Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: LEDs

45 Enhancement of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds in Kale Subjected to UV-A LED Lights

Authors: Jin-Hui Lee, Myung-Min Oh

Abstract:

The application of temporary abiotic stresses before crop harvest is a potential strategy to enhance phytochemical content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various UV-A LED lights on the growth and content of bioactive compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Fourteen-day-old kale seedlings were cultivated in a plant factory with artificial lighting (air temperature of 20℃, relative humidity of 60%, photosynthesis photon flux density (PPFD) of 125 µmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹) for 3 weeks. Kale plants were irradiated by four types of UV-A LEDs (peak wavelength; 365, 375, 385, and 395 nm) with 30 W/m² for 7 days. As a result, image chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) value of kale leaves was lower as the UV-A LEDs peak wavelength was shorter. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of kale plants were significantly higher in the plants under UV-A than the control at 7 days of treatment. In particular, the growth was significantly increased with a longer peak wavelength of the UV-A LEDs. The results of leaf area and specific leaf weight showed a similar pattern with those of growth characteristics. Chlorophyll content was highest in kale leaves subjected to UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 3 days of treatment compared with the control. Total phenolic contents of UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 5 and 6 days of treatment were 44% and 47% higher than those of the control, respectively. Antioxidant capacity showed almost the same pattern as the results of total phenol content. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was approximately 11% and 8% higher in the UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm compared to the control at 5 and 6 days of treatment, respectively. Our results imply that the UV-A LEDs with relative longer peak wavelength were effective to improve growth as well as the content of bioactive compounds of kale plants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, growth, Kale, UV-A LEDs

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44 Analysis of a Power Factor Correction Converter for Light Emitting Diode Driver Application

Authors: Edwina G. Rodrigues, S. J. Bindhu, A. V. Rajesh

Abstract:

This paper proposes a switched capacitor based driver circuit for high power light emitting diodes with a front end rectifier. LEDs are low-voltage light sources, requiring a constant DC voltage or current to operate optimally. LEDs, therefore, require a device that can convert incoming AC power to the proper DC voltage, and regulate the current flowing through the LED during operation. Proposed topology has a front end converter. It is an AC-DC rectifier that works on bridgeless boost topology which shapes the input current waveform. The front end converter is followed by a DC-DC converter which provides a constant DC voltage across the LEDs. A 12V AC input is given to the input of frontend converter which rectifies and boost the voltage to 24v DC and gives it to the DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter converts the 24V DC and regulates this constant DC voltage across the LEDs.

Keywords: bridgeless rectifier, power factor correction(PFC), SC converter, total harmonic distortion (THD)

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43 Design of a Low Cost Programmable LED Lighting System

Authors: S. Abeysekera, M. Bazghaleh, M. P. L. Ooi, Y. C. Kuang, V. Kalavally

Abstract:

Smart LED-based lighting systems have significant advantages over traditional lighting systems due to their capability of producing tunable light spectrums on demand. The main challenge in the design of smart lighting systems is to produce sufficient luminous flux and uniformly accurate output spectrum for sufficiently broad area. This paper outlines the programmable LED lighting system design principles of design to achieve the two aims. In this paper, a seven-channel design using low-cost discrete LEDs is presented. Optimization algorithms are used to calculate the number of required LEDs, LEDs arrangements and optimum LED separation distance. The results show the illumination uniformity for each channel. The results also show that the maximum color error is below 0.0808 on the CIE1976 chromaticity scale. In conclusion, this paper considered the simulation and design of a seven-channel programmable lighting system using low-cost discrete LEDs to produce sufficient luminous flux and uniformly accurate output spectrum for sufficiently broad area.

Keywords: light spectrum control, LEDs, smart lighting, programmable LED lighting system

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42 Thermal Management of Ground Heat Exchangers Applied in High Power LED

Authors: Yuan-Ching Chiang, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Chen Chih-Hao, Sih-Li Chen

Abstract:

The p-n junction temperature of LEDs directly influences their operating life and luminous efficiency. An excessively high p-n junction temperature minimizes the output flux of LEDs, decreasing their brightness and influencing the photon wavelength; consequently, the operating life of LEDs decreases and their luminous output changes. The maximum limit of the p-n junction temperature of LEDs is approximately 120 °C. The purpose of this research was to devise an approach for dissipating heat generated in a confined space when LEDs operate at low temperatures to reduce light decay. The cooling mode of existing commercial LED lights can be divided into natural- and forced convection cooling. In natural convection cooling, the volume of LED encapsulants must be increased by adding more fins to increase the cooling area. However, this causes difficulties in achieving efficient LED lighting at high power. Compared with forced convection cooling, heat transfer through water convection is associated with a higher heat transfer coefficient per unit area; therefore, we dissipated heat by using a closed loop water cooling system. Nevertheless, cooling water exposed to air can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Thus, we incorporated a ground heat exchanger into the water cooling system to minimize the influence of air on cooling water and then observed the relationship between the amounts of heat dissipated through the ground and LED efficiency.

Keywords: helical ground heat exchanger, high power LED, ground source cooling system, heat dissipation

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41 A Feasibility Study of Replacing High Pressure Mercury Vapor and Sodium Vapor Lamp Street Lighting Bulbs with LEDs in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Authors: Olusola Olorunfemi Bamisile, Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu

Abstract:

Feasibility of an Energy Audit program is the main aim of this paper. LEDs are used to replace Sodium Vapor lamps and High Pressured Mercury Vapor lamps that are currently used for the street lighting system in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 44% of the fossil fuels imported into Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are used for electricity generation which makes the reduction in the consumption of electricity very important. This project will save as much as 40,206,210 kWh on site annually and 121,837,000 kWh can be saved from source. The economic environmental and fossil fuels saving of this project is also evaluated.

Keywords: energy conservation management, LEDs, sodium vapor, high pressure mercury vapor, life cycle costing

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40 Flexible and Color Tunable Inorganic Light Emitting Diode Array for High Resolution Optogenetic Devices

Authors: Keundong Lee, Dongha Yoo, Youngbin Tchoe, Gyu-Chul Yi

Abstract:

Light emitting diode (LED) array is an ideal optical stimulation tool for optogenetics, which controls inhibition and excitation of specific neurons with light-sensitive ion channels or pumps. Although a fiber-optic cable with an external light source, either a laser or LED mechanically connected to the end of the fiber-optic cable has widely been used for illumination on neural tissue, a new approach to use micro LEDs (µLEDs) has recently been demonstrated. The LEDs can be placed directly either on the cortical surface or within the deep brain using a penetrating depth probe. Accordingly, this method would not need a permanent opening in the skull if the LEDs are integrated with miniature electrical power source and wireless communication. In addition, multiple color generation from single µLED cell would enable to excite and/or inhibit neurons in localized regions. Here, we demonstrate flexible and color tunable µLEDs for the optogenetic device applications. The flexible and color tunable LEDs was fabricated using multifaceted gallium nitride (GaN) nanorod arrays with GaN nanorods grown on InxGa1−xN/GaN single quantum well structures (SQW) anisotropically formed on the nanorod tips and sidewalls. For various electroluminescence (EL) colors, current injection paths were controlled through a continuous p-GaN layer depending on the applied bias voltage. The electric current was injected through different thickness and composition, thus changing the color of light from red to blue that the LED emits. We believe that the flexible and color tunable µLEDs enable us to control activities of the neuron by emitting various colors from the single µLED cell.

Keywords: light emitting diode, optogenetics, graphene, flexible optoelectronics

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39 A Study of Semantic Analysis of LED Illustrated Traffic Directional Arrow in Different Style

Authors: Chia-Chen Wu, Chih-Fu Wu, Pey-Weng Lien, Kai-Chieh Lin

Abstract:

In the past, the most comprehensively adopted light source was incandescent light bulbs, but with the appearance of LED light sources, traditional light sources have been gradually replaced by LEDs because of its numerous superior characteristics. However, many of the standards do not apply to LEDs as the two light sources are characterized differently. This also intensifies the significance of studies on LEDs. As a Kansei design study investigating the visual glare produced by traffic arrows implemented with LEDs, this study conducted a semantic analysis on the styles of traffic arrows used in domestic and international occasions. The results will be able to reduce drivers’ misrecognition that results in the unsuccessful arrival at the destination, or in traffic accidents. This study started with a literature review and surveyed the status quo before conducting experiments that were divided in two parts. The first part involved a screening experiment of arrow samples, where cluster analysis was conducted to choose five representative samples of LED displays. The second part was a semantic experiment on the display of arrows using LEDs, where the five representative samples and the selected ten adjectives were incorporated. Analyzing the results with Quantification Theory Type I, it was found that among the composition of arrows, fletching was the most significant factor that influenced the adjectives. In contrast, a “no fletching” design was more abstract and vague. It lacked the ability to convey the intended message and might bear psychological negative connotation including “dangerous,” “forbidden,” and “unreliable.” The arrow design consisting of “> shaped fletching” was found to be more concrete and definite, showing positive connotation including “safe,” “cautious,” and “reliable.” When a stimulus was placed at a farther distance, the glare could be significantly reduced; moreover, the visual evaluation scores would be higher. On the contrary, if the fletching and the shaft had a similar proportion, looking at the stimuli caused higher evaluation at a closer distance. The above results will be able to be applied to the design of traffic arrows by conveying information definitely and rapidly. In addition, drivers’ safety could be enhanced by understanding the cause of glare and improving visual recognizability.

Keywords: LED, arrow, Kansei research, preferred imagery

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38 Efficient Use of Power Light-Emitting Diode Chips in the Main Lighting System and in Generating Heat in Intelligent Buildings

Authors: Siamak Eskandari, Neda Ebadi

Abstract:

Among common electronic parts which have been invented and have made a great revolution in the lighting system through the world, certainly LEDs have no rival. These small parts with their very low power consumption, very dazzling and powerful light and small size and with their extremely high lifetime- compared to incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent lamp (CFLs) have undoubtedly revolutionized the lighting industry of the world. Based on conducted studies and experiments, in addition to their acceptable light and low power consumption -compared to incandescent bulbs and CFLs-, they have very low and in some cases zero environmental pollution and negative effects on human beings. Because of their longevity, in the case of using high-quality circuits and proper and consistent use of LEDs in conventional and intelligent buildings, there will be no need to replace the burnout lamps, for a long time (10 years). In this study which was conducted on 10-watt power LEDs with suitable heatsink/cooling, considerable amount of heat was generated during lighting after 5 minutes and 45 seconds. The temperature rose to above 99 degrees Celsius and this amount of heat can raise the water temperature to 60 degrees Celsius and more. Based on conducted experiments, this can provide the heat required for bathing, washing, radiators (in cold seasons) easily and only by imposing very low cost and it will be a big step in the optimization of energy consumption in the future.

Keywords: energy, light, water, optimization of power LED

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37 Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Ibuprofen in Ultrapure Water, Municipal and Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewaters Using a TiO2/UV-LED System

Authors: Nabil Jallouli, Luisa M. Pastrana-Martínez, Ana R. Ribeiro, Nuno F. F. Moreira, Joaquim L. Faria, Olfa Hentati, Adrián M. T. Silva, Mohamed Ksibi

Abstract:

Degradation and mineralization of ibuprofen (IBU) were investigated using Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in TiO2 photocatalysis. Samples of ultrapure water (UP) and a secondary treated effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), both spiked with IBU, as well as a highly concentrated IBU (230 mgL-1) pharmaceutical industry wastewater (PIWW), were tested in the TiO2/UV-LED system. Three operating parameters, namely, pH, catalyst load and number of LEDs were optimized. The process efficiency was evaluated in terms of IBU removal using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Additionally, the mineralization was investigated by determining the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The chemical structures of transformation products were proposed based on the data obtained using liquid chromatography with a high resolution mass spectrometer ion trap/time-of-flight (LC-MS-IT-TOF). A possible pathway of IBU degradation was accordingly proposed. Bioassays were performed using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri to evaluate the potential acute toxicity of original and treated wastewaters. TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis was efficient to remove IBU from UP and from PIWW, and less efficient in treating the wastewater from the municipal WWTP. The acute toxicity decreased by ca. 40% after treatment, regardless of the studied matrix.

Keywords: acute toxicity, Ibuprofen, UV-LEDs, wastewaters

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36 Development of Perovskite Quantum Dots Light Emitting Diode by Dual-Source Evaporation

Authors: Antoine Dumont, Weiji Hong, Zheng-Hong Lu

Abstract:

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are steadily becoming the new standard for luminescent display devices because of their energy efficiency and relatively low cost, and the purity of the light they emit. Our research focuses on the optical properties of the lead halide perovskite CsPbBr₃ and its family that is showing steadily improving performances in LEDs and solar cells. The objective of this work is to investigate CsPbBr₃ as an emitting layer made by physical vapor deposition instead of the usual solution-processed perovskites, for use in LEDs. The deposition in vacuum eliminates any risk of contaminants as well as the necessity for the use of chemical ligands in the synthesis of quantum dots. Initial results show the versatility of the dual-source evaporation method, which allowed us to create different phases in bulk form by altering the mole ratio or deposition rate of CsBr and PbBr₂. The distinct phases Cs₄PbBr₆, CsPbBr₃ and CsPb₂Br₅ – confirmed through XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and X-ray diffraction analysis – have different optical properties and morphologies that can be used for specific applications in optoelectronics. We are particularly focused on the blue shift expected from quantum dots (QDs) and the stability of the perovskite in this form. We already obtained proof of the formation of QDs through our dual source evaporation method with electron microscope imaging and photoluminescence testing, which we understand is a first in the community. We also incorporated the QDs in an LED structure to test the electroluminescence and the effect on performance and have already observed a significant wavelength shift. The goal is to reach 480nm after shifting from the original 528nm bulk emission. The hole transport layer (HTL) material onto which the CsPbBr₃ is evaporated is a critical part of this study as the surface energy interaction dictates the behaviour of the QD growth. A thorough study to determine the optimal HTL is in progress. A strong blue shift for a typically green emitting material like CsPbBr₃ would eliminate the necessity of using blue emitting Cl-based perovskite compounds and could prove to be more stable in a QD structure. The final aim is to make a perovskite QD LED with strong blue luminescence, fabricated through a dual-source evaporation technique that could be scalable to industry level, making this device a viable and cost-effective alternative to current commercial LEDs.

Keywords: material physics, perovskite, light emitting diode, quantum dots, high vacuum deposition, thin film processing

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35 Radish Sprout Growth Dependency on LED Color in Plant Factory Experiment

Authors: Tatsuya Kasuga, Hidehisa Shimada, Kimio Oguchi

Abstract:

Recent rapid progress in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) has advanced the penetration of sensor networks (SNs) and their attractive applications. Agriculture is one of the fields well able to benefit from ICT. Plant factories control several parameters related to plant growth in closed areas such as air temperature, humidity, water, culture medium concentration, and artificial lighting by using computers and AI (Artificial Intelligence) is being researched in order to obtain stable and safe production of vegetables and medicinal plants all year anywhere, and attain self-sufficiency in food. By providing isolation from the natural environment, a plant factory can achieve higher productivity and safe products. However, the biggest issue with plant factories is the return on investment. Profits are tenuous because of the large initial investments and running costs, i.e. electric power, incurred. At present, LED (Light Emitting Diode) lights are being adopted because they are more energy-efficient and encourage photosynthesis better than the fluorescent lamps used in the past. However, further cost reduction is essential. This paper introduces experiments that reveal which color of LED lighting best enhances the growth of cultured radish sprouts. Radish sprouts were cultivated in the experimental environment formed by a hydroponics kit with three cultivation shelves (28 samples per shelf) each with an artificial lighting rack. Seven LED arrays of different color (white, blue, yellow green, green, yellow, orange, and red) were compared with a fluorescent lamp as the control. Lighting duration was set to 12 hours a day. Normal water with no fertilizer was circulated. Seven days after germination, the length, weight and area of leaf of each sample were measured. Electrical power consumption for all lighting arrangements was also measured. Results and discussions: As to average sample length, no clear difference was observed in terms of color. As regards weight, orange LED was less effective and the difference was significant (p < 0.05). As to leaf area, blue, yellow and orange LEDs were significantly less effective. However, all LEDs offered higher productivity per W consumed than the fluorescent lamp. Of the LEDs, the blue LED array attained the best results in terms of length, weight and area of leaf per W consumed. Conclusion and future works: An experiment on radish sprout cultivation under 7 different color LED arrays showed no clear difference in terms of sample size. However, if electrical power consumption is considered, LEDs offered about twice the growth rate of the fluorescent lamp. Among them, blue LEDs showed the best performance. Further cost reduction e.g. low power lighting remains a big issue for actual system deployment. An automatic plant monitoring system with sensors is another study target.

Keywords: electric power consumption, LED color, LED lighting, plant factory

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34 White Light Emission through Downconversion of Terbium and Europium Doped CEF3 Nanophosphors

Authors: Mohit Kalra, Varun S., Mayuri Gandhi

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CeF3 nanophosphors has been extensively investigated in the recent years for lighting and numerous bio-applications. Down conversion emissions in CeF3:Eu3+/Tb3+ phosphors were studied with the aim of obtaining a white light emitting composition, by a simple co-precipitation method. The material was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Photoluminescence (PL). Uniformly distributed nanoparticles were obtained with an average particle size 8-10 nm. Different doping concentrations were performed and fluorescence study was carried out to optimize the dopants concentration for maximum luminescence intensity. The steady state and time resolved luminescence studies confirmed efficient energy transfer from the host to activator ions. Different concentrations of Tb 3+, Eu 3+ were doped to achieve a white light emitting phosphor for UV-based Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of respective dopants (Eu 3+, Tb3+) when excited at the 4f→5d transition of Ce3+. The chromaticity coordinates for these samples were calculated and the CeF3 doped with Eu 3+ and Tb3+ gave an emission very close to white light. These materials may find its applications in optoelectronics and various bio applications.

Keywords: white light down-conversion, nanophosphors, LEDs, rare earth, cerium fluoride, lanthanides

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33 High-Frequency Modulation of Light-Emitting Diodes for New Ultraviolet Communications

Authors: Meng-Chyi Wu, Bonn Lin, Jyun-Hao Liao, Chein-Ju Chen, Yu-Cheng Jhuang, Mau-Phon Houng, Fang-Hsing Wang, Min-Chu Liu, Cheng-Fu Yang, Cheng-Shong Hong

Abstract:

Since the use of wireless communications has become critical nowadays, the available RF spectrum has become limited. Ultraviolet (UV) communication system can alleviate the spectrum constraint making UV communication system a potential alternative to future communication demands. Also, UV links can provide faster communication rate and can be used in combination with existing RF communication links, providing new communications diversity with higher user capacity. The UV region of electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to detector, imaging and communication technologies because the stratospheric ozone layer effectively absorbs some solar UV radiation from reaching the earth surface. The wavebands where most of UV radiation is absorbed by the ozone are commonly known as the solar blind region. By operating in UV-C band (200-280 nm) the communication system can minimize the transmission power consumption since it will have less radiation noise. UV communication uses the UV ray as the medium. Electric signal is carried on this band after being modulated and then be transmitted within the atmosphere as channel. Though the background noise of UV-C communication is very low owing to the solar-blind feature, it leads to a large propagation loss. The 370 nm UV provides a much lower propagation loss than that the UV-C does and the recent device technology for UV source on this band is more mature. The fabricated 370 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an aperture size of 45 m exhibit a modulation bandwidth of 165 MHz at 30 mA and a high power of 7 W/cm2 at 230 A/cm2. In order to solve the problem of low power in single UV LED, a UV LED array is presented in.

Keywords: ultraviolet (UV) communication, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), modulation bandwidth, LED array, 370 nm

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32 Spectroscopic Studies of Dy³⁺ Ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite Glasses for Optoelectronic Devices

Authors: K. Swapna

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A Series of Alkali-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy³⁺ ions have been prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and photoluminescence decay to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices such as lasers and white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Raman spectrum recorded for an undoped glass is used to measure the phonon energy of the host glass and various functional groups present in the host glass (AEBT). The intensities of the electronic transitions and the ligand environment around the Dy³⁺ ions were studied by applying Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory to the recorded absorption spectra of the glasses. The evaluated J-O parameters are subsequently used to measure various radiative parameters such as transition probability (AR), radiative branching ratio (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) for the prominent fluorescent levels of Dy³⁺ ions in the as-prepared glasses. The luminescence spectra recorded at 387 nm excitation show three emission transitions (⁴F9/2→⁶H15/2 (blue), ⁴F9/2→⁶H13/2 (yellow) and ⁴F9/2 → ⁶H11/2 (red)) of which the yellow transition observed at 575 nm is found to be highly intense. The experimental branching ratio (βexp) and stimulated emission crosssection (σse) were measured from luminescence spectra. The experimental lifetimes (τexp) measured from the decay spectral profiles are combined with radiative lifetimes to measure quantum efficiencies of the as-prepared glasses. The yellow to blue intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates are found to vary with Dy³⁺ ion concentrations. The aforementioned results reveal that these glasses are aptly suitable for w-LEDs and laser devices.

Keywords: glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence, I-H model

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31 Temperature Dependence of the Optoelectronic Properties of InAs(Sb)-Based LED Heterostructures

Authors: Antonina Semakova, Karim Mynbaev, Nikolai Bazhenov, Anton Chernyaev, Sergei Kizhaev, Nikolai Stoyanov

Abstract:

At present, heterostructures are used for fabrication of almost all types of optoelectronic devices. Our research focuses on the optoelectronic properties of InAs(Sb) solid solutions that are widely used in fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in middle wavelength infrared range (MWIR). This spectral range (2-6 μm) is relevant for laser diode spectroscopy of gases and molecules, for systems for the detection of explosive substances, medical applications, and for environmental monitoring. The fabrication of MWIR LEDs that operate efficiently at room temperature is mainly hindered by the predominance of non-radiative Auger recombination of charge carriers over the process of radiative recombination, which makes practical application of LEDs difficult. However, non-radiative recombination can be partly suppressed in quantum-well structures. In this regard, studies of such structures are quite topical. In this work, electroluminescence (EL) of LED heterostructures based on InAs(Sb) epitaxial films with the molar fraction of InSb ranging from 0 to 0.09 and multi quantum-well (MQW) structures was studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The growth of the heterostructures was performed by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on InAs substrates. On top of the active layer, a wide-bandgap InAsSb(Ga,P) barrier was formed. At low temperatures (4.2-100 K) stimulated emission was observed. As the temperature increased, the emission became spontaneous. The transition from stimulated emission to spontaneous one occurred at different temperatures for structures with different InSb contents in the active region. The temperature-dependent carrier lifetime, limited by radiative recombination and the most probable Auger processes (for the materials under consideration, CHHS and CHCC), were calculated within the framework of the Kane model. The effect of various recombination processes on the carrier lifetime was studied, and the dominant role of Auger processes was established. For MQW structures quantization energies for electrons, light and heavy holes were calculated. A characteristic feature of the experimental EL spectra of these structures was the presence of peaks with energy different from that of calculated optical transitions between the first quantization levels for electrons and heavy holes. The obtained results showed strong effect of the specific electronic structure of InAsSb on the energy and intensity of optical transitions in nanostructures based on this material. For the structure with MQWs in the active layer, a very weak temperature dependence of EL peak was observed at high temperatures (>150 K), which makes it attractive for fabricating temperature-resistant gas sensors operating in the middle-infrared range.

Keywords: Electroluminescence, InAsSb, light emitting diode, quantum wells

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30 A Comparative Analysis of Various Companding Techniques Used to Reduce PAPR in VLC Systems

Authors: Arushi Singh, Anjana Jain, Prakash Vyavahare

Abstract:

Recently, Li-Fi(light-fiedelity) has been launched based on VLC(visible light communication) technique, 100 times faster than WiFi. Now 5G mobile communication system is proposed to use VLC-OFDM as the transmission technique. The VLC system focused on visible rays, is considered for efficient spectrum use and easy intensity modulation through LEDs. The reason of high speed in VLC is LED, as they flicker incredibly fast(order of MHz). Another advantage of employing LED is-it acts as low pass filter results no out-of-band emission. The VLC system falls under the category of ‘green technology’ for utilizing LEDs. In present scenario, OFDM is used for high data-rates, interference immunity and high spectral efficiency. Inspite of the advantages OFDM suffers from large PAPR, ICI among carriers and frequency offset errors. Since, the data transmission technique used in VLC system is OFDM, the system suffers the drawbacks of OFDM as well as VLC, the non-linearity dues to non-linear characteristics of LED and PAPR of OFDM due to which the high power amplifier enters in non-linear region. The proposed paper focuses on reduction of PAPR in VLC-OFDM systems. Many techniques are applied to reduce PAPR such as-clipping-introduces distortion in the carrier; selective mapping technique-suffers wastage of bandwidth; partial transmit sequence-very complex due to exponentially increased number of sub-blocks. The paper discusses three companding techniques namely- µ-law, A-law and advance A-law companding technique. The analysis shows that the advance A-law companding techniques reduces the PAPR of the signal by adjusting the companding parameter within the range. VLC-OFDM systems are the future of the wireless communication but non-linearity in VLC-OFDM is a severe issue. The proposed paper discusses the techniques to reduce PAPR, one of the non-linearities of the system. The companding techniques mentioned in this paper provides better results without increasing the complexity of the system.

Keywords: non-linear companding techniques, peak to average power ratio (PAPR), visible light communication (VLC), VLC-OFDM

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29 Photocatalytic Disintegration of Naphthalene and Naphthalene Similar Compounds in Indoors Air

Authors: Tobias Schnabel

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Naphthalene and naphthalene similar compounds are a common problem in the indoor air of buildings from the 1960s and 1970s in Germany. Often tar containing roof felt was used under the concrete floor to prevent humidity to come through the floor. This tar containing roof felt has high concentrations of PAH (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) and naphthalene. Naphthalene easily evaporates and contaminates the indoor air. Especially after renovations and energetically modernization of the buildings, the naphthalene concentration rises because no forced air exchange can happen. Because of this problem, it is often necessary to change the floors after renovation of the buildings. The MFPA Weimar (Material research and testing facility) developed in cooperation a project with LEJ GmbH and Reichmann Gebäudetechnik GmbH. It is a technical solution for the disintegration of naphthalene in naphthalene, similar compounds in indoor air with photocatalytic reforming. Photocatalytic systems produce active oxygen species (hydroxyl radicals) through trading semiconductors on a wavelength of their bandgap. The light energy separates the charges in the semiconductor and produces free electrons in the line tape and defect electrons. The defect electrons can react with hydroxide ions to hydroxyl radicals. The produced hydroxyl radicals are a strong oxidation agent, and can oxidate organic matter to carbon dioxide and water. During the research, new titanium oxide catalysator surface coatings were developed. This coating technology allows the production of very porous titan oxide layer on temperature stable carrier materials. The porosity allows the naphthalene to get easily absorbed by the surface coating, what accelerates the reaction of the heterogeneous photocatalysis. The photocatalytic reaction is induced by high power and high efficient UV-A (ultra violet light) Leds with a wavelength of 365nm. Various tests in emission chambers and on the reformer itself show that a reduction of naphthalene in important concentrations between 2 and 250 µg/m³ is possible. The disintegration rate was at least 80%. To reduce the concentration of naphthalene from 30 µg/m³ to a level below 5 µg/m³ in a usual 50 ² classroom, an energy of 6 kWh is needed. The benefits of the photocatalytic indoor air treatment are that every organic compound in the air can be disintegrated and reduced. The use of new photocatalytic materials in combination with highly efficient UV leds make a safe and energy efficient reduction of organic compounds in indoor air possible. At the moment the air cleaning systems take the step from prototype stage into the usage in real buildings.

Keywords: naphthalene, titandioxide, indoor air, photocatalysis

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28 Synthesis of CeF3:Sm3+ Nanophosphor for Biological Applications

Authors: Mayuri Gandhi, Nayan Agrawal, Harshita Bhatia

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In the present work, cerium fluoride (CeF3) was selected as the host material because of its high density, fast response and high radiation resistance, efficient absorption and energy transfer by host (to activator). For the synthesis of CeF3 nanoparticles doped with Sm3+ ion, co-precipitation route was employed. Thus for optimum results, concentration dependent studies of the fluorescence of Sm3+ was carried out. The photoluminescence gave emissions in both visible as well as the NIR region and therefore it can have its application in solar cells, where it can absorb a large spectrum of energy. CeF3:Sm3+ nanoparticles were carefully incorporated in a suitable polymer matrix in order to demonstrate a variety of applications to improve the performance of the polymer materials and use it to develop high grade optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, security labelling, lasers, displays, biological imaging, etc.

Keywords: bioimaging, cerium fluoride, NIR emission, samarium

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27 Preparation and Characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) – Platinum Nanocomposite

Authors: Kumar Neeraj, Ranjan Haldar, Ashok Srivastava

Abstract:

Polyaniline used as light-emitting devices (LEDs), televisions, cellular telephones, automotive, Corrosion-resistant coatings, actuators and ability to have micro- and nano-devices. the electrical conductivity properties can be increased by introduction of metal nano particles. In the present study, platinum nano particles have been utilized to achieve the improved properties. Polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite are synthesized by chemical routes. The samples characterized by X-ray diffractometer show the amorphous nature of polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite. The Bragg’s diffraction peaks correspond to platinum nano particles and thermogravimetric analyzer predicts its decomposition at certain temperature. The current-potential characteristics of the samples are also studied which indicate a significant increasing the value of conductivity after introduction of pt nanoparticles in the matrix of polyaniline (PANI).

Keywords: polyaniline, XRD and platinum nanoparticles, characterization, pharmaceutical sciences

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26 The Development of Micro Patterns Using Benchtop Lithography for Marine Antifouling Applications

Authors: Felicia Wong Yen Myan, James Walker

Abstract:

Development of micro topographies usually begins with the fabrication of a master stamp. Fabrication of such small structures can be technically challenging and expensive. These techniques are often used for applications where patterns only cover a small surface area (e.g. semiconductors, microfluidic channels). This research investigated the use of benchtop lithography to fabricate patterns with average widths of 50 and 100 microns on silicon wafer substrates. Further development of this method will attempt to layer patterns to create hierarchical structures. Photomasks consisted of patterns printed onto transparency films with a high resolution printer and a fully patterned 10cm by 10cm area has been successfully developed. UV exposure was carried out with a self-made array of ultraviolet LEDs that was positioned a distance above a glass diffuser. Observations under a light microscope and SEM showed that developed patterns exhibit an adequate degree of fidelity with patterns from the master stamp.

Keywords: lithography, antifouling, marine, microtopography

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25 LEDs Based Indoor Positioning by Distances Derivation from Lambertian Illumination Model

Authors: Yan-Ren Chen, Jenn-Kaie Lain

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This paper proposes a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on visible light communications, implemented by light-emitting diode fixtures. In the proposed positioning algorithm, distances between light-emitting diode fixtures and mobile terminal are derived from the assumption of ideal Lambertian optic radiation model, and Trilateration positioning method is proceeded immediately to get the coordinates of mobile terminal. The proposed positioning algorithm directly obtains distance information from the optical signal modeling, and therefore, statistical distribution of received signal strength at different positions in interior space has no need to be pre-established. Numerically, simulation results have shown that the proposed indoor positioning algorithm can provide accurate location coordinates estimation.

Keywords: indoor positioning, received signal strength, trilateration, visible light communications

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24 N-Type GaN Thinning for Enhancing Light Extraction Efficiency in GaN-Based Thin-Film Flip-Chip Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

Authors: Anil Kawan, Soon Jae Yu, Jong Min Park

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GaN-based 365 nm wavelength ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LED) have various applications: curing, molding, purification, deodorization, and disinfection etc. However, their usage is limited by very low output power, because of the light absorption in the GaN layers. In this study, we demonstrate a method utilizing removal of 365 nm absorption layer buffer GaN and thinning the n-type GaN so as to improve the light extraction efficiency of the GaN-based 365 nm UV LED. The UV flip chip LEDs of chip size 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm were fabricated using GaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate. Via-hole n-type contacts and highly reflective Ag metal were used for efficient light extraction. LED wafer was aligned and bonded to AlN carrier wafer. To improve the extraction efficiency of the flip chip LED, sapphire substrate and absorption layer buffer GaN were removed by using laser lift-off and dry etching, respectively. To further increase the extraction efficiency of the LED, exposed n-type GaN thickness was reduced by using inductively coupled plasma etching.

Keywords: extraction efficiency, light emitting diodes, n-GaN thinning, ultraviolet

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23 Design of Regular Communication Area for Infrared Electronic-Toll-Collection Systems

Authors: Wern-Yarng Shieh, Chao Qian, Bingnan Pei

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A design of communication area for infrared electronic-toll-collection systems to provide an extended communication interval in the vehicle traveling direction and regular boundary between contiguous traffic lanes is proposed. By utilizing two typical low-cost commercial infrared LEDs with different half-intensity angles Φ1/2 = 22° and 10°, the radiation pattern of the emitter is designed to properly adjust the spatial distribution of the signal power. The aforementioned purpose can be achieved with an LED array in a three-piece structure with appropriate mounting angles. With this emitter, the influence of the mounting parameters, including the mounting height and mounting angles of the on-board unit and road-side unit, on the system performance in terms of the received signal strength and communication area are investigated. The results reveal that, for our emitter proposed in this paper, the ideal "long-and-narrow" characteristic of the communication area is very little affected by these mounting parameters. An optimum mounting configuration is also suggested.

Keywords: dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), electronic toll collection (ETC), infrared communication, intelligent transportation system (ITS), multilane free flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
22 Examination of Contaminations in Fabricated Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots Using Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy

Authors: Walid Tawfik, W. Askam Farooq, Sultan F. Alqhtani

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Quantum dots (QDots) are nanometer-sized crystals, less than 10 nm, comprise a semiconductor or metallic materials and contain from 100 - 100,000 atoms in each crystal. QDots play an important role in many applications; light emitting devices (LEDs), solar cells, drug delivery, and optical computers. In the current research, a fundamental wavelength of Nd:YAG laser was applied to analyse the impurities in homemade cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDots through laser-induced plasma (LIPS) technique. The CdSe QDots were fabricated by using hot-solution decomposition method where a mixture of Cd precursor and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is prepared at concentrations of TOPO under controlled temperatures 200-350ºC. By applying laser energy of 15 mJ, at frequency 10 Hz, and delay time 500 ns, LIPS spectra of CdSe QDots samples were observed. The qualitative LIPS analysis for CdSe QDs revealed that the sample contains Cd, Te, Se, H, P, Ar, O, Ni, C, Al and He impurities. These observed results gave precise details of the impurities present in the QDs sample. These impurities are important for future work at which controlling the impurity contents in the QDs samples may improve the physical, optical and electrical properties of the QDs used for solar cell application.

Keywords: cadmium selenide, TOPO, LIPS spectroscopy, quantum dots

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21 Synthesising Highly Luminescent CdTe Quantum Dots Using Cannula Hot Injection Method

Authors: Erdem Elibol, Musa Cadırcı, Nedim Tutkun

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Recently, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have drawn increasing attention due to their unique size tunability, which makes them potential candidates for numerous applications including photovoltaic, LEDs, and imaging. However, the main challenge to exploit CQDs properly is that there has not been an effective method to produce them with highly crystalline form and narrow size dispersion. Hot injection method is one of the widely used techniques to produce high-quality nanoparticles. In this method, the key parameter is to reduce the time for injection of the precursors into each other, which yields fast and constant nucleation rate and hence to highly monodisperse QDs. In conventional hot injection method, the injection of precursors is carried out using standard lab syringes with long needles. However, this technique is relatively slow and thus will result in poor optical properties in QDs. In this work, highly luminescent CdTe QDs were synthesised by transferring hot precursors into each other using cannula method. Unlike regular syringe technique, with the help of high pressure difference between two precursors’ flasks and wide cross-section of cannula, the hot cannulation process is too short which yields narrow size distribution and high quantum yield of CdTe QDs. Here QDs with full width half maximum (FWHM) of 28 nm was achieved. In addition, the photoluminescence quantum yield of our samples was measured to be about 21 ± 0.9 which is at least twice the previous record values for CdTe QDs wherein syringe was used to transfer precursors.

Keywords: CdTe, hot injection method, luminescent, quantum dots

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20 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Binder-free Trimetallic Phosphate Nanosheets

Authors: Iftikhar Hussain, Muhammad Ahmad, Xi Chen, Li Yuxiang

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Transition metal phosphides and phosphates are newly emerged electrode material candidates in energy storage devices. For the first time, we report uniformly distributed, interconnected, and well-aligned two-dimensional nanosheets made from trimetallic Zn-Co-Ga phosphate (ZCGP) electrode materials with preserved crystal phase. It is found that the ZCGP electrode material exhibits about 2.85 and 1.66 times higher specific capacity than mono- and bimetallic phosphate electrode materials at the same current density. The trimetallic ZCGP electrode exhibits superior conductivity, lower internal resistance (IR) drop, and high Coulombic efficiency compared to mono- and bimetallic phosphate. The charge storage mechanism is studied for mono- bi- and trimetallic electrode materials, which illustrate the diffusion-dominated battery-type behavior. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, ZCGP shows superior metallic conductivity due to the modified exchange splitting originating from 3d-orbitals of Co atoms in the presence of Zn and Ga. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor (ZCGP//rGO) device is engineered, which delivered a high energy density (ED) of 40 W h kg⁻¹ and a high-power density (PD) of 7,745 W kg⁻¹, lighting 5 different colors of light emitting diodes (LEDs). These outstanding results confirm the promising battery-type electrode materials for energy storage applications.

Keywords: trimetallic phosphate, nanosheets, DFT calculations, hybrid supercapacitor, binder-free, synergistic effect

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19 Teachers’ Experiences regarding Use of Information and Communication Technology for Visually Impaired Students

Authors: Zikra Faiz, Zaheer Asghar, Nisar Abid

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) includes computers, the Internet, and electronic delivery systems such as televisions, radios, multimedia, and overhead projectors etc. In the modern world, ICTs is considered as an essential element of the teaching-learning process. The study was aimed to discover the usage of ICTs in Special Education Institutions for Visually Impaired students, Lahore, Pakistan. Objectives of the study were to explore the problems faced by teachers while using ICT in the classroom. The study was phenomenology in nature; a qualitative survey method was used through a semi-structured interview protocol developed by the researchers. The sample comprised of eighty faculty members selected through a purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis technique with the help of open coding. The study findings revealed that multimedia, projectors, computers, laptops and LEDs are used in special education institutes to enhance the teaching-learning process. Teachers believed that ICTs could enhance the knowledge of visually impaired students and every student should use these technologies in the classroom. It was concluded that multimedia, projectors and laptops are used in classroom by teachers and students. ICTs can promote effectively through the training of teachers and students. It was suggested that the government should take steps to enhance ICTs in teacher training and other institutions by pre-service and in-service training of teachers.

Keywords: information and communication technologies, in-services teachers, special education institutions

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18 Water Vapor Oxidization of NiO for a Hole Transport Layer in All Inorganic QD-LED

Authors: Jaeun Park, Daekyoung Kim, Ho Kyoon Chung, Heeyeop Chae

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Quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) have been considered as the next generation display and lighting devices due to their excellent color purity, photo-stability solution process possibility and good device stability. Currently typical quantum dot light emitting diodes contain organic layers such as PEDOT:PSS and PVK for charge transport layers. To make quantum dot light emitting diodes (QD-LED) more stable, it is required to replace those acidic and relatively unstable organic charge transport layers with inorganic materials. Therefore all inorganic and solution processed quantum dot light emitting diodes can potentially be a solution to stable and cost-effective display devices. We studied solution processed NiO films to replace organic charge transport layers that are required for stable all-inorganic based light emitting diodes. The transition metal oxides can be made by various vacuum and solution processes, but the solution processes are considered more cost-effective than vacuum processes. In this work we investigated solution processed NiOx for a hole transport layer (HTL). NiOx, has valence band energy levels of 5.3eV and they are easy to make sol-gel solutions. Water vapor oxidation process was developed and applied to solution processed all-inorganic QD-LED. Turn-on voltage, luminance and current efficiency of QD in this work were 5V, 1800Cd/m2 and 0.5Cd/A, respectively.

Keywords: QD-LED, metal oxide solution, NiO, all-inorganic QD-LED device

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17 Photoluminescence and Energy Transfer Studies of Dy3+ Ions Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for W-LED and Laser Applications

Authors: Nisha Deopa, A. S. Rao

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Lithium Lead Alumino Borate (LiPbAlB) glasses doped with different Dy3+ ions concentration were synthesized to investigate their viability in solid state lighting (SSL) technology by melt quenching techniques. From the absorption spectra, bonding parameters (ð) were investigated to study the nature of bonding between Dy3+ ions and its surrounding ligands. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ω = 2, 4, 6), estimated from the experimental oscillator strengths (fex) of the absorption spectral features were used to evaluate the radiative parameters of different transition levels. From the decay curves, experimental lifetime (τex) were measured and coupled with the radiative lifetime to evaluate the quantum efficiency of the as-prepared glasses. As Dy3+ ions concentration increases, decay profile changes from exponential to non-exponential through energy transfer mechanism (ETM) in turn decreasing experimental lifetime. In order to investigate the nature of ETM, non-exponential decay curves were fitted to Inkuti–Hirayama (I-H) model which further confirms dipole-dipole interaction. Among all the emission transition, 4F9/2  6H15/2 transition (483 nm) is best suitable for lasing potentialities. By exciting titled glasses in n-UV to blue regions, CIE chromaticity coordinates and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) were calculated to understand their capability in cool white light generation. From the evaluated radiative parameters, CIE co-ordinates, quantum efficiency and confocal images it was observed that glass B (0.5 mol%) is a potential candidate for developing w-LEDs and lasers.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

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16 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró

Abstract:

The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: photovoltaics, perovskite, nanowire, photodetector

Procedia PDF Downloads 245