are the investments that improve the quality of capital or human resources, which in turn managed to increase the quantity of productive resources and can raise the productivity of all resources through new discoveries, innovations, creativity and technological progress. This paper is talking about the topic, discussions, and it offers the solutions to support entrepreneurs in Indonesia, and also talk about entrepreneurial problems that occurred in Indonesia, and the right solution to solve the problems of entrepreneurship in Indonesia and also discusses the role of government to support entrepreneurship to encourage the economy in Indonesia.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, economy, employment, government

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8255 Conflicts between Conservation and Community Livelihoods: Lessons from KwaNibela and iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Zwelakhe Maseko

Abstract:

This chapter assesses the conflict arising from conservation between iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community of KwaNibela, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. To achieve the aim of this study a qualitative research approach was adopted which included one-on-one in-depth interviews with fifty people from the community of KwaNibela who were randomly selected. In-depth interviews were further conducted with three officials from iSimangaliso Wetland Park who were purposely selected to understand their perceptions. The findings suggest that iSimangaliso Wetland Park conservation strategies have a negative impact on the socio-economic wellbeing of the people in KwaNibela due to limited access to natural resources and lack of economic opportunities. This has led to conflict between the stakeholders of iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community. ISimangaliso Wetland Park generates income from tourists who visit the park, while the community of KwaNibela receives little to no benefits from both tourism and conservation. This has led to conflict since the community of KwaNibela feels that iSimangaliso is generating income from their traditional land and natural resources while they (the community) are left poverty-stricken. In order to achieve conservation that caters to the needs and livelihoods of local people, it is suggested that iSimangaliso Wetland Park includes the community of KwaNibela in their conservation efforts and creates economic opportunities for the same community through conservation and tourism.

Keywords: conservation, socio-economic development, protected areas, natural Resources

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8254 Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption

Authors: Sarika Bahadure

Abstract:

Sustainability starts with conserving resources for future generations. Since human’s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow, but industrialization in 18th century brought a change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded the human workforce to machines. The mass manufacture of goods provided easy access to products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies brought consumer oriented market. The consumption of resources has increased at a very high scale. This overconsumption pattern brought economic boom and provided multiple opportunities, but it also put stress on the natural resources. This paper tries to put forth the facts and figures of the population growth and consumption of resources with examples. This is explained with the help of the mathematical expression of doubling known as exponential growth. It compares the carrying capacity of the earth and resource consumption of humans’ i.e. ecological footprint and bio-capacity. Further, it presents the need to conserve natural resources and re-examine sustainable resource use approach for sustainability.

Keywords: consumption, exponential growth, population, resources, sustainability

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8253 Development of Solar Energy Resources for Land along the Transportation Infrastructure: Taking the Lan-Xin Railway in the Silk Road Economic Belt as an Example

Authors: Dan Han, Yukun Zhang, Jie Zheng, Rui Zhang

Abstract:

Making full use of space along transportation infrastructure to develop renewable energy sources, especially solar energy resources, has become a research focus in relevant fields. In recent years, relevant international researches can be classified into three stages of theoretical and technical exploration, exploratory practice as well as planning implementation. Compared with traditional solar energy development mode, the development of solar energy resources in places along the transportation infrastructure has special advantages, which can also bring forth new opportunities for the development of green transportation. 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic', a development model of combining transport and new energy, has been actively studied and applied in developed countries, but it was still in its infancy in China. 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' has great advantage to carry out the 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' because of the rich solar energy resources in its path, the shortages of renewable energy, the constraints of agricultural land and other reasons. Especially the massive amount of construction of transportation infrastructure brought by Silk Road Economic Belt, large area of developable land along the transportation line will be generated. Abundant solar energy recourses along the Silk Road will provide extremely superb practical opportunities to the land development along transportation infrastructure. We take PVsyst, GIS and Google map software for simulation of its potential by taking Lan-Xin Railway as an example, so potential electrical energy generation can be quantified and further analyzed. Research of 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' combined with 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' is a creative development for the along transport and energy infrastructure. It not only can make full use of solar radiation and land in its path, but also bring more long-term advantages and benefits.

Keywords: land use, silk road economic belt, solar energy, transportation infrastructure

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8252 Empowering Nigerian Rural Women through Ownership of Productive Resources

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Rashid S. Adisa, Felix O. Oladipo, Tawakalitu A. Dolapo

Abstract:

This study investigates whether the rural women in Nigeria have access to productive resources such as land, livestock, and capital in order to determine their level of socio-economic empowerment. The study adopted a case study design while employing qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to identify 7 locations, where 88 women were selected based on simple random sampling technique. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to elicit information. Gender analysis framework was used to explore and analyse the data generated for the study. The study found that the rural women desire to engage in gainful economic activities. However, cultural barriers prevent them from adequately exploring livelihood-improving opportunities. It was established that ownership of productive resources such as land and livestock can enhance their livelihoods provided cultural and governance issues do not deter them from accessing the services. It was therefore recommended that appropriate policies that will favour the access and ownership of assets by women so as to empower them need to be in place. The study provides a nuanced perspective on the influence and relevance of possession of physical assets in enhancing women’s livelihood diversification and overall development of rural livelihoods.

Keywords: livelihoods, productivity, development, economic activities, socio-economic empowerment

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8251 How Do Crisis Affect Economic Policy?

Authors: Eva Kotlánová

Abstract:

After recession that began in 2007 in the United States and subsequently spilled over the Europe we could expect recovery of economic growth. According to the last estimation of economic progress of European countries, this recovery is not strong enough. Among others, it will depend on economic policy, where and in which way, the economic indicators will proceed. Economic theories postulate that the economic subjects prefer stably, continual economic policy without repeated and strong fluctuations. This policy is perceived as support of economic growth. Mostly in crises period, when the government must cope with consequences of recession, the economic policy becomes unpredictable for many subjects and economic policy uncertainty grows, which have negative influence on economic growth. The aim of this paper is to use panel regression to prove or disprove this hypothesis on the example of five largest European economies in the period 2008–2012.

Keywords: economic crises in Europe, economic policy, uncertainty, panel analysis regression

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8250 The Impact of the AEC to Influence the Direction of Politics in Thailand

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon

Abstract:

The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) shall be the goal of regional economic integration among ASEAN countries. The goal of establishing AEC is to transform the region into a single market and production base with a highly competitive advantage to make it a stable and prosperous region. However, with the wild range of economic conditions in each country, the implementation of its objectives under the limited resources available in the past showed the weakness of the region. For this reason, the group of countries in the region should allocate its rich potential of the region by collaborating effectively.

Keywords: impact, AEC, influence, direction, politics, Thailand

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8249 Longitudinal Assessment on the Economic Impacts of Hosting Major Sports Events

Authors: Huei-Fu Lu

Abstract:

Hosting international major sports events (MSEs) has become a globalized strategy for many countries. Most modern countries believe that MSEs can bring the hosting countries with substantial and considerable economic and non-economic benefits; so many cities also input a huge of resources to bid for hosting MSEs. Despite the growing importance of MSEs, limited longitudinal analysis has been carried out to understand and explain the long term economic effects of such events. This paper is to continue the focus of previous literature on the economic effects of hosting MSEs. The study periods are from 1950 to 2014 and the secondary macro-economic data are selected from the countries that have hosted the Asian Games and the Olympic Games (including summer and winter) to precede a longitudinal analysis. A comparison of the real economic growth rate, investment, employment and international trade of hosting countries and the duration of these economic effects are also explored and discussed. Based on the countries’ attributes and locating area, aiming to ascertain whether hosting MSEs is economically worthwhile and whether the economic effects from MSEs are realized as anticipated. The results indicate that hosting MSEs to create positive economic effects like GDP growth or long-term employment may be a myth even for developing countries. However, the empirical findings can provide the sport management or authority with longitudinal and comprehensive elaboration for biding or hosting MSEs in the future.

Keywords: Asian Games, economic effects, major sports events (MSEs), olympic games

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8248 Enlightening Malaysia's Energy Policies and Strategies for Modernization and Sustainable Development

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Nor Salwati Othman

Abstract:

Malaysia has achieved remarkable economic growth since 1957, moving toward modernization from a predominantly agriculture base to manufacturing and—now—modern services. The development policies (i.e., New Economic Policy [1970–1990], the National Development Policy [1990–2000], and Vision 2020) have been recognized as the most important drivers of this transformation. The transformation of the economic structure has moved along with rapid gross domestic product (GDP) growth, urbanization growth, and greater demand for energy from mainly fossil fuel resources, which in turn, increase CO2 emissions. Malaysia faced a great challenge to bring down the CO2 emissions without compromising economic development. Solid policies and a strategy to reduce dependencies on fossil fuel resources and reduce CO2 emissions are needed in order to achieve sustainable development. This study provides an overview of the Malaysian economic, energy, and environmental situation, and explores the existing policies and strategies related to energy and the environment. The significance is to grasp a clear picture on what types of policies and strategies Malaysia has in hand. In the future, this examination should be extended by drawing a comparison with other developed countries and highlighting several options for sustainable development.

Keywords: energy policies, energy efficiency, renewable energy, green building, Malaysia, sustainable development

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8247 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma

Abstract:

The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources

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8246 Traditional Factors of States’ Economic Growth: Modern Patterns, Values and Limitations

Authors: Denis Ushakov

Abstract:

Fast growing international migration as a factor of labor globalization now is one of the most important trends of world economy and determinant of social-political transformations. Study of fundamental economical reasons for international migration is relevant due to their prognostic, predictable and normative potential, which can be used in conditions of global economic non-stability. This paper analyzes role of natural-resources, financial and labor factors in economic growth of the modern states; studies relationships between stimulating role of natural resources, finance and labor with levels of modern countries’ economy development. Based on achieved results, findings about fundamental reasons of international migration; transformation of labor factor’s role in providing an economical progress of the states; efficiency of positive impact of manufacturing factors (domestic and attracted from international markets) were offered.

Keywords: international migration, migrant, labor productivity, economy efficiency of migration, migration policy

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8245 Compensation Mechanism Applied to Eco-Tourism Development in China

Authors: Min Wei

Abstract:

With the rapid development eco-tourism resources exploitation, the conflict between economy development and ecological environment is increasingly prominent. The environmental protection laws, however, are lack of necessary legal support to use market mechanism and economic means to carry out ecological compensation and promote the environmental protection. In order to protect the sustainable utilization of eco-tourism resources and the benign development of the interests of various stakeholders, protection of ecological compensation balance should be put on schedule. The main role of institutional guarantee in eco-tourism resources' value compensation mechanism is to solve the question 'how to guarantee compensation'. The evaluation of the game model in this paper reveals that interest balance of stakeholders is an important cornerstone to obtain the sustainable development. The findings result in constructing a sustainable development pattern of eco- tourism industry based on tripartite game equilibrium among government, tourism enterprises and tourists. It is important that the social, economic and ecological environment should be harmonious development during the pursuit of eco-tourism growth.

Keywords: environmental protection, ecological compensation, eco-tourism, market mechanism

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8244 Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources

Authors: Audrey Romero-Pelaez, Juan Carlos Morocho-Yunga

Abstract:

The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.

Keywords: open educational resources, OER quality, quality metadata

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8243 Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Indium Recycling from the Waste Liquid Crystal Displays in China

Authors: Wu Yufeng, Gu Yifan, Wang Hengguang, Gongyu, Zuo Tieyong

Abstract:

Indium is one the scarce resources which can be only used less than 30 years, and more than 70% of the indium is used for the production of the LCD. The benefit of recycling Indium from waste LCD is large. Take the LCD-TV for example, the yield of which was close to 90 million units in 2010. If it was available to recycle the indium effectively, the yield of the secondary-indium could reach up to 110 metric ton, which accounted for one third of the primary indium production in China. And compared with the dispersion and long process extraction of the primary indium resources, secondary indium concentrates in the waste LCD, the exploitation has great economic and environmental benefits. However, the potential benefits were indefinite, resulting in China’s government did not pay enough attention to the indium recycling industry. In our study, an estimation model was constructed to analyze the potential of the indium in the waste LCD. The different types of LCD were detected to find out the content of indium. Then, the potential of the indium in the waste LCD was estimated in China. Furthermore, the pollution emissions of the product process of the primary and secondary indium was analyzed respectively to calculate the economic and environmental benefits of the indium recycling from the waste LCD in China.

Keywords: indium recycling, waste liquid crystal displays, benefits, China

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8242 Convergence or Divergence of Economic Growth within the ASEAN Community: Challenges for the AEC

Authors: Philippe Gugler

Abstract:

This contribution reflects some important questions regarding inter alia the economic development occurring in the light of the ASEAN’s goal of creating the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. We observe a continuing economic growth of GDP per capita over recent years despite the negative effects of the world economic crisis. IMF forecasts indicate that this trend will continue. The paper focuses on the analysis and comparison of economic growth trends of ASEAN countries.

Keywords: ASEAN, convergence, divergence, economic growth, globalization, integration

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8241 Diversifying Nigeria's Economy Using Tourism as a Richer Alternative to Oil

Authors: Aly Audu Fada

Abstract:

The mono-economic structure of Nigerian economy has made it depend on oil for so many years. Apart from the negative effect of its exploitation, relying solely on oil as the major source of revenue for peddling the ship of development is myopic. The crumbling oil price in the world market is one proof of the dangers of this over-dependence. This paper highlights the consequences of the oil-driven economy and explores the various opportunities that are accessible in tourism through a contextual analysis. It is recommended that those at the helm of affairs should initiate collaboration between the public and private sectors to explore and harness the rich tourism resources naturally dispersed across the country to achieve the objectives of economic transformation agenda of the Federal Government.

Keywords: diversifying, economic, tourism, oil

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8240 Significance of Preservation of Cultural Resources: A Case of Walled City of Lahore as a Micro-Destination

Authors: Menaahyl Seraj, Gokce Ozdemir

Abstract:

Tourism at destinations is dependent on various resources such as archeology and architecture. The need to preserve those resources is of the utmost importance when long-term tourism development is aimed. Shahi Guzargah (Royal Trail) was subject to a preservation project that is a linear historical passage within the Walled City of Lahore. Even though Lahore with its congested streets, lacks proper infrastructure and economically weak but yet it has the potential of transforming it into a tourist destination. This study highlights the potential hidden in the preservation of cultural resources through proper and concrete planning of living heritage city, and how it improves socio-economic standards of the community and affects tourism. Semi-structured open-ended interview question-forms were used to collect qualitative data from 14 respective stakeholders of the walled city and 10 concerned officials. The results of the study show that the preservation of cultural resources impacts and accelerates positively the development process of a destination. All opinions and gathered information reflect the importance of cultural preservation and its effect on increasing tourism.

Keywords: cultural tourism, cultural resources, destination, preservation

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8239 Demographic Shrinkage and Reshaping Regional Policy of Lithuania in Economic Geographic Context

Authors: Eduardas Spiriajevas

Abstract:

Since the end of the 20th century, when Lithuania regained its independence, a process of demographic shrinkage started. Recently, it affects the efficiency of implementation of actions related to regional development policy and geographic scopes of created value added in the regions. The demographic structures of human resources reflect onto the regions and their economic geographic environment. Due to reshaping economies and state reforms on restructuration of economic branches such as agriculture and industry, it affects the economic significance of services’ sector. These processes influence the competitiveness of labor market and its demographic characteristics. Such vivid consequences are appropriate for the structures of human migrations, which affected the processes of demographic ageing of human resources in the regions, especially in peripheral ones. These phenomena of modern times induce the demographic shrinkage of society and its economic geographic characteristics in the actions of regional development and in regional policy. The internal and external migrations of population captured numerous regional economic disparities, and influenced on territorial density and concentration of population of the country and created the economies of spatial unevenness in such small geographically compact country as Lithuania. The processes of territorial reshaping of distribution of population create new regions and their economic environment, which is not corresponding to the main principles of regional policy and its power to create the well-being and to promote the attractiveness for economic development. These are the new challenges of national regional policy and it should be researched in a systematic way of taking into consideration the analytical approaches of regional economy in the context of economic geographic research methods. A comparative territorial analysis according to administrative division of Lithuania in relation to retrospective approach and introduction of method of location quotients, both give the results of economic geographic character with cartographic representations using the tools of spatial analysis provided by technologies of Geographic Information Systems. A set of these research methods provide the new spatially evidenced based results, which must be taken into consideration in reshaping of national regional policy in economic geographic context. Due to demographic shrinkage and increasing differentiation of economic developments within the regions, an input of economic geographic dimension is inevitable. In order to sustain territorial balanced economic development, there is a need to strengthen the roles of regional centers (towns) and to empower them with new economic functionalities for revitalization of peripheral regions, and to increase their economic competitiveness and social capacities on national scale.

Keywords: demographic shrinkage, economic geography, Lithuania, regions

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8238 Spatial Distribution of Socio-Economic Factors in Kogi State, Nigeria: Development Issues and Implication(s)

Authors: Yahya A. Sadiq, Grace F. Balogun, Olufemi J. Anjorin

Abstract:

This study analyzed the spatial distribution of socio-economic factors in Kogi state with a view to examining its implications on the development of the state. Consequently, questionnaires were administered on both the selected individual respondents (784) in the state and on the administrative offices (local council offices, 21) to solicit relevant information on the spatial distribution of socio-economic factors in their areas. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The study revealed commerce/trade, education, and health care, etc. as the major socio-economic factors in the state but with marked variation/imbalance in their spatial distribution across the study area. The rural-based local government areas have far less of such important facilities. Conclusively, it was recommended that there is need for socio-economic transformation of living conditions of people in the study area especially by positively redistributing local political power and the resources that are abound in the state will be felt by everybody including the commoners.

Keywords: development, local government areas (LGAs), spatial distribution, socio-economic factors

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