Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: SPIDER

24 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: ANSYS, differential, spider gear, structural steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
23 SIPTOX: Spider Toxin Database Information Repository System of Protein Toxins from Spiders by Using MySQL Method

Authors: Iftikhar Tayubi, Tabrej Khan, Rayan Alsulmi, Abdulrahman Labban

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Spider produces a special kind of substance. This special kind of substance is called a toxin. The toxin is composed of many types of protein, which differs from species to species. Spider toxin consists of several proteins and non-proteins that include various categories of toxins like myotoxin, neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, dendrotoxin, haemorrhagins, and fibrinolytic enzyme. Protein Sequence information with references of toxins was derived from literature and public databases. From the previous findings, the Spider toxin would be the best choice to treat different types of tumors and cancer. There are many therapeutic regimes, which causes more side effects than treatment hence a different approach must be adopted for the treatment of cancer. The combinations of drugs are being encouraged, and dramatic outcomes are reported. Spider toxin is one of the natural cytotoxic compounds. Hence, it is being used to treat different types of tumors; especially its positive effect on breast cancer is being reported during the last few decades. The efficacy of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Spiders, toxin and toxin protein of different Spiders species. SPIDTOXD provides a single source information about spider toxins, which will be useful for pharmacologists, neuroscientists, toxicologists, medicinal chemists. The well-ordered and accessible web interface allows users to explore the detail information of Spider and toxin proteins. It includes common name, scientific name, entry id, entry name, protein name and length of the protein sequence. The utility of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Spider, toxin and toxin protein of different Spider species. The database interfaces will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing in-depth knowledge about Spider and its toxin. We have adopted the methodology by using A MySQL and PHP and for designing, we used the Smart Draw. The users can thus navigate from one section to another, depending on the field of interest of the user. This database contains a wealth of information on species, toxins, and clinical data, etc. This database will be useful for the scientific community, basic researchers and those interested in potential pharmaceutical Industry.

Keywords: siptoxd, php, mysql, toxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
22 Exploring Students’ Self-Evaluation on Their Learning Outcomes through an Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average Reporting Mechanism

Authors: Suriyani Ariffin, Nor Aziah Alias, Khairil Iskandar Othman, Haslinda Yusoff

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An Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average (iCGPA) is a mechanism and strategy to ensure the curriculum of an academic programme is constructively aligned to the expected learning outcomes and student performance based on the attainment of those learning outcomes that is reported objectively in a spider web. Much effort and time has been spent to develop a viable mechanism and trains academics to utilize the platform for reporting. The question is: How well do learners conceive the idea of their achievement via iCGPA and whether quality learner attributes have been nurtured through the iCGPA mechanism? This paper presents the architecture of an integrated CGPA mechanism purported to address a holistic evaluation from the evaluation of courses learning outcomes to aligned programme learning outcomes attainment. The paper then discusses the students’ understanding of the mechanism and evaluation of their achievement from the generated spider web. A set of questionnaires were distributed to a group of students with iCGPA reporting and frequency analysis was used to compare the perspectives of students on their performance. In addition, the questionnaire also explored how they conceive the idea of an integrated, holistic reporting and how it generates their motivation to improve. The iCGPA group was found to be receptive to what they have achieved throughout their study period. They agreed that the achievement level generated from their spider web allows them to develop intervention and enhance the programme learning outcomes before they graduate.

Keywords: learning outcomes attainment, iCGPA, programme learning outcomes, spider web, iCGPA reporting skills

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21 Ant and Spider Diversity in a Rural Landscape of the Vhembe Biosphere, South Africa

Authors: Evans V. Mauda, Stefan H. Foord, Thinandavha C. Munyai

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The greatest threat to biodiversity is a loss of habitat through landscape fragmentation and attrition. Land use changes are therefore among the most immediate drivers of species diversity. Urbanization and agriculture are the main drivers of habitat loss and transformation in the Savanna biomes of South Africa. Agricultural expansion and the intensification in particular, take place at the expense of biodiversity and will probably be the primary driver of biodiversity loss in this century. Arthropods show measurable behavioural responses to changing land mosaics at the smallest scale and heterogeneous environments are therefore predicted to support more complex and diverse biological assemblages. Ants are premier soil turners, channelers of energy and dominate insect fauna, while spiders are a mega-diverse group that can regulate other invertebrate populations. This study aims to quantify the response of these two taxa in a rural-urban mosaic of a rapidly developing communal area. The study took place in and around two villages in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. Two replicates for each of the dominant land use categories, viz. urban settlements, dryland cultivation and cattle rangelands, were set out in each of the villages and sampled during the dry and wet seasons for a total of 2 villages × 3 land use categories × 2 seasons = 24 assemblages. Local scale variables measured included vertical and horizontal habitat structure as well as structural and chemical composition of the soil. Ant richness was not affected by land use but local scale variables such as vertical vegetation structure (+) and leaf litter cover (+), although vegetation complexity at lower levels was negatively associated with ant richness. However, ant richness was largely shaped by regional and temporal processes invoking the importance of dispersal and historical processes. Spider species richness was mostly affected by land use and local conditions highlighting their landscape elements. Spider richness did not vary much between villages and across seasons and seems to be less dependent on context or history. There was a considerable amount of variation in spider richness that was not explained and this could be related to factors which were not measured in this study such as temperature and competition. For both ant and spider assemblages the constrained ordination explained 18 % of variation in these taxa. Three environmental variables (leaf litter cover, active carbon and rock cover) were important in explaining ant assemblage structure, while two (sand and leaf litter cover) were important for spider assemblage structure. This study highlights the importance of disturbance (land use activities) and leaf litter with the associated effects on ant and spider assemblages across the study area.

Keywords: ants, assemblages, biosphere, diversity, land use, spiders, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
20 Ecosystem Engineering Strengthens Bottom-Up and Weakens Top-Down Effects via Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions

Authors: Zhiwei Zhong, Xiaofei Li, Deli Wang

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Ecosystem engineering is a powerful force shaping community structure and ecosystem function. Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms by which engineers affect vital ecosystem processes like trophic interactions. Here, we examine the potential for a herbivore ecosystem engineer, domestic sheep, to affect trophic interactions between the web-building spider Argiope bruennichi, its grasshopper prey Euchorthippus spp., and the grasshoppers’ host plant Leymus chinensis. By integrating small- and large-scale field experiments, we demonstrate that: 1) moderate sheep grazing changed the structure of plant communities by suppressing strongly interacting forbs within a grassland matrix; 2) this change in plant community structure drove interaction modifications between the grasshoppers and their grass host plants and between grasshoppers and their spider predators, and 3) these interaction modifications were entirely mediated by plasticity in grasshopper behavior. Overall, ecosystem engineering by sheep grazing strengthened bottom-up effects and weakened top-down effects via trait-mediated interactions, resulting in a nearly two-fold increase in grasshopper densities. Interestingly, the grasshopper behavioral shifts which reduced spider per capita predation rates in the microcosms did not translate to reduced spider predation rates at the larger system scale because increased grasshopper densities offset behavioral effects at larger scales. Our findings demonstrate that 1) ecosystem engineering can strongly alter trophic interactions, 2) such effects can be driven by cryptic trait-mediated interactions, and 3) the relative importance of trait- versus density effects as measured by microcosm experiments may not reflect the importance of these processes at realistic ecological scales due to scale-dependent interactions.

Keywords: bottom-up effects, ecosystem engineering, trait-mediated indirect effects, top-down effects

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19 Using OMICs Approaches to Investigate Venomic Insights into the Spider Web Silk

Authors: Franciele G. Esteves, Jose R. A. dos Santos-Pinto, Caroline L. de Souza, Mario S. Palma

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Orb-weaving spiders use a very strong, stickiness, and elastic web to catch the prey. These web properties would be enough for the entrapment of prey; however, these spiders may be hiding venomous secrets on the web, which are being revealed now. Here we provide strong proteome, peptidome, and transcriptomic evidence for the presence of toxic components on the web silk from Nephila clavipes. Our scientific outcomes revealed, both in the web silk and in the silk-producing glands, a wide diversity of toxins/neurotoxins, defensins, and proteolytic enzymes. These toxins/neurotoxins are similar to toxins isolated from animal venoms, such as Sphigomyelinase D, Latrotoxins, Zodatoxins, Ctenitoxin Pn and Pk, Agatoxins and Theraphotoxin. Moreover, the insect-toxicity results with the web silk crude extract demonstrated that these toxic components can be lethal and/or cause paralytic effects to the prey. Therefore, through OMICs approaches, the results presented until now may contribute to a better understanding of the chemical and ecological interaction of these compounds in insect-prey capture by spider web N. clavipes, demonstrating that the web is not only a simple mechanical tool but has a chemical-active involvement in prey capture. Moreover, the results can also contribute to future studies of possible development of a selective insecticide or even in possible pharmacological applications.

Keywords: web silk toxins, silk-produncing glands, de novo transcriptome assembly, LCMS-based proteomics

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18 Effects of Cooking and Drying on the Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Cleome gynandra (Spider Plant)

Authors: E. Kayitesi, S. Moyo, V. Mavumengwana

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Cleome gynandra (spider plant) is an African green leafy vegetable categorized as an indigenous, underutilized and has been reported to contain essential phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds play a significant role in human diets due to their proposed health benefits. These compounds however may be affected by different processing methods such as cooking and drying. Cleome gynandra was subjected to boiling, steam blanching, and drying processes and analysed for Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), antioxidant activity and flavonoid composition. Cooking and drying significantly (p < 0.05) increased the levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the vegetable. The boiled sample filtrate exhibited the lowest TPC followed by the raw sample while the steamed sample depicted the highest TPC levels. Antioxidant activity results showed that steamed sample showed the highest DPPH, FRAP and ABTS with mean values of 499.38 ± 2.44, 578.68 ± 5.19, and 214.39 ± 12.33 μM Trolox Equivalent/g respectively. An increase in quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-rutinoside occurred after all the cooking and drying methods employed. Cooking and drying exerted positive effects on the vegetable’s phenolic content, antioxidant activity as a whole, but with varied effects on the individual flavonoid molecules. The results obtained help in defining the importance of African green leafy vegetable and resultant processed products as functional foods and their potential to exert health promoting properties.

Keywords: Cleome gynandra, phenolic compounds, cooking, drying, health promoting properties

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17 Creation of Ultrafast Ultra-Broadband High Energy Laser Pulses

Authors: Walid Tawfik

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The interaction of high intensity ultrashort laser pulses with plasma generates many significant applications, including soft x-ray lasers, time-resolved laser induced plasma spectroscopy LIPS, and laser-driven accelerators. The development in producing of femtosecond down to ten femtosecond optical pulses has facilitates scientists with a vital tool in a variety of ultrashort phenomena, such as high field physics, femtochemistry and high harmonic generation HHG. In this research, we generate a two-octave-wide ultrashort supercontinuum pulses with an optical spectrum extending from 3.5 eV (ultraviolet) to 1.3 eV (near-infrared) using a capillary fiber filled with neon gas. These pulses are formed according to nonlinear self-phase modulation in the neon gas as a nonlinear medium. The investigations of the created pulses were made using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). A complete description of the output pulses was considered. The observed characterization of the produced pulses includes the beam profile, the pulse width, and the spectral bandwidth. After reaching optimization conditions, the intensity of the reconstructed pulse autocorrelation function was applied for the shorts pulse duration to achieve transform limited ultrashort pulses with durations below 6-fs energies up to 600μJ. Moreover, the effect of neon pressure variation on the pulse width was examined. The nonlinear self-phase modulation realized to be increased with the pressure of the neon gas. The observed results may lead to an advanced method to control and monitor ultrashort transit interaction in femtochemistry.

Keywords: supercontinuum, ultrafast, SPIDER, ultra-broadband

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16 Some Codes for Variants in Graphs

Authors: Sofia Ait Bouazza

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We consider the problem of finding a minimum identifying code in a graph. This problem was initially introduced in 1998 and has been since fundamentally connected to a wide range of applications (fault diagnosis, location detection …). Suppose we have a building into which we need to place fire alarms. Suppose each alarm is designed so that it can detect any fire that starts either in the room in which it is located or in any room that shares a doorway with the room. We want to detect any fire that may occur or use the alarms which are sounding to not only to not only detect any fire but be able to tell exactly where the fire is located in the building. For reasons of cost, we want to use as few alarms as necessary. The first problem involves finding a minimum domination set of a graph. If the alarms are three state alarms capable of distinguishing between a fire in the same room as the alarm and a fire in an adjacent room, we are trying to find a minimum locating domination set. If the alarms are two state alarms that can only sound if there is a fire somewhere nearby, we are looking for a differentiating domination set of a graph. These three areas are the subject of much active research; we primarily focus on the third problem. An identifying code of a graph G is a dominating set C such that every vertex x of G is distinguished from other vertices by the set of vertices in C that are at distance at most r≥1 from x. When only vertices out of the code are asked to be identified, we get the related concept of a locating dominating set. The problem of finding an identifying code (resp a locating dominating code) of minimum size is a NP-hard problem, even when the input graph belongs to a number of specific graph classes. Therefore, we study this problem in some restricted classes of undirected graphs like split graph, line graph and path in a directed graph. Then we present some results on the identifying code by giving an exact value of upper total locating domination and a total 2-identifying code in directed and undirected graph. Moreover we determine exact values of locating dominating code and edge identifying code of thin headless spider and locating dominating code of complete suns.

Keywords: identiying codes, locating dominating set, split graphs, thin headless spider

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15 Electrospun TiO2/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Mat: Improved Hydrophilicity Properties

Authors: Roshank Haghighat, Laleh Maleknia

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In this study, electrospun TiO2/nylon-6 nanofiber mats were successfully prepared. The nanofiber mats were characterized by SEM, FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, WCA, and EDX analyses. The results revealed that fibers in different distinct sizes (nano and subnano scale) were obtained with the electrospinning parameters. The presence of a small amount of TiO2 in nylon-6 solution was found to improve the hydrophilicity (antifouling effect), mechanical strength, antimicrobial and UV protecting ability of electrospun mats. The resultant nylon-6/TiO2 antimicrobial spider-net like composite mat with antifouling effect may be a potential candidate for future water filter applications, and its improved UV blocking ability will also make it a potential candidate for protective clothing.

Keywords: electrospinning, hydrophilicity, antimicrobial, nanocomposite, nylon-6/TiO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
14 Suitable Indoor Plants for Green Office Development in Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand

Authors: Tatsanawalai Utarasakul

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Nowadays, green office principles are very broadly initiated in many offices, organizations, as well as in universities. The concepts of green office are composed of seven prominent issues. One of them, physical implementation, is to develop a pleasant atmosphere for staff in the faculty with selected optimum plant species for the office. 50 species from NASA research and other documents were studied for the selection criteria of plants which were appropriate for specific locations in order to reduce indoor air pollutants such as formaldehyde, benzene, and trichloroethylene. For the copy and examination preparation room in which particulate matter and volatile organic compounds can be found, some plants such as peace lily, gerbera daisy, and bamboo palm should be set, which are very effective in treating trichloroethylene. For common rooms and offices where formaldehyde can be found, which is generated from many building materials, bamboo palm, mother-in-law's tongue, peace lily, striped dracaena, cornstalk plant, golden pathos, and green spider plant should be set.

Keywords: indoor plants, indoor air quality, phytoremediation, green office

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13 The Pitfalls of Short-Range Endemism: High Vulnerability to Ecological and Landscape Traps

Authors: Leanda Denise Mason, Philip William Bateman, Grant Wardell-Johnson

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Ecological traps attract biota to low-quality habitats. Landscape traps are zones caught in a vortex of spiraling degradation. Here, we demonstrate how short-range endemic traits may make such taxa vulnerable to ecological and landscape traps. Three short-range endemic mygalomorph spider species were used in this study. Mygalomorphs can be long-lived ( > 40 years) and select sites for permanent burrows in their early dispersal phase. Spiderlings from two species demonstrated choice for microhabitats that correspond to where adults typically occur. An invasive veldt grass microhabitat was selected almost exclusively by spiderlings of the third species. Habitat dominated by veldt grass has lower prey diversity and abundance than undisturbed habitats and therefore acts as an ecological trap for this species. Furthermore, as a homogenising force, veldt grass can spread to form a landscape trap in naturally heterogeneous ecosystems. Selection of specialised microhabitats of short-range endemics may explain high extinction rates in old, stable landscapes undergoing (human-induced) rapid change.

Keywords: biotic homogenization, invasive species, mygalomorph, short-range endemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
12 Attribute Based Comparison and Selection of Modular Self-Reconfigurable Robot Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

Authors: Manpreet Singh, V. P. Agrawal, Gurmanjot Singh Bhatti

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From the last decades, there is a significant technological advancement in the field of robotics, and a number of modular self-reconfigurable robots were introduced that can help in space exploration, bucket to stuff, search, and rescue operation during earthquake, etc. As there are numbers of self-reconfigurable robots, choosing the optimum one is always a concern for robot user since there is an increase in available features, facilities, complexity, etc. The objective of this research work is to present a multiple attribute decision making based methodology for coding, evaluation, comparison ranking and selection of modular self-reconfigurable robots using a technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution approach. However, 86 attributes that affect the structure and performance are identified. A database for modular self-reconfigurable robot on the basis of different pertinent attribute is generated. This database is very useful for the user, for selecting a robot that suits their operational needs. Two visual methods namely linear graph and spider chart are proposed for ranking of modular self-reconfigurable robots. Using five robots (Atron, Smores, Polybot, M-Tran 3, Superbot), an example is illustrated, and raking of the robots is successfully done, which shows that Smores is the best robot for the operational need illustrated, and this methodology is found to be very effective and simple to use.

Keywords: self-reconfigurable robots, MADM, TOPSIS, morphogenesis, scalability

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11 A Preliminary Analysis of Sustainable Development in the Belgrade Metropolitan Area

Authors: Slavka Zeković, Miodrag Vujošević, Tamara Maričić

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The paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the sustainable development in the Belgrade Metropolitan Region - BMA (level NUTS 2) preliminary evaluating the three chosen components: 1) economic growth and developmental changes; 2) competitiveness; and 3) territorial concentration and industrial specialization. First, we identified the main results of development changes and economic growth by applying Shift-share analysis on the metropolitan level. Second, the empirical evaluation of competitiveness in the BMA is based on the analysis of absolute and relative values of eight indicators by Spider method. Paper shows that the consideration of the national share, industrial mix and metropolitan/regional share in total Shift share of the BMA, as well as economic/functional specialization of the BMA indicate very strong process of deindustrialization. Allocative component of the BMA economic growth has positive value, reflecting the above-average sector productivity compared to the national average. Third, the important positive role of metropolitan/regional component in decomposition of the BMA economic growth is highlighted as one of the key results. Finally, comparative analysis of the industrial territorial concentration in the BMA in relation to Serbia is based on location quotient (LQ) or Balassa index as a valid measure. The results indicate absolute and relative differences in decrease of industry territorial concentration as well as inefficiency of utilizing territorial capital in the BMA. Results are important for the increase of regional competitiveness and territorial distribution in this area as well as for improvement of sustainable metropolitan and sector policies, planning and governance on this level.

Keywords: Belgrade Metropolitan Area (BMA), comprehensive analysis / evaluation, economic growth, competitiveness, sustainable development

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10 Major Sucking Pests of Rose and Their Seasonal Abundance in Bangladesh

Authors: Md Ruhul Amin

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This study was conducted in the experimental field of the Department of Entomology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2017 to May 2018 with a view to understanding the seasonal abundance of the major sucking pests namely thrips, aphid and red spider mite on rose. The findings showed that the thrips started to build up their population from the middle of January with abundance 1.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (2.6 leaf⁻¹) in the middle of February and then declined. Aphid started to build up their population from the second week of November with abundance 6.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.4 leaf⁻¹) in the last week of December and then declined. Mite started to build up their population from the first week of December with abundance 0.8 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.2 leaf⁻¹) in the second week of March and then declined. Thrips and mite prevailed until the last week of April, and aphid showed their abundance till last week of May. The daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with thrips and significant negative correlation with aphid abundance. The daily mean temperature had significant positive, relative humidity had an insignificant positive, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with mite abundance. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the weather parameters together contributed 38.1, 41.0 and 8.9% abundance on thrips, aphid and mite on rose, respectively and the equations were insignificant.

Keywords: aphid, mite, thrips, weather factors

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9 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Cleoma viscosa Linn. Crude Extracts

Authors: Suttijit Sriwatcharakul

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The bioactivity studies from the weed ethanolic crude extracts from leaf, stem, pod and root of wild spider flower; Cleoma viscosa Linn. were analyzed for the growth inhibition of 6 bacterial species; Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 5562, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Streptococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli DMST 4212 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with initial concentration crude extract of 50 mg/ml. The agar well diffusion results found that the extracts inhibit only gram positive bacteria species; S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis. The minimum inhibition concentration study with gram positive strains revealed that leaf crude extract give the best result of the lowest concentration compared with other plant parts to inhibit the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis at 0.78, 0.39 and lower than 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. The determination of total phenolic compounds in the crude extracts exhibited the highest phenolic content was 10.41 mg GAE/g dry weight in leaf crude extract. Analyzed the efficacy of free radical scavenging by using DPPH radical scavenging assay with all crude extracts showed value of IC50 of leaf, stem, pod and root crude extracts were 8.32, 12.26, 21.62 and 35.99 mg/ml, respectively. Studied cytotoxicity of crude extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by MTT assay found that pod extract had the most cytotoxicity CC50 value, 32.41 µg/ml. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts exhibited that the more increase of extract concentration, the more activities indicated. According to the bioactivities results, the leaf crude extract of Cleoma viscosa Linn. is the most interesting plant part for further work to search the beneficial of this weed.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, Cleoma viscosa Linn., cytotoxicity test, total phenolic compound

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8 Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

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Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), acute and chronic effect, entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens)

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7 Climate Impact on Spider Mite (Tetranychus Sp. Koch) Infesting Som Plant Leaves (Machilus Bombycina King) and Their Sustainable Management

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh

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Som plant (Machilus bombycina King) is an important plant in agroforestry system. It is cultivated in north -east part of India. It is cultivated in agricultural land by the marginal farmers for multi-storeyed cultivation with intercropping. Localized cottage industries are involved with this plant like sericulture industry (muga silk worm cultivation). Clothes are produced from this sericulture industry. Leaves of som plants are major food of muga silk worm ( Antherea assama ). Nutritional value of leaves plays an important role in the larval growth and silk productivity. The plant also has timber value. The plant is susceptible to mite pest (Tetranychus sp.) causes heavy damage to tender leaves. Lower population was recorded during 7th to 38th standard week, during 3rd week of February to 4th week of September and higher population was during 46th to 51st standard week, during 3rd week of November to 3rd week of December and peak population (6.06/3 leaves) was recorded on 46th standard week that is on 3rd week of November. Correlation studies revealed that mite population had a significant negative correlation with temperature and non-significant positive correlation with relative humidity. This indicates that activity of mites population increase with the rise of relative humidity and decrease with the rise of temperature. Tobacco leaf extracts was found most effective against mite providing 40.51% suppression, closely followed by extracts of Spilanthes (39.06% suppression). Extracts of Garlic and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate results, recording about 38.10% and 37.78% mite suppression respectively. The polygonum (Polygonum hydropiper) plant (floral parts), pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) leaves, garlic (Allium sativum), spilanthes (Spilanthes paniculata) (floral parts) were extracted in methanol. Synthetic insecticides contaminate plant leaves with the toxic chemicals. Plant extracts are of biological origin having low or no hazardous effect on health and environment and so can be incorporated in organic cultivation.

Keywords: Abiotic factors, incidence, botanical extracts, organic cultivation, silk industry

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6 Control of the Sustainability of Decorative Topping for Bakery in Order to Extend the Shelf-Life of the Product

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

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In the modern bakery various supplements are used to attract more customers. Analyzed sample decorative toppings are consisted of flax seeds, corn grits, oatmeal, wheat flakes, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, soybean sprouts are used as decoration for the bread. Our goal was to extend the product shelf life based on the analysis. According to the plan of sustainability it was defined that sample which already had expired shelf life had to be stored for 5 months at 25°C and analyzed every month from the day of reception until spoilage occurs. Samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, and consistency), microbiological analysis (Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Enterobacteriaceae and moulds) and chemistry analysis (free fatty acids (as oleic), peroxide number, water content and degree of acidity). All analyses were tested according: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Bacillus cereus ISO 7932, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2 and moulds ISO 21527-1, free fatty acids (as oleic) ISO 660, peroxide number ISO 3960, water content and degree of acidity Serbian ordinance on the methods of chemical analysis. After five months of storage, there had been the first changes concerning of sensory properties of the product. In the sample were visible worms and creations which look like spider nets linking seeds and cereal. The sample had smell on rancid and pungent. The results of microbiological analysis showed that Salmonella spp was not detected, Enterobacteriaceae were < 10 cfu/g during all 5 months but in fifth month Bacillus cereus and moulds occurred 700 cfu/g and 1500 cfu/g respectively. Chemical analyzes showed that the water content did not exceed a maximum of 14%. The content of free fatty acids ranged from 3.06 to 3.26%, degree of acidity from 3.69 to 4.9. With increasing degree of acidity the degradation of the sample and the activity of microorganisms was increased which led to the formation of acid reaction which is accompanied by the appearance of unpleasant odor and taste. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this product can have longer shelf life for four months than shelf life which is already defined because there are no changes that could have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: bakery products, extension of shelf life, sensory and chemical and microbiological analyses, sustainability

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5 Wildland Fire in Terai Arc Landscape of Lesser Himalayas Threatning the Tiger Habitat

Authors: Amit Kumar Verma

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The present study deals with fire prediction model in Terai Arc Landscape, one of the most dramatic ecosystems in Asia where large, wide-ranging species such as tiger, rhinos, and elephant will thrive while bringing economic benefits to the local people. Forest fires cause huge economic and ecological losses and release considerable quantities of carbon into the air and is an important factor inflating the global burden of carbon emissions. Forest fire is an important factor of behavioral cum ecological habit of tiger in wild. Post fire changes i.e. micro and macro habitat directly affect the tiger habitat or land. Vulnerability of fire depicts the changes in microhabitat (humus, soil profile, litter, vegetation, grassland ecosystem). Microorganism like spider, annelids, arthropods and other favorable microorganism directly affect by the forest fire and indirectly these entire microorganisms are responsible for the development of tiger (Panthera tigris) habitat. On the other hand, fire brings depletion in prey species and negative movement of tiger from wild to human- dominated areas, which may leads the conflict i.e. dangerous for both tiger & human beings. Early forest fire prediction through mapping the risk zones can help minimize the fire frequency and manage forest fires thereby minimizing losses. Satellite data plays a vital role in identifying and mapping forest fire and recording the frequency with which different vegetation types are affected. Thematic hazard maps have been generated by using IDW technique. A prediction model for fire occurrence is developed for TAL. The fire occurrence records were collected from state forest department from 2000 to 2014. Disciminant function models was used for developing a prediction model for forest fires in TAL, random points for non-occurrence of fire have been generated. Based on the attributes of points of occurrence and non-occurrence, the model developed predicts the fire occurrence. The map of predicted probabilities classified the study area into five classes very high (12.94%), high (23.63%), moderate (25.87%), low(27.46%) and no fire (10.1%) based upon the intensity of hazard. model is able to classify 78.73 percent of points correctly and hence can be used for the purpose with confidence. Overall, also the model works correctly with almost 69% of points. This study exemplifies the usefulness of prediction model of forest fire and offers a more effective way for management of forest fire. Overall, this study depicts the model for conservation of tiger’s natural habitat and forest conservation which is beneficial for the wild and human beings for future prospective.

Keywords: fire prediction model, forest fire hazard, GIS, landsat, MODIS, TAL

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4 Medicinal Plant Resources and Conservation of Nallamalais, Forest Range, Eastern Ghats, India

Authors: S. K. M. Basha

Abstract:

Nallamalas one of the centres of Plant Diversity (CPD) (WWF&IUCN,1995) is located in the central eastern Ghats between latitudes 15.20’-16.30’N and Longitude 78.30-80.10E in Andhra Pradesh, extended to an area of 7640 Sq.Km. No Comprehensive work available for RET Plants in the study area, therefore the objective of the present paper is to document the RET Medicinal Plants of Nallamalias and their uses by the local people of the area. In India, one of the major resources to know about the number of plant species and their medicinal values is the groups who are habituated in near and deep forests. The most common groups in south Indian forests are Yanadis and Yerukulas. These two groups of people are residing in the forest, which is located very far from the modern society, towns and cities. They are following traditional methods obtained from their forefathers in all respects, including medication. They are the only source to know many medicinal plants in the areas where they reside and are also important to record the medicinal properties of various plant species which are not reported. The new reports may help in drug industry in order to develop pharmaceutical herbal medicine for human health. In the present study, nearly 150 rare species have been found to be used for various ailments. Out of these 23 species are critically endangered, over 25 are vulnerable and around 22 comes under the category of near threatened. Some important species like Christella dentate, Careya arborea are used for curing cough and cold. Piper attnuatum, piper nigrum are used for curing skin disease. Ipomoea mauritiana is used against male impotency.Glycosmis cochinensis, Entada perseatha are used as contraceptives. The roots of Andrographis nallamalayana and Acrocephalus indicus are used for leucorrhoea. While the stem barks of Gyrocarpus americanus is given orally for spider bite. Piper hymenophyllum leaves mixed with turmeric and gingerly oil is used externally for mouth ulcers in cattle. Piper nigrum fruits are used for skin diseases. Vernonia anthelmentica seeds are used for indigestion. It was widely distributed in this hills. Due to over exploitation this species was in declined condition. Sterculia urens which is a sorce of gum for tribal, due to over exploitation this species declaimed in these hills. Hence, there is an urgent need to conserve the medicinal plants and prevent their exploitation and extinction with the help of tribals. There is a need to adopt sustainable utilization, cultivation and micro propagation techniques. Medicinal plants are as potent and effective today as they were thousands of years ago. They are natures wonderful gift to mankind and are involved in India as a very rich ancient heritage of traditional systems medicine i.e., ayurveda, siddha and unani. Unfortunately, these traditions have been largely eroded because of lack of support and recognition as well as rapid destruction of natural habitats which has led to shrinkage of medicinal plants therefore the conservation of medicinal plants and the revitalization of local health traditions has been taken up on priority basis.

Keywords: RET plants CPD, IUCN, nallamalas, yanadis, yerukulas

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3 Synthesis and Characterization of Fibrin/Polyethylene Glycol-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks for Dermal Tissue Engineering

Authors: O. Gsib, U. Peirera, C. Egles, S. A. Bencherif

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In skin regenerative medicine, one of the critical issues is to produce a three-dimensional scaffold with optimized porosity for dermal fibroblast infiltration and neovascularization, which exhibits high mechanical properties and displays sufficient wound healing characteristics. In this study, we report on the synthesis and characterization of macroporous sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) combining skin wound healing properties of fibrin with the excellent physical properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Fibrin fibers serve as a provisional biologically active network to promote cell adhesion and proliferation while PEG provides the mechanical stability to maintain the entire 3D construct. After having modified both PEG and Serum Albumin (used for promoting enzymatic degradability) by adding methacrylate residues (PEGDM and SAM, respectively), Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM sequential IPNs were synthesized as follows: Macroporous sponges were first produced from PEGDM-SAM hydrogels by a freeze-drying technique and then rehydrated by adding the fibrin precursors. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize their microstructure. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultivated during one week in the constructs and different cell culture parameters (viability, morphology, proliferation) were evaluated. Subcutaneous implantations of the scaffolds were conducted on five-week old male nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. We successfully synthesized interconnected and macroporous Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM sequential IPNs. The viability of primary dermal fibroblasts was well maintained (above 90%) after 2 days of culture. Cells were able to adhere, spread and proliferate in the scaffolds suggesting the suitable porosity and intrinsic biologic properties of the constructs. The fibrin network adopted a spider web shape that covered partially the pores allowing easier cell infiltration into the macroporous structure. To further characterize the in vitro cell behavior, cell proliferation (EdU incorporation, MTS assay) is being studied. Preliminary histological analysis of animal studies indicated the persistence of hydrogels even after one-month post implantation and confirmed the absence of inflammation response, good biocompatibility and biointegration of our scaffolds within the surrounding tissues. These results suggest that our Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM IPNs could be considered as potential candidates for dermis regenerative medicine. Histological analysis will be completed to further assess scaffold remodeling including de novo extracellular matrix protein synthesis and early stage angiogenesis analysis. Compression measurements will be conducted to investigate the mechanical properties.

Keywords: fibrin, hydrogels for dermal reconstruction, polyethylene glycol, semi-interpenetrating polymer network

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2 Conceptualizing a Biomimetic Fablab Based on the Makerspace Concept and Biomimetics Design Research

Authors: Petra Gruber, Ariana Rupp, Peter Niewiarowski

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This paper presents a concept for a biomimetic fablab as a physical space for education, research and development of innovation inspired by nature. Biomimetics as a discipline finds increasing recognition in academia and has started to be institutionalized at universities in programs and centers. The Biomimicry Research and Innovation Center was founded in 2012 at the University of Akron as an interdisciplinary venture for the advancement of innovation inspired by nature and is part of a larger community fostering the approach of bioimimicry in the Great Lakes region of the US. With 30 faculty members the center has representatives from Colleges of Arts and Sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, geoscience, and philosophy) Engineering (e.g., mechanical, civil, and biomedical), Polymer Science, and Myers School of Arts. A platform for training PhDs in Biomimicry (17 students currently enrolled) is co-funded by educational institutions and industry partners. Research at the center touches on many areas but is also currently biased towards materials and structures, with highlights being materials based on principles found in spider silk and gecko attachment mechanisms. As biomimetics is also a novel scientific discipline, there is little standardisation in programming and the equipment of research facilities. As a field targeting innovation, design and prototyping processes are fundamental parts of the developments. For experimental design and prototyping, MIT's maker space concept seems to fit well to the requirements, but facilities need to be more specialised in terms of accessing biological systems and knowledge, specific research, production or conservation requirements. For the education and research facility BRIC we conceptualize the concept of a biomimicry fablab, that ties into the existing maker space concept and creates the setting for interdisciplinary research and development carried out in the program. The concept takes on the process of biomimetics as a guideline to define core activities that shall be enhanced by the allocation of specific spaces and tools. The limitations of such a facility and the intersections to further specialised labs housed in the classical departments are of special interest. As a preliminary proof of concept two biomimetic design courses carried out in 2016 are investigated in terms of needed tools and infrastructure. The spring course was a problem based biomimetic design challenge in collaboration with an innovation company interested in product design for assisted living and medical devices. The fall course was a solution based biomimetic design course focusing on order and hierarchy in nature with the goal of finding meaningful translations into art and technology. The paper describes the background of the BRIC center, identifies and discusses the process of biomimetics, evaluates the classical maker space concept and explores how these elements can shape the proposed research facility of a biomimetic fablab by examining two examples of design courses held in 2016.

Keywords: biomimetics, biomimicry, design, biomimetic fablab

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1 Origin of the Eocene Volcanic Rocks in Muradlu Village, Azerbaijan Province, Northwest of Iran

Authors: A. Shahriari, M. Khalatbari Jafari, M. Faridi

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Abstract The Muradlu volcanic area is located in Azerbaijan province, NW Iran. The studied area exposed in a vast region includes lesser Caucasus, Southeastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran, comprising Cenozoic volcanic and plutonic massifs. The geology of this extended region was under the influence of the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny. Cenozoic magmatic activities in this vast region evolved through the northward subduction of the Neotethyan subducted slab and subsequence collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Based on stratigraphy and paleontology data, most of the volcanic activities in the Muradlu area occurred in the Eocene period. The Studied volcanic rocks overly late Cretaceous limestone with disconformity. The volcanic sequence includes thick epiclastic and hyaloclastite breccia at the base, laterally changed to pillow lava and continued by hyaloclastite and lave flows at the top of the series. The lava flows display different textures from megaporphyric-phyric to fluidal and microlithic textures. The studied samples comprise picrobasalt basalt, tephrite basanite, trachybasalt, basaltic trachyandesite, phonotephrite, tephrophonolite, trachyandesite, and trachyte in compositions. Some xenoliths with lherzolitic composition are found in picrobasalt. These xenoliths are made of olivine, cpx (diopside), and opx (enstatite), probably the remain of mantle origin. Some feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite presence in the phonotephrite confirm an alkaline trend. Two types of augite phenocrysts are found in picrobasalt, basalt and trachybasalt. The first types are shapeless, with disharmony zoning and sponge texture with reaction edges probably resulted from sodic magma, which is affected by a potassic magma. The second shows a glomerocryst shape. In discriminative diagrams, the volcanic rocks show alkaline-shoshonitic trends. They contain (0.5-7.7) k2O values and plot in the shoshonitic field. Most of the samples display transitional to potassic alkaline trends, and some samples reveal sodic alkaline trends. The transitional trend probably results from the mixing of the sodic alkaline and potassic magmas. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns and spider diagrams indicate enrichment of Large-Ione Lithophile Element (LILE) and depletion of High Field Strength Elements (HFSE) relative to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE). Enrichment of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zr, Th, and U and the enrichment of Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) relative to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) indicate the effect of subduction-related fluids over the mantle source, which has been reported in the arc and continental collision zones. The studied samples show low Nb/La ratios. Our studied samples plot in the lithosphere and lithosphere-asthenosphere fields in the Nb/La versus La/Yb ratios diagram. These geochemical characters allow us to conclude that a lithospheric mantle source previously metasomatized by subduction components was the origin of the Muradlu volcanic rocks.

Keywords: alkaline, asthenosphere, lherzolite, lithosphere, Muradlu, potassic, shoshonitic, sodic, volcanism

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