Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4143

Search results for: Phytochemical Investigation

4143 Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation of the Endemic Medicinal Plant Tekchebilium arvensis Linn

Authors: K. Bengango, H. Mesahsah, F. Haseb-Reho, J. M. Tafrate

Abstract:

This present work was conducted to explore the micro-morphology and phytochemical characterization of the endemic medicinal plant Tekchebilium arvensis Linn (Asteraceae). Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis and WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of abaxial epidermis with paracytic stomata. Petiole showed epidermis, vascular strands, ground tissue and secretary cavities. Physico-chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, volatile oil, terpenoids, saponin and alkaloids.

Keywords: Tekchebilium arvensis Linn, Asteraceae, microscopical evaluation, phytochemical, powder microscopy, standardization

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4142 Isolation and Identification of Compounds from the Leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Lauraceae)

Authors: O. Hanita, S. A. Ainnul Hamidah, A. H. Yang Zalila, M. R. Siti Nadiah, M. H. Najihah, M. A. Hapipah

Abstract:

The crude extract of the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), was taken under phytochemical investigation. The crude methanolic extract was partitioned with a different solvent system by increasing their polarities (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol). The compounds were fractionated and isolated from n-hexane partition by using column chromatography with silica gel 60 or Sephadex LH-20 as a stationary phase and preparative thin layer chromatographic technique. Isolates were characterized using TLC, FTIR, UV spectrophotometer and NMR spectroscopy. The n-hexane fractionates yielded a total of four compounds namely N-methyllaurotetanine (1), dicentrine (2), β-sitosterol (3), and stigmasterol (4). The result indicates that the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis may provide a rich source of alkaloids and triterpenoids.

Keywords: actinodaphne sesquipedalis, alkaloids, phytochemical investigation, triterpenoids

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4141 Phytochemical Investigation of Butanol Extract from Launeae Arborescens

Authors: Khaled Sekoum, Nasser Belboukhari, Abelkrim Cheriti

Abstract:

Launeae arborescens (L. arborescens) is a medicinal plant having capacities of important propagation. Following its biotope, associate to different species, it is frequently notably in the whole region of Algerian southwest of Wadi– Namous until the region of Karzaz. According to our ethnopharmacological survey, L. arborescens is used for treatment of the illnesses gastric. Following our phytochemical works achieved on the polyphenols of the methanolic extract of aerial part of L. arborescens, we are also interested to investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from this plant.

Keywords: Launeae arborescens, asteraceae, flavanone, isoflavanone, glycosid flavanone

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4140 Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice Using an Aqueous Extract

Authors: Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh, Ahed Zyoud

Abstract:

Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice using an Aqueous Extract Division of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences An- Najah National University Nablus- Palestine Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh and Ahed Zyoud Purpose: Throughout history, various natural materials were used as remedies for treatment of various diseases, and recently a vastly growing and renewed interest in herbal medicine is witnessed globally. In Palestinian folk medicine, Crataegus aronia is used as a diuretic and for treatment of hypertension. This study aimed to assess the preliminary phytochemical properties and the diuretic effect of the aqueous extracts of this plant in mice after its intraperitonial administration. Methods: It is an experimental trial applied on mice (n=8, Male, CD-1, weight range: [25-30 gram]), which are divided into two groups (4 in each). The first group administered with the plant extract (500 mg/kg) , and the second with normal saline as negative control group. Then urine output and electrolyte contents were quantified up to 6 hours for the three groups and then compared to the control one. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids and flavoniods as major phytoconstituents in aqueous extract. Significant diuresis was noted in those received the aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Moreover, aqueous extract had an acidic pH and a mild increase in the electrolyte excretion (Na, K). Conclusions: Our results revealed that Crataegus aronia aqueous extract has a potential diuretic effect. Further studies are needed to evaluate this diuretic effect in the relief of diseases characterized by volume overload. Keywords: C. aronia, furosemide, diuresis, mice, medicinal plants.

Keywords: medicinal plants, diuretic activity, mice, C. aronia, , furosemide, , Phytochemical Investigation

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4139 Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Screening of Stem Bark Extracts of Lovoa trichiliodes (Harm) and Trichilia heudelotii Planc (Harm)

Authors: Benjamin O. Opawale, Anthony K. Onifade, Ayodele O. Ogundare

Abstract:

The phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of stem bark extracts (cold water, ethanol and acetone) of Lovoa trichiliodes and Trichilia heudelotii were investigated using standard methods. The percentage yield of the extracts ranged from 3.90 to 6.53% and 9.63 to 10.20% respectively for the plant materials. Phytochemical screening of the plant materials revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatanins, phenols, anthraquinones and glycosides. Terpenes, cardenolides and flavonoids were absent in the two plants. All the extracts remarkably inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhii, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The mean diameter of the zone of inhibition exhibited by the extracts was between 8.00 and 22.33mm while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was between 2.5 and 200mg/ml. However, the cold water extracts of L. trichiliodes stem bark exhibited no inhibitory activity against the organisms. The results of this investigation confirmed the folkloric uses of these plants for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

Keywords: antimicrobial, infectious diseases, phytochemical, T. heudelotii

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4138 Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Prunus persica L. Leaves

Authors: K. Fellah, H. Benmehdi, A. Amrouche, H. Malainine, F. Memmou, H. Dalile, W. Siata

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the antioxidant of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Prunus persica L. A phytochemical screening allowed us to highlight the different phytochemicals present in the leaves of the studied plant. The selective extraction of flavonoids gave yields of 0.71, 1.5, and 4.8% for the fractions ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n- butanol, respectively. The reading of the antioxidant activity of different extracts of flavonoids by HPLTC method revealed positive reaction (yellow spots) on the TLC plates sprayed with DPPH. Using the DPPH method, the fractions of flavonoids (bunanol, ethyl acetate and Diethyl ether) showed a potent scavenging activity with IC50 = 0.22; 0.27 and 0.76 mg / ml, respectively. Furthermore, our findings revealed the extracts under study exhibited higher reducing potential which depends upon extract concentration. These results obtained from this investigation confirm that the Prunus persica remains a major resource of bioactive molecules.

Keywords: Prunus persica L., phytochemical study, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, TLC bioautographic, FRAP, DPPH

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4137 Phytochemical Investigation of Berries of the Embelia schimperi Plant

Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke

Abstract:

Embelia is a genus of climbing shrubs in the family Myrsinaceae. Embelia schimperi is as important in traditional medicine as the other species in the genus. The plant has been much known as a local medicine for the treatment of tapeworms. In this project, extraction, phytochemical screening tests, isolation, and characterization of berries of the Embelia schimperi plant have been conducted. The chemical investigations of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:1) ratio extracts of the berries lead to the isolation of three new compounds. The compounds were identified to be alkaloids coded as AD, AN, and AG. Structural elucidations of the isolated compounds were accomplished using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR, HPLC, and LC-MS). The alkaloid coded as (AN) has a wide MIC range of 6.31-25.46 mg/mL against all tested bacteria strains.

Keywords: Embelia schimper, HPLC, alkaloids, 2D NMR, MIC

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4136 GC-MS Identification of Two Major Essential Oils and their Anti-Oxidative Effect Using DPPH Assay

Authors: Mohammed Falalu Hamza

Abstract:

A phytochemical investigation conducted on the leaves extract of Cryptocarya latifolia (Lauraceae) revealed the presence of two major essential oils; Nerolidol (1) and Copaene (2) with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compounds exhibited good anti-oxidant capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The result shows that the anti-oxidant capacity of the compounds is dependent on concentration similar to the standard (ascorbic acid). This study shows that the leaves extract of C. latifolia is a good source of important natural antioxidants.

Keywords: broad-leaved quince, phytochemical, anti-oxidant, essential oils

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4135 Cedrela Toona Roxb.: An Exploratory Study Describing Its Antidiabetic Property

Authors: Kinjal H. Shah, Piyush M. Patel

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is considered to be a serious endocrine syndrome. Synthetic hypoglycemic agents can produce serious side effects including hematological effects, coma, and disturbances of the liver and kidney. In addition, they are not suitable for use during pregnancy. In recent years, there have been relatively few reports of short-term side effects or toxicity due to sulphonylureas. Published figures and frequency of side effects in large series of patient range from about 1 to 5%, with symptoms severe enough to lead to the withdrawal of the drug in less than 1 to 2%. Adverse effects, in general, have been of the following type: allergic skin reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances, blood dyscrasias, hepatic dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. The associated disadvantages with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents have led to stimulation in the research for locating natural resources showing antidiabetic activity and to explore the possibilities of using traditional medicines with proper chemical and pharmacological profiles. Literature survey reveals that the inhabitants of Abbottabad district of Pakistan use the dried leaf powder along with table salt and water orally for treating diabetes, skin allergy, wounds and as a blood purifier, where they pronounced the plant locally as ‘Nem.' The detailed phytochemical investigation of the Cedrela toona Roxb. leaves for antidiabetic activity has not been documented. Hence, there is a need for phytochemical investigation of the leaves for antidiabetic activity. The collection of fresh leaves and authentification followed by successive extraction, phytochemical screening, and testing of antidiabetic activity. The blood glucose level was reduced maximum in ethanol extract at 5th and 7th h after treatment. Blood glucose was depressed by 8.2% and 10.06% in alloxan – induced diabetic rats after treatment which was comparable to the standard drug, Glibenclamide. This may be due to the activation of the existing pancreatic cells in diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract.

Keywords: antidiabetic, Cedrela toona Roxb., phytochemical screening, blood glucose

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4134 Molecular and Phytochemical Fingerprinting of Anti-Cancer Drug Yielding Plants in South India

Authors: Alexis John de Britto

Abstract:

Studies were performed to select the superior genotypes based on intra-specific variations, caused by phytogeographical, climatic and edaphic parameters of three anti cancer drug yielding mangrove plants such as Acanthus ilicifolius L., Calophyllum inophyllum L. and Excoecaria agallocha L. using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) markers and phytochemical analysis such as preliminary phytochemical tests, TLC, HPTLC, HPLC and antioxidant tests. The plants were collected from five different geographical locations of the East Coast of south India. Genetic heterozygosity, Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and Percentage of polymorphism between the populations were calculated using POPGENE software. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA algorithm. AMOVA and correlations between genetic diversity and soil factors were analyzed. Combining the molecular and phytochemical variations superior genotypes were selected. Conservation constraints and methods of efficient exploitation of the species are discussed.

Keywords: anti-cancer drug yielding plants, DNA fingerprinting, phytochemical analysis, selection of superior genotypes

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4133 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Comparison of Different Extracts of Capparidaceae Family

Authors: Noshaba Dilbar, Maria Jabbar

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are considered to be the richest source of drug discovery. The main cause of medicinal properties of plants is the presence of bioactive compounds in them. Phytochemical screening is the valuable process that detects bioactive compounds(secondary metabolites) in plants. The present study was carried out to determine phytochemical profile and ethnobotanical importance of Capparidaceae species. ( Capparis spinosa and Dipterygium glaucum). The selection of plants was made on basis of traditional knowledge of their usage in ayurvedic medicines. Different type of solvents(ethanol, methanol, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether) were used to make extracts of dry and fresh plants. Phytochemical screening was made by using various standard techniques. Results reveal the presence of large range of bioactive compounds i.e alakloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, phenols and steroids. Methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed high extractability of bioactive compounds. The results obtained ensure these plants a reliable source of pharmacological industry and can be used in making of various biological friendly drugs.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, Capparidaceae, phytochemical screening, secondary metabolites

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4132 Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Indigenous Vegetables in Northern Mindanao, Philippines

Authors: Renee P. Baang, Romeo M. del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

Abstract:

The crude methanol extracts of five indigenous vegetables namely, Amarathus tricolor, Basella rubra L, Chochurus olitorius L., Ipomea batatas, and Momordica chuchinensis L., were examined for their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 7.6-89.53% with B. rubra and I. batatas having the lowest and highest values, respectively. The total flavonoid content of all five indigenous vegetables ranged from 74.65-277.3 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried vegetable material while the total phenolic content ranged from 1.93-6.15 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dried material. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and reducing sugars, which may also be associated with the antioxidant activity shown by these indigenous vegetables.

Keywords: antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Philippine İndigenous vegetables, phytochemical screening

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4131 Associated Mycoflora AF Mucuna Sloanei Seeds and Their Effects on Nutritional and Phytochemical Contents of the Seeds

Authors: U.N. Emiri, E. Moroyei

Abstract:

Mycoflora associated with the seed rot disease of Mucuna sloanei and their effects on nutrient and phytochemical composition of the seeds were investigated. The fungal pathogens implicated in the seed rot disease were Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum. The fungal isolates were aseptically inoculated into healthy M. Sloanei seeds and incubated for 7 days at room temperature of 25 ± 30c. The results of the proximate and mineral analysis in mg/100g of fungal infected and non-infected (control) seeds that were carried out revealed that there was an increase in Moisture and Carbohydrate content of the fungal infected seeds relative to the non-infected seeds (control). However, there was a decrease in Ash, Fibre, Lipid, and Protein content of the fungal infected seeds relative to the non-infected (control). It was observed that moisture had increased from 10.50 ± 0.16 in the non-infected seeds to 17.60 ± 0.20 in the infected samples and Carbohydrate content had also increased from 49.6 ± 0.25 in the non-infected to 52.50 ± 0.29 in the infected seeds. The following parameters decreased in the infected than in the non-infected seeds. They include Ash 2.60 ± 0.12, Crude fibre 1.9 ± 0.08, Lipid 6.50 ± 0.16, and Protein content 18.50 ± 0.06. Similarly, Calcium 2.50 ± 0.12, Phosphorus 1.80 + 0.12 and Potassium 1.80 + 0.09 increased in the infected than in the non-infected seed, while iron 0.20 ± 0.05, Sodium 0.02 ± 0.01 and Magnesium 0.06 ± 0.02 decreased in the infected seeds. All phytochemical contents analyzed increased in the infected seeds viz Tannim 0.50 ± 0.12, Oxalate 1.60 ± 0.05, Hydrogen cyanide 1.82 ± 0.06, and Saponin 2.50+0.28. However, the nutrient compositions and Phytochemical between the infected and non-infected seeds are not significantly different (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Mycoflora, mucuna sloanei, seeds, phytochemical, nutrient composition

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4130 Phytochemical and Proximate Composition Analysis of Aspillia kotschyi

Authors: A. U. Adamu, E. D Paul, C. E. Gimba, I. G. Ndukwe

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The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum sprit extract of the plant. The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glyscosides, flavonoids, triterpene, and alkaloids. The Petroleum sprit extract showed the presence of only carbohydrates and alkaloid. Proximate composition analysis shows moisture content of 5.7%, total ash of 4.03%, crude protein 10.94%, fibre 9.06%, fat value 0.83%, and nitrogen free extract of 70.19%. The results of this study suggest some merit in the popular use of Aspillia kotschi in herbal medicine.

Keywords: Aspillia kotschyi, herbal medicine, phytochemical, proximate composition

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4129 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Potential, and Mineral Composition of Dried Abelmoschus esculentus L. Fruits Consume in Gada Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

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Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is very common especially in northern part of Nigeria, but people are ignorant of its medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant potential and mineral composition of the dried form of this fruit were determined. The Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. Antioxidant potential screening was carried out using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) method, while, the mineral compositions were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer by wet digest method. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits contain saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids, while, anthraquinone, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, and phlobatannins were not detected. The quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits contain saponnins (380 ± 0.020 mg/g), flavonoids (240±0.01 mg/g), and tannins (21.71 ± 0.66 mg/ml). The antioxidant potential was determined to be 54.1 ± 0.19%. The mineral composition revealed that 100 g of the fruits contains 97.52 ± 1.04 mg of magnesium (Mg), 94.53 ± 3.21 mg of calcium (Ca), 77.10 ± 0.79 mg of iron (Fe), 47.14 ± 0.41 mg of zinc (Zn), 43.96 ± 1.49 mg of potassium (K), 42.02 ± 1.09 mg of sodium (Na), 0.47 ± 0.08 mg of copper (Cu) and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg of lead (Pb). These results showed that the Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is a good source of antioxidants, and contains an appreciable amount of phytochemicals, therefore, it has some pharmacological attributes. On the other side, the fruit can serve as a nutritional supplement for Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, K, and Na, but a poor source of Cu, and contains no significant amount of Pb.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Fruits, antioxidant potential, mineral composition, phytochemical screening

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4128 Phytochemical Screening, Anticancer, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extracts of Mabolo (Diospyros philippinensis A. DC.)

Authors: Jarel Elgin Tolentino, Arby Denise Nera, Mary Rose Roco, Angela Vianca Aspa, Nikko Beltran, Else Dapat

Abstract:

Drug resistance by cells has been the problem in the medical field for decades now. The use of medicinal plants as a source of creating powerful drugs has been nowadays recognized worldwide to treat such resistant diseases. In the present study, the potential for Diospyros philippinensis A. DC. to inhibit growth of both bacteria and cancer cell line was conducted. The leaf crude extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and examined for potential bioactivities by employing several assays like Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) assay and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium assay for the antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extract, respectively. Phytochemical test results of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, quinones, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, carbohydrate, cardenolides and proteins. The leaf extracts were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, high antioxidant activity (99.22% ± 0.005) but did not show any sign of cytotoxicity towards HCT116 (ATCC CCL-247). The study therefore concludes that D. philippinensis A. DC. leaf extract can be a source of antibacterial and chemopreventive agents. This claim may be used as basis for future investigation.

Keywords: bioassay, medicinal plants, plant crude extracts, phytochemical screening

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4127 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Alimentary and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Akrpoum Souad, Lalaoui Korrichi

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Vicia faba L.,Vaccinium macrocarpon, Punica granatum, Lavandula officinalis, Artemisia absinthium, Linum capitatum and Camellia sinensis were frequently used in our alimentation. In this study, we have tested the antimicrobial activity of their ethanolic and methanolic extracts on some pathogen bacteria, then their ability to in vivo inhibit the growth of Strepcoccus pneumonia. The phytochemical screening has given the composition of the most active extracts. According to the obtained results, the ethanolic extract of Lavendula. officinalis and A absinthium has shown an inhibition of all the tested strains of becteria3. The ethanolic extract of L. officinalis has given the highest activity against S. pneumoniae, followed by the methanolic extract of C. sinensis 1, 2 and P. granatum. The phytochemical screening showed that the most active extracts contained mainly naturels compounds.

Keywords: plants, extracts, antimicrobial activity, streptococcus pneumoniae, phytochemical screening

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4126 Qualitative Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Evaluation of Sohphlang: Flemingia Vestita

Authors: J. K. D. M. P. Madara, R. B. L. Dharmawickreme, Linu John, Ivee Boiss

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Flemingia vestita, commonly known as ‘Sohphlang’ is an important medicinal plant found in the North-Eastern region of India, which is traditionally recognized for its anthelmintic properties. This study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of the tuber skin extracts of the plant species. Methanol, acetone, and water were used to obtain the solvent extractions of the skin peel extracts. Concentrated extracts of skin peel were tested using previously established qualitative phytochemical assays. The antibacterial efficacy of methanol tuber skin extract was tested against Gram-negative and positive microorganisms, namely, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the zone of inhibition of the plant extracts. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. Methanol extracts of Flemingia vestita were found to be effective against Bacillus subtilis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis at concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml. The reported zone of inhibition for the two strains was 13.3mm ± 0.57 and 16.3mm ± 4.9, respectively. However Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were resistant to the plant extracts with no zone of inhibition. Alkaloids, glycosides, and phenols were found to be present in aqueous, methanol, and acetone extracts of the plant in qualitative phytochemical analysis.

Keywords: flemingia vestita, antibacterial activity, phytochemical screening, well diffusion method

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4125 Evaluation of Phytochemical and Fatty Acids Content and Composition in Iranian Borage (Echium amoenum) in Different Habitate of Iran

Authors: Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani, Mohamadjavad Shakouri

Abstract:

Iranian Gole GavZaban (Echium amoenum fich & mey), is one of the most important medicinal plant in north of iran . is dry petals used for tonic, tranquillizer, diaphoretic, cough suppressant and a remedy for sore throat in treditional Iranian medicine. This study is the report about the analysis of phytochemical and seeds oil of Echium amoenum's in different habitates and accessions of Iran. The results showed that the oil content of seeds was 36% and eleven fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC). The major fatty acids wereα-Linolenicacid (39.99), Linoleic acid (20.86), linolenic acid (20%) and Oleic acid (15.36) respectively. The amount of phenols, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins with increasing height, increased amount of these compounds. So that the highest rates of these compounds were observed at an altitude of 2125 meters in ciposht accession.

Keywords: accession, phytochemical, oil components, Iranian borage

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4124 Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) Plant

Authors: Radhika S. Oke, Rebecca S. Thombre

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Medicinal plants and herbs have a great history of their utility as remedy for treatment of variety of ailments. Secondary metabolites present in these plants are responsible for their medicinal activity. In the present investigation, phytochemical screening of aqueous and alcoholic leaf extract of Anethum graveolens L. was performed. Total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of the extracts was quantitatively estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method and DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method respectively. Qualitative tests suggested that Alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds were present in all the extracts of the plant. Aqueous extracts was found to have more phytochemicals as compared to alcoholic extracts. Extract of Anethum graveolens L. was found to contain good amount phenolics and exhibited antioxidant activity. The extracts also demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against selected gram positive and negative bacteria. The study revealed the potential application of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) in medicine and health.

Keywords: Anethum graveolens L., antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, medicine and health

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4123 Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Screening of Extract of Sunflower Chrysanthlum indicum

Authors: I. Ibrahim, A. Mann

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Phytochemical screening of crude Chrysanthlum Indicum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkanoids, steroidal nucleus and cardiac glycosides. The extract was evaluated against some pathogenic organisms by agar dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the active extract of Chrysanthlum Indicum shows that its extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: extract, phytochemicals, antimicrobial, antibacterial, Chrysanthlum indicum

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4122 Effect of Ultrasound and Enzyme on the Extraction of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali)

Authors: He Yuhai, Ahmad Ziad Bin Sulaiman

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Tongkat Ali, or Eurycoma longifolia, is a traditional Malay and Orang Asli herb used as aphrodisiac, general tonic, anti-Malaria, and anti-Pyretic. It has been recognized as a cashcrop by Malaysia due to its high value for the pharmaceutical use. In Tongkat Ali, eurycomanone, a quassinoid is usually chosen as a marker phytochemical as it is the most abundant phytochemical. In this research, ultrasound and enzyme were used to enhance the extraction of Eurycomanone from Tongkat Ali. Ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE) enhances extraction by facilitating the swelling and hydration of the plant material, enlarging the plant pores, breaking the plant cell, reducing the plant particle size and creating cavitation bubbles that enhance mass transfer in both the washing and diffusion phase of extraction. Enzyme hydrolyses the cell wall of the plant, loosening the structure of the cell wall, releasing more phytochemicals from the plant cell, enhancing the productivity of the extraction. Possible effects of ultrasound on the activity of the enzyme during the hydrolysis of the cell wall is under the investigation by this research. The extracts was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography for the yields of Eurycomanone. In this whole process, the conventional water extraction was used as a control of comparing the performance of the ultrasound and enzyme assisted extraction.

Keywords: ultrasound, enzymatic, extraction, Eurycoma longifolia

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4121 Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity Test of Water Fraction Extract of Sisik Naga (Drymoglossum piloselloides) Leaves

Authors: Afifah Nur Aini, Elsa Mega Suryani, Betty Lukiaty

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Drymoglossum piloselloides or more commonly known as sisik naga fern is a member of Polipodiaceae Family that is abundant and widely distributed in nature. That being said, there hasn’t been many studies reporting about the benefits of this fern. The aim of this study was to find out the active compounds and antioxidant activity of water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves. The study will be able to optimize the use of this fern in the future. In this study, phytochemical test was done qualitatively by using Mayer, Dragendorff and Wagner reagent for alkaloid test; FeCl3 for phenolic test; Shinoda test for flavonoid; Liebermann-Burchard test for triterprnoid and Forth test for saponin. Antioxidant activity test was done by using 20D spectronic spectrophotometer to determine the percentage of DPPH free radical inhibition. The results showed that water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves contain phenolic and IC50 = 5.44 μg/ml. This means that sisik naga leaves can be used as an antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity test, dpph, phytochemical test, drymoglossum piloselloides

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4120 Assessement of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Lavandula antineae Maire from Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Krimat, Tahar Dob, Mohamed Toumi, Aicha Kesouri, Hafidha Metidji, Chelghoum Chabane

Abstract:

Lavandula antineae Maire is an endemic medicinal plant of Algeria which is traditionally used for the treatment of chills, bruises, oedema and rheumatism. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemical screening, total phenolic and antioxidant activity of Lavandula antineae Maire for the first time. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of different kind of chemical groups (anthraquinones, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, O-heterosides, C-heterosides, phenolic acids). The amounts of total phenolics in the extracts (hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extract) were determined spectrometrically. From the analyses, ethyl acetate extract had the highest total phenolic content (262.35 mg GA/g extract) and antioxidant activity (IC50=7.10 µg/ml) using DPPH method. The ethyl acetate extract was also more potent on reducing power compared to hydromethanolic extract. The results suggested that L. antineae could be considered as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for pharmaceuticals and food preservation.

Keywords: Lavandula antineae, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolics

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4119 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

Abstract:

Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50, oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals and stem bark

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4118 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Albino Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

Abstract:

Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50,oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals, stem bark extract

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4117 Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Derris scandens

Authors: Devarakonda Ramadevi, Dasari Rambabu, K. Suresh Babu, Battu Ganga Rao, Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi

Abstract:

The phytochemical and biological evaluation of the whole plant of Derris scandens is belonging to the family fabaceae. The dried plant of D.scandens was procured from the tirumala. The completely dried powder of the whole plant was taken and ground to a coarse powder which was then subjected to Soxhlet extraction with hexane and chloroform successively for 36 hrs. Chloroform extract was filtered and concentrated by using rotary evaporator an about 100g extract was obtained. The chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatographed over silicagel. From the column chromatography seven compounds were isolated named as osajin, scandinone, scandenone, 4,5,7-tri hydroxy biprenyl isoflavone, derris isoflavone-A, scandenin and isoscandinone. D.scandens resulting in the isolation of seven compounds in the plant was confirmed by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and FTIR). The isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, α-glucosidase (inhibitory activity) and anti-bacterial activity. The isolated seven compounds were tested for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. All the seven compounds showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Derris scandens, phytochemical, antioxident, antidiabetic, antibacterial activity

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4116 Phytochemical Constituents and Bioactive Properties of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. against Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: Juliana Janet R. Martin-Puzon, Demetrio L. Valle, Windell L. Rivera

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the presence of bioactive phytochemical constituents and evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of Glinus oppositifolius or carpet weed, a plant valued for its use in traditional medicine and as a vegetable. The leaves, stems, and roots were extracted using chloroform, ethanol, and methanol. Phytochemical screening revealed that the entire G. oppositifolius plant, i.e. roots, stems, and leaves, is a rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, sterols, tannins, and triterpenes. The antibacterial activity of the leaf and stem extracts were evaluated through disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and bactericidal concentration assays against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESβL+), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and metallo-β-lactamase-producing (MβL+) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The leaf extracts revealed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of non-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumanii. In conclusion, the various biological activities of G. oppositifolius, including its antibacterial activity, are due to the presence of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. The presence of phytochemical compounds in G. oppositifolius is scientific evidence on its use for treatment of many ailments. Thus, the results demonstrate the great potential of the plant as a new, alternative source of antimicrobials and other components with therapeutic value.

Keywords: antibacterial, Glinus oppositifolius, multidrug-resistant, secondary metabolites

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4115 Phytochemical Investigation, Leaf Structure and Antimicrobial Screening of Pistacia lentiscus against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

Authors: S. Mamoucha, N.Tsafantakis, T. Ioannidis, S. Chatzipanagiotou, C. Nikolaou, L. Skaltsounis, N. Fokialakis, N. Christodoulakis

Abstract:

Introduction: Pistacia lentiscus L. (well known as Mastic tree) is an evergreen sclerophyllous shrub that extensively thrives in the eastern Mediterranean area yet only the trees cultivated in the southern region of the Greek island Chios produces mastic resin. Different parts of P. lentiscus L. var. chia have been used in folk medicine for various purposes, such as tonic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antihypertensive and management of dental, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary, and respiratory tract disorders. Several studies have focused on the antibacterial activity of its resin (gum) and its essential oil. However, there is no study combining anatomy of the plant organs, phytochemical profile, and antibacterial screening of the plant. In our attempt to discover novel bioactive metabolites from the mastic tree, we screened its antibacterial activity not only against ATCC strains but also against clinical, resistant strains. Materials-methods: Leaves were investigated using Transmission (ΤΕΜ) and Scanning Εlectron Microscopy (SEM). Histochemical tests were performed on fresh and fixed tissue. Extracts prepared from dried, powdered leaves using 3 different solvents (DCM, MeOH and H2O) the waste water obtained after a hydrodistillation process for essential oil production were screened for their phytochemical content and antibacterial activity. Μetabolite profiling of polar and non-polar extracts was recorded by GC-MS and LC-HRMS techniques and analyzed using in-house and commercial libraries. The antibacterial screening was performed against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 and against clinical, resistant strains Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Carbapenem-Resistant Metallo-β-Lactamase (carbapenemase) P. aeruginosa (VIM), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and Acinetobacter baumanii resistant strains. The antibacterial activity was tested by the Kirby Bauer and the Agar Well Diffusion method. The zone of inhibition (ZI) of each extract was measured and compared with those of common antibiotics. Results: Leaf is compact with inosclereids and numerous idioblasts containing a globular, spiny crystal. The major nerves of the leaf contain a resin duct. Mesophyll cells showed accumulation of osmiophillic metabolites. Histochemical treatments defined secondary metabolites in subcellular localization. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of a large number of secondary metabolites, belonging to different chemical groups, such as terpenoids, phenolic compounds (mainly myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin glycosides), phenolic, and fatty acids. Among the extracts, the hydrostillation wastewater achieved the best results against most of the bacteria tested. MRSA, VIM and A. baumanii were inhibited. Conclusion: Extracts from plants have recently been of great interest with respect to their antimicrobial activity. Their use emerged from a growing tendency to replace synthetic antimicrobial agents with natural ones. Leaves of P. lentiscus L. var. chia showed a high antimicrobial activity even against drug - resistant bacteria. Future prospects concern the better understanding of mode of action of the antibacterial activity, the isolation of the most bioactive constituents and the clarification if the activity is related to a single compound or to the synergistic effect of several ones.

Keywords: antibacterial screening, leaf anatomy, phytochemical profile, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia

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4114 Phytochemical Screening of Roots of Peltophorum pterocarpum

Authors: Vidyadhar Suram, D. Chamundeeswari, Umamaheswara Rao, Krishna Mohan Chinnala

Abstract:

Peltophorum pterocarpum known as copper pod belongs to the family Fabaceae, native to tropical south-eastern asia and a popularly ornamental tree grown around the world. In traditional medicine it is used as an astringent to cure or relieve intestinal disorders after pain at childbirth, sprains, bruises and swelling or as a lotion for eye troubles, muscular pains and sores. It is also used for gargles and tooth powders. Medcinally; it has proven to possess various pharmacological activities. The powdered root part of Peltophorum pterocarpum (250gr) were extracted exhaustively using different solvents and phytochemical investigations has shown the presence of various secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, proteins, glycosides, steriods, and volatile.

Keywords: antibacterialactivity, fabaceae, peltophorum pterocarpum, isocoumari, alkaloids

Procedia PDF Downloads 260