Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: KwaZulu Natal

74 Training Programmes at KwaZulu Natal, South Africa for Water Professionals to Enhance Water Management

Authors: Joshua Ikpimi, Dimeji Abe, Nonso Okoye, Gideon Ikpimi, Prince Idemudia

Abstract:

Training programmes are integral parts of development for employees to develop themselves and also to develop the organisation. Lack of training and inadequate training adversely affect the productivity in any organisation. Lack of training in the water sector can impair development and improper management of water. Training programs are given to water professionals, especially in a developing country like South Africa, to perform well in their day to day activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current training program in place for water professionals at KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa. The objectives were to determine the training programs that are suitable for their job descriptions and to determine the gaps with the training programs and to make recommendations on ways to improve the training programs. This study is a quantitative study which enabled an evaluation of training programs for KwaZulu Natal water professionals. The sample population was 120 professionals across all the cities and towns in KwaZulu Natal province. The water professionals were evaluated using structured questionnaire distributed to the respondents from September to December 2017. The data was analysed using R software. The study found that province has training programs that are valuable for their water professionals. However, involvement of some professionals in administrative activities was hindered by some inappropriate training. Many areas of improvement are suggested to the province in training its water professionals. Training was found to improve performance, commitment, motivation and staff retention of water professionals in the province.

Keywords: KwaZulu Natal, performance, training, water

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73 Farmers Perception on the Level of Participation in Agricultural Project: The Case of a Community Garden Project in Imphendhle Municipality of Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa

Authors: Jorine T. Ndoro, Marietjie Van Der Merwe

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Rural poverty remains a critical challenge in most developing countries and the participation of farmers in agricultural projects has taken a key role in development initiatives. Farmers’ participation in agricultural initiatives is crucial towards poverty alleviation and food security. Farmers’ involvement directly contributes towards sustainable agricultural development and livelihoods. This study focuses on investigating the perceptions of farmers’ participation in a community garden project. The study involved farmers belonging to community garden project in Imphendhle municipality in Mgungundlvu district of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The study followed a qualitative research design using an interpretive research paradigm. The data was collected through conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews and a focus group was conducted with the eight farmers belonging to the community garden project. The findings show that the farmers are not involved in decision makings in the project. The farmers are passive participants. Participation of the farmers was mainly to carry out the activities from the extension officers. The study recommends that farmers be actively involved in projects and programmes introduced in their communities. Farmers’ active participation contributes to the sustainability of the projects through a sense of ownership.

Keywords: farmers, participation, agricultural extension, community garden

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72 Conflicts between Conservation and Community Livelihoods: Lessons from KwaNibela and iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Zwelakhe Maseko

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This chapter assesses the conflict arising from conservation between iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community of KwaNibela, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. To achieve the aim of this study a qualitative research approach was adopted which included one-on-one in-depth interviews with fifty people from the community of KwaNibela who were randomly selected. In-depth interviews were further conducted with three officials from iSimangaliso Wetland Park who were purposely selected to understand their perceptions. The findings suggest that iSimangaliso Wetland Park conservation strategies have a negative impact on the socio-economic wellbeing of the people in KwaNibela due to limited access to natural resources and lack of economic opportunities. This has led to conflict between the stakeholders of iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community. ISimangaliso Wetland Park generates income from tourists who visit the park, while the community of KwaNibela receives little to no benefits from both tourism and conservation. This has led to conflict since the community of KwaNibela feels that iSimangaliso is generating income from their traditional land and natural resources while they (the community) are left poverty-stricken. In order to achieve conservation that caters to the needs and livelihoods of local people, it is suggested that iSimangaliso Wetland Park includes the community of KwaNibela in their conservation efforts and creates economic opportunities for the same community through conservation and tourism.

Keywords: conservation, socio-economic development, protected areas, natural Resources

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71 Mitigating the Vulnerability of Subsistence Farmers through Ground Water Optimisation

Authors: Olayemi Bakre

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The majoritant of the South African rural populace are directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural practices for a livelihood. However, impediments such as the climate change and inadequacy of governmental support has undermined the once thriving subsistence farming communities of South Africa. Furthermore, the poor leadership in hydrology, coupled with lack of depths in skills to facilitate the understanding and acceptance of groundwater from national level to local governance has made it near impossible for subsistence farmers to optimally benefit from the groundwater beneath their feet. The 2012 drought experienced in South Africa paralysed the farming activities across several subsistence farming communities across the KwaZulu-Natal Province. To revamp subsistence farming, a variety of interventions and strategies such as the Resource Poor Farmers (RPF) and Water Allocation Reforms (WAR) have been launched by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) as an agendum to galvanising the defunct subsistence farming communities of KwaZulu-Natal as well as other subsistence farming communities across South Africa. Despite the enormous resources expended on the subsistence farming communities whom often fall under the Historically Disadvantaged Individuals (HDI); indicators such as the unsustainable farming practices, poor crop yield, pitiable living condition as well as the poor standard of living, are evidential to the claim that these afore cited interventions and a host of other similar strategies indicates that these initiatives have not yield the desired result. Thus, this paper seeks to suggest practicable interventions aimed at salvaging the vulnerability of subsistence farmers within the province understudy. The study pursued a qualitative approach as the view of experts on ground water and similarly related fields from the DWS were solicited as an agendum to obtaining in-depth perspective into the current study. Some of the core challenges undermining the sustainability and growth of subsistence farming in the area of study were - inadequacy of experts (engineers, scientist, researchers) in ground water; water shortages; lack of political will as well as lack of coordination among stakeholders. As an agendum to optimising the ground water usage for subsistence farming, this paper advocates the strengthening of geohydrological skills, development of technical training capacity, interactive participation among stakeholders as well as the initiation of Participatory Action Research as an agenda to optimising the available ground water in KwaZulu-Natal which is intended to orchestrate a sustainable and viable subsistence farming practice within the province.

Keywords: subsistence farming, ground water optimisation, resource poor farmers, and water allocation reforms, hydrology

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70 Factors Affecting Adequate Utilisation of Ante-natal Health Care Services among Pregnant Women in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State

Authors: Ilim Moses Msughter

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The study was carried out to examine the availability of Ante-natal care services and the socio-cultural factors affecting the utilization of these services in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State. Four specific objectives were outlined as thus to examine the availability of antenatal care services in Dutsin-Ma local government area, to identify the socio-cultural factors affecting the utilisation of ante-natal care services, to ascertain the challenges affecting utilisation of ante-natal care services and suggest strategies to improve efficiency in ante-natal service delivery and utilisation of same services. Data were collected from 110 respondents using a questionnaire and through the use of the interview. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings revealed that ante-natal care services are available in the study area, but access to such services is hindered by several factors, which include religious and traditional beliefs, cost of services and poor attitudes of health care workers which has an adverse effect on people’s desire to visit ante-natal centres. The study recommended that Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) need to be trained on how to handle pregnancy-related complications. It is also recommended that essential ante-natal drugs and services should be subsidised or made free by the government, and this must be closely monitored to ensure efficiency. Finally, human relation training should be organised for nurses and midwives to improve their attitudes towards patients during ante-natal visits.

Keywords: utilisation, religion, traditional birth attendant, ante-natal

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69 The Intricacies of Local Governance in Local Economic Development: A Case Study of uThukela's Traditional Authority

Authors: Methembe Mdlalose

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This paper synthesizes the findings of a study that utilized a purposive sampling methodology laced within a grounded theory analytical framework with LED managers, mayors, and traditional leaders representing six municipalities of uThukela District of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The paper critiques the two institution’s micro-relations within local governance and their overall impact on the general development discourse of rural areas. The study is located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, a part of South Africa that experiences extremely low levels of development in rural areas and suffers from high rates of inequality, poverty, and unemployment. The paper unpacks the role of two significant stakeholders in the local sphere. Considered as the two dominant stakeholders at the local level, questions of compatibility between traditional leaders and municipal councillors often surge, as the two institutions (who represent two autonomous entities) that operate within the same operational boarders. The discussion around community development lies very deeply on accountability, which assures citizens that fruitless spending is curbed and good governance is maintained. If development is to be assured, it is vital to monitor accountability within government spheres and its departments. It is further essential to monitor the relations within local government. The findings of this research confirmed how relationships between traditional leaders and councillors can and have contributed to economic development or its stagnation thereof in rural areas. In addition, the findings revealed that there is an extensive need for the two stakeholders to work collectively, as this is a vital move in planning for development. Furthermore, the better accountability of local government and a better understanding of how clear policy and its implementation is may be a valuable asset in the discourse of community economic development in rural areas.

Keywords: economic development, traditional leadership, democratically elected councillors, local governance

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68 Tourism and Marketing: An Exploration Study to the Strategic Market Analysis of Moses Mabhida Stadium as a Major Tourism Destination in Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: Nduduzo Andrias Ngxongo, Nsizwazikhona Simon Chili

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This analytical exploration illustrates how the non-existence of a proper marketing strategy for a tourism destination may have resulted in a radical decline in both financial outputs and visitor arrivals. The marketing strategy is considered as the foundation for any tourism destination’s marketing tactics. Tourism destinations are ought to have dynamic and adaptive marketing strategies that will develop a promotional approach to help the destination to gain market share, identify its target markets, stay relevant to its existing clients, attract new visitors, and increase profits-earned. Accordingly, the Moses Mabhida Stadium (MMS), one of the prominent tourist attractions in KwaZulu-Natal; boasting a world-class architectural design, several international prestigious awards, and vibrant, adventurous activities, has in recent years suffered a gradual slump in both visitors and profits. Therefore, the basis of this paper was to thoroughly establish precisely how the existing MMS marketing strategy may be a basis for a decline in the number of visitors and profits-earned in recent years. The study adopted mixed method research strategy, with 380 participants. The outcome of the study suggests some costly disparities in the marketing strategy of MMS which has led to poor performance and a loss in tourism market share. In consequence, the outcome further suggests that the non-existence of market research analysis and destination marketing tools contributed vastly to the in-progress dilemma. This fact-finding exploration provides a birds-eye outlook of MMS marketing strategy, and based on the results, the study recommends for the introduction of a more far-reaching and revitalising marketing strategy through; constant and persistent market research initiatives, minimal political interference in the administration of state-funded organisations, reassessment of the feasibility study, vigorous, and sourcing of proficient personnel.

Keywords: tourism, destination, marketing , marketing strategy

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67 An Investigative Study into Good Governance in the Non-Profit Sector in South Africa: A Systems Approach Perspective

Authors: Frederick M. Dumisani Xaba, Nokuthula G. Khanyile

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There is a growing demand for greater accountability, transparency and ethical conduct based on sound governance principles in the developing world. Funders, donors and sponsors are increasingly demanding more transparency, better value for money and adherence to good governance standards. The drive towards improved governance measures is largely influenced by the need to ‘plug the leaks’, deal with malfeasance, engender greater levels of accountability and good governance and to ultimately attract further funding or investment. This is the case with the Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) in South Africa in general, and in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in particular. The paper draws from the good governance theory, stakeholder theory and systems thinking to critically examine the requirements for good governance for the NPO sector from a theoretical and legislative point and to systematically looks at the contours of governance currently among the NPOs. The paper did this through the rigorous examination of the vignettes of cases of governance among selected NPOs based in KwaZulu-Natal. The study used qualitative and quantitative research methodologies through document analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and statistical analysis from the various primary and secondary sources. It found some good cases of good governance but also found frightening levels of poor governance. There was an exponential growth of NPOs registered during the period under review, equally so there was an increase in cases of non-compliance to good governance practices. NPOs operate in an increasingly complex environment. There is contestation for influence and access to resources. Stakeholder management is poorly conceptualized and executed. Recognizing that the NPO sector operates in an environment characterized by complexity, constant changes, unpredictability, contestation, diversity and divergent views of different stakeholders, there is a need to apply legislative and systems thinking approaches to strengthen governance to withstand this turbulence through a capacity development model that recognizes these contextual and environmental challenges.

Keywords: good governance, non-profit organizations, stakeholder theory, systems theory

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66 Efficacy of Acquiring and Transferring of Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge among Its Owners/Practitioners in uMhlathuze in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Nokwanda Charity Khanyile, Petros Dlamini

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Background: Most of the population in Africa is still dependent on indigenous medicinal knowledge for treating and managing ailments. It is still not yet understood how this valuable knowledge is acquired and transferred from one generation to the next. Indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners who own the knowledge are consulted, but their knowledge is not known how they got it. Objectives: This study aims to assess the process of acquiring and transferring indigenous medicinal knowledge by traditional medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners in uMhlathuze Municipality in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study was guided by four research objectives which were to: identify the types of traditional medicinal knowledge owners who possess this knowledge; establish the approach used by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers for acquiring medicinal knowledge; identify the process of transmission of medicinal knowledge by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers; and determine the challenges encountered in transferring the knowledge. Method: The study adopted a qualitative research approach, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify the study population. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with indigenous medicinal knowledge owners. Results: The findings suggested that uMhlathuze municipality had different types of indigenous medicinal knowledge owners who possess valuable knowledge. These are diviners (Izangoma), faith healers (Abathandazi), and herbalists (Izinyanga). The study demonstrated that indigenous medicinal knowledge is acquired in many different ways, including visions, dreams, and vigorous training. The study also revealed the acquired knowledge is transferred or shared with specially chosen children and trainees. Conclusion: The study concluded that this knowledge is gained through vigorous training, which requires the learner to be attentive and eager to learn. It was recommended that a study of this nature be conducted but at a broader level to enhance an informed conclusion and recommendations. Objectives: This study aims to assess the process of acquiring and transferring indigenous medicinal knowledge by traditional medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners in uMhlathuze Municipality, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study was guided by four research objectives which were to: identify the types of traditional medicinal knowledge owners who possess this knowledge; establish the approach used by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers for acquiring medicinal knowledge; identify the process of transmission of medicinal knowledge by indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/healers; and determine the challenges encountered in transferring the knowledge. Method: The study adopted a qualitative research approach and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify the study population. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with indigenous medicinal knowledge owners. Results: The findings suggested that uMhlathuze municipality had different types of indigenous medicinal knowledge owners who possess valuable knowledge. These are diviners (Izangoma), faith healers (Abathandazi), and herbalists (Izinyanga). The study demonstrated that indigenous medicinal knowledge is acquired in many different ways including visions, dreams, and vigorous training. The study also revealed the acquired knowledge is transferred or shared with specially chosen children and trainees. Conclusion: The study concluded that this knowledge is gotten through vigorous training which requires the learner to be attentive and eager to learn. It was recommended that a study of this nature be conducted but at a broader level to enhance an informed conclusion and recommendations.

Keywords: indigenous medicinal knowledge, indigenous knowledge, indigenous medicinal knowledge owners/practitioners, acquiring

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65 Cyber-Bullying Beyond Parental Control in High Schools

Authors: Eke Chidi Idi

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School violence is a global phenomenon that affects one of the core institutions of modern society to some degree across many countries, and on a global scale. Within this context, this study explores the impact of parental control on perpetrators of cyber bullying as a form of school-based violence in high schools in uMgungundlovu district of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. Insights for this study were drawn from 18 in-depth interviews and two (2) focus group forums. The key themes that emerged from the findings include: (1) Parents are ignorant of their children involvement in cyber-crimes (2) Parents cannot adequately monitor what their children do on their cell phones (3) Female learners are the most affected as victims of cyber-crime.

Keywords: school, violence, parental control, cyber bullying

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64 Toxicological Analysis of Some Plant Combinations Used for the Treatment of Hypertension by Lay People in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Sandy Van Vuuren, Helene De Wet

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The use of plant combinations to treat various medical conditions is not a new concept, and it is known that traditional people do not only rely on a single plant extract for efficacy but often combine various plant species for treatment. The knowledge of plant combinations is transferred from one generation to the other in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, decreases adverse effects, increase bioavailability and result in lower dosages. However, combination therapy may also be harmful when the interaction is antagonistic, since it may result in increasing toxicity. Although a fair amount of research has been done on the toxicity of medicinal plants, there is very little done on the toxicity of medicinal plants in combination. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity potential of 19 plant combinations which have been documented as treatments of hypertension in northern KwaZulu-Natal by lay people. The aqueous extracts were assessed using two assays; the Brine shrimp assay (Artemia franciscana) and the Ames test (Mutagenicity). Only one plant combination (Aloe marlothii with Hypoxis hemerocallidea) in the current study has been previously assessed for toxicity. With the Brine shrimp assay, the plant combinations were tested in two concentrations (2 and 4 mg/ml), while for mutagenicity tests, they were tested at 5 mg/ml. The results showed that in the Brine shrimp assay, six combinations were toxic at 4 mg/ml. The combinations were Albertisia delagoensis with Senecio serratuloides (57%), Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (98%), Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea (66%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (89%), Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (99%) and Aloe marlothii with Trichilia emetica and Hyphaene coriacea (50%). However when the concentration was reduced to 2 mg/ml, only three combinations were toxic which were Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (76%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (66%) and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (73%). For the mutagenicity assay, only the combinations between Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina were mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Most of the combinations which were toxic involve C. roseus which was also toxic when tested singularly. It is worth noting that C. roseus was one of the most frequently used plant species both to treat hypertension singularly and in combination and some of the individuals have been using this for the last 20 years. The mortality percentage of the Brine shrimp showed a significant correlation between dosage and toxicity thus toxicity was dosage dependant. A combination which is worth noting is the combination between A. delagoensis and S. serratuloides. Singularly these plants were non-toxic towards Brine shrimp, however their combination resulted in antagonism with the mortality rate of 57% at the total concentration of 4 mg/ml. Low toxicity was mostly observed, giving some validity to combined use, however the few combinations showing increased toxicity demonstrate the importance of analysing plant combinations.

Keywords: dosage, hypertension, plant combinations, toxicity

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63 Energy Trends in Rural South Africa: A Case Study of the Mnweni Rural Community in the Province of Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: Noel Chellan

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Energy is the life-blood of development. All human societies have been and still are dependent on energy – some societies more than others. With regard to energy in South Africa, previous policies of the apartheid regime neglected the energy needs of poor black communities in general – and rural communities in particular. Since South Africa’s first democratic elections in 1994 – whilst millions of South African households have received electricity from the national electricity grid, there are still many rural communities that are still experiencing challenges in relation to both electricity deprivation as well as provision. This paper looks at the energy-mix of the Mnweni rural community in South Africa and argues that understanding energy is key to understanding the nature and forms of development of any community or country, for that matter. The paper engages with the energy trends in the rural community of Mnweni from the days of apartheid until 2021. It also looks at agricultural practises from an energy perspective. Such an energy perspective will enable one to assess the pace and scale of development in rural Mnweni.

Keywords: rural, energy, development, apartheid

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62 Micro-Hydrokinetic for Remote Rural Electrification

Authors: S. P. Koko, K. Kusakana, H. J. Vermaak

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Standalone micro-hydrokinetic river (MHR) system is one of the promising technologies to be used for remote rural electrification. It simply requires the flow of water instead of elevation or head, leading to expensive civil works. This paper demonstrates an economic benefit offered by a standalone MHR system when compared to the commonly used standalone systems such as solar, wind and diesel generator (DG) at the selected study site in Kwazulu Natal. Wind speed and solar radiation data of the selected rural site have been taken from national aeronautics and space administration (NASA) surface meteorology database. The hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) software was used to determine the most feasible solution when using MHR, solar, wind or DG system to supply 5 rural houses. MHR system proved to be the best cost-effective option to consider at the study site due to its low cost of energy (COE) and low net present cost (NPC).

Keywords: economic analysis, micro-hydrokinetic, rural-electrification, cost of energy (COE), net present cost (NPC)

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61 Assessment of Environmental Mercury Contamination from an Old Mercury Processing Plant 'Thor Chemicals' in Cato Ridge, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Yohana Fessehazion

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Mercury is a prominent example of a heavy metal contaminant in the environment, and it has been extensively investigated for its potential health risk in humans and other organisms. In South Africa, massive mercury contamination happened in1980s when the England-based mercury reclamation processing plant relocated to Cato Ridge, KwaZulu-Natal Province, and discharged mercury waste into the Mngceweni River. This mercury waste discharge resulted in high mercury concentration that exceeded the acceptable levels in Mngceweni River, Umgeni River, and human hair of the nearby villagers. This environmental issue raised the alarm, and over the years, several environmental assessments were reported the dire environmental crises resulting from the Thor Chemicals (now known as Metallica Chemicals) and urged the immediate removal of the around 3,000 tons of mercury waste stored in the factory storage facility over two decades. Recently theft of some containers with the toxic substance from the Thor Chemicals warehouse and the subsequent fire that ravaged the facility furtherly put the factory on the spot escalating the urgency of left behind deadly mercury waste removal. This project aims to investigate the mercury contamination leaking from an old Thor Chemicals mercury processing plant. The focus will be on sediments, water, terrestrial plants, and aquatic weeds such as the prominent water hyacinth weeds in the nearby water systems of Mngceweni River, Umgeni River, and Inanda Dam as a bio-indicator and phytoremediator for mercury pollution. Samples will be collected in spring around October when the condition is favourable for microbial activity to methylate mercury incorporated in sediments and blooming season for some aquatic weeds, particularly water hyacinth. Samples of soil, sediment, water, terrestrial plant, and aquatic weed will be collected per sample site from the point of source (Thor Chemicals), Mngceweni River, Umgeni River, and the Inanda Dam. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests will be conducted to determine any significant differences in the Hg concentration among all sampling sites, followed by Least Significant Difference post hoc test to determine if mercury contamination varies with the gradient distance from the source point of pollution. The flow injection atomic spectrometry (FIAS) analysis will also be used to compare the mercury sequestration between the different plant tissues (roots and stems). The principal component analysis is also envisaged for use to determine the relationship between the source of mercury pollution and any of the sampling points (Umgeni and Mngceweni Rivers and the Inanda Dam). All the Hg values will be expressed in µg/L or µg/g in order to compare the result with the previous studies and regulatory standards. Sediments are expected to have relatively higher levels of Hg compared to the soils, and aquatic macrophytes, water hyacinth weeds are expected to accumulate a higher concentration of mercury than terrestrial plants and crops.

Keywords: mercury, phytoremediation, Thor chemicals, water hyacinth

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60 Challenges in Employment and Adjustment of Academic Expatriates Based in Higher Education Institutions in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

Authors: Thulile Ndou

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The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges encountered in the mediation of attracting and recruiting academic expatriates who in turn encounter their own obstacles in adjusting into and settling in their host country, host academic institutions and host communities. The none-existence of literature on attraction, placement and management of academic expatriates in the South African context has been acknowledged. Moreover, Higher Education Institutions in South Africa have voiced concerns relating to delayed and prolonged recruitment and selection processes experienced in the employment process of academic expatriates. Once employed, academic expatriates should be supported and acquainted with the surroundings, the local communities as well as be assisted to establish working relations with colleagues in order to facilitate their adjustment and integration process. Hence, an employer should play a critical role in facilitating the adjustment of academic expatriates. This mixed methods study was located in four Higher Education Institutions based in the KwaZulu-Natal province, in South Africa. The explanatory sequential design approach was deployed in the study. The merits of this approach were chiefly that it employed both the quantitative and qualitative techniques of inquiry. Therefore, the study examined and interrogated its subject from a multiplicity of quantitative and qualitative vantage points, yielding a much more enriched and enriching illumination. Mixing the strengths of both the quantitative and the qualitative techniques delivered much more durable articulation and understanding of the subject. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data relating to interaction adjustment, general adjustment and work adjustment from academic expatriates. One hundred and forty two (142) academic expatriates participated in the quantitative study. Qualitative data relating to employment process and support offered to academic expatriates was collected through a structured questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A total of 48 respondents; including, line managers, human resources practitioners, and academic expatriates participated in the qualitative study. The Independent T-test, ANOVA and Descriptive Statistics were performed to analyse, interpret and make meaning of quantitative data and thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. The qualitative results revealed that academic talent is sourced from outside the borders of the country because of the academic skills shortage in almost all academic disciplines especially in the disciplines associated with Science, Engineering and Accounting. However, delays in work permit application process made it difficult to finalise the recruitment and selection process on time. Furthermore, the quantitative results revealed that academic expatriates experience general and interaction adjustment challenges associated with the use of local language and understanding of local culture. However, female academic expatriates were found to be better adjusted in the two areas as compared to male academic expatriates. Moreover, significant mean differences were found between institutions suggesting that academic expatriates based in rural areas experienced adjustment challenges differently from the academic expatriates based in urban areas. The study gestured to the need for policy revisions in the area of immigration, human resources and academic administration.

Keywords: academic expatriates, recruitment and selection, interaction and general adjustment, work adjustment

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59 Perinatal and Postnatal Counseling as Determinants of Early Newborn Sepsis in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Sajia Islam, T. Tahsina, S. Raihana, M. M. Rahman, Q. S. Rahman, T. M. Huda, S. E. Arifeen, M. J. Dibley

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Early neonatal sepsis accounts for more than two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life. This study assessed the counseling during antenatal, perinatal, post natal periods and its association with possible sepsis in rural Bangladesh. Method: Data were collected from a large community-based trial in Bangladesh where pregnant women were enrolled from 2013-2015 covering 29,497 newborns. Sepsis was defined using neonatal danger signs reported by 'The Young-Infants Clinical Science Study Group. 'Result: Signs of sepsis was found among 15% of the neonates. Neonatal sepsis was higher among those who did not receive advice on TT vaccinations (15.4% vs. 11%, p < 0.05) and danger signs (14.8% vs. 12.8%, p < 0.05) during pregnancy. Advice on delivering in well-lit place was significantly associated with lower incidence of sepsis (12.7% vs. 14.8% p < 0.05). Sepsis was lower among neonates whose mothers were counseled on immediate newborn care for bathing after 3 days of delivery (13.4% vs. 15.2% p=0), breastfeeding within 1hr of birth (13.82 % vs. 15.28% p=0), apply nothing on the cord (11.54 vs. 15.06 p=0), immediate drying of child (12.62% vs. 14.89%, p=0). Neonatal sepsis was lower among children whose mothers received 2-4 advice [OR=0.91(95% CI: 0.85-0.97)] compared to neonates whose mothers received only 1 or none. Overall, children to mothers who received ≥ 5 advice had lowest incidence of sepsis [OR=0.83 (95% CI: 0.71-0.97)] Conclusion: Advice on antenatal, prenatal and post natal is significantly reduced with early newborn sepsis. Further research is required to identify specific type of counseling messages that translate into practices and reduce pathways towards early-newborn morbidities.

Keywords: ante natal care, counseling, neonatal sepsis, post natal care

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58 Effectiveness of Selected Anthementics on Nematode Parasites of Sheep in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, N. Basha, I. V. Nsahlai

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This study determined the effectiveness of selected anthementics (Ivermectin 1% (IVM), Closantel 7.5% (CST) and a combination Abamectin 0.08% and Praziquantel 1.5% (CAP) currently being used in SA. Gender, initial egg per gram (EPG) and initial live weight aided in blocking animals into groups, each group was randomly treated with one of four drug treatments comprising: the untreated control (D0), IVM, CST, and CAP. Animals grazed throughout on infested pasture. Rectal faeces were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 for determining EPG. Faeces were mixed per group and incubated to identify and determine the abundance of larval forms of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus, and Cooperia species. Differences between treatments changed over time. On day7 IVM, CST, and CAP depressed EPG to 0.66, 0.37 and 0.80 of their respective starting values whilst EPG increased 1.39 times for D0. Thereafter, EPG increased consistently for all drugs; CST recorded the lowest values. Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus and Coperia species contributed respectively 60%, 30%, 6%, 3%, and 1% of the larval forms on day 0; and 78%, 8%, 11%, 1%, 2% on day 21. Larval forms increased for Haemonchus species but decreased for Trichostrongylus species over time. Closantel was the most effective dewormer. Haemonchus Spp. were least affected whilst Trichostrongylus Spp. were the most affect by all drugs.

Keywords: anthementics, faecal egg count, L3 larvae, sheep

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57 Comparison of Food Products Contaminated by DDTs in South Africa and Mozambique

Authors: Lesa A. Thompson, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Victor Wepener, Mayumi Ishizuka

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One method for controlling malaria in endemic regions is the killing of vector mosquitoes using pesticides such as DDT in indoor residual spraying (IRS). This study was carried out to investigate the presence of and human health risk due to DDT and its metabolites (collectively, DDTs) contaminating human food sources in areas where DDT is used for IRS. Free-range chicken products (meat and eggs) were collected from homesteads in KwaZulu-Natal Province in the northeast of South Africa, and fish meat samples from Maputo Bay in neighbouring Mozambique. Samples were analysed for DDTs (o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDE) using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). DDTs were detected in all food types, with the predominant congener being p,p’-DDE. The presence of p,p’-DDT confirmed recent release of DDT into the environment. By using concentration levels detected in foods and national consumption levels, the risk to human health through consumption of such food products was calculated. In order of risk level, these were: chicken eggs > chicken meat > fish meat. Human risk (carcinogenic) values greater than one suggest there is an increased health risk through consumption of these foods.

Keywords: DDT, food contamination, human health risk, Mozambique, South Africa

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56 Perceptions of Educators on the Learners’ Youngest Age for the Introduction of ICTs in Schools: A Personality Theory Approach

Authors: Kayode E. Oyetade, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Age ratings are very helpful in providing parents with relevant information for the purchase and use of digital technologies by the children; this is why the non-definition of age ratings for the use of ICT's by children in schools is a major concern; and this problem serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the factors affecting the perceptions of educators on the learners’ youngest age for the introduction of ICT's in schools. This aim is achieved through two types of research objectives: the identification and design of theories and models on age ratings, and the empirical testing of such theories and models in a survey of educators from the Camperdown district of the South African KwaZulu-Natal province. A questionnaire is used for the collection of the data of this survey whose validity and reliability is checked in SPSS prior to its descriptive and correlative quantitative analysis. The main hypothesis supporting this research is the association between the demographics of educators, their personality, and their perceptions on the learners’ youngest age for the introduction of ICT's in schools; as claimed by existing research; except that the present study looks at personality from three dimensions: self-actualized personalities, fully functioning personalities, and healthy personalities. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the empirical study conducted by this research except for the demographic factor where only the educators’ grade or class was found to be associated with the personality of educators.

Keywords: age ratings, educators, e-learning, personality theories

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55 Cycads Bark Harvest in Limpopo Province in South Africa: A Negative Practice Contributing to Biodiversity Loss

Authors: S. O. Bamigboye, P. M. Tshisikhawe, P. J. Taylor

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Cycads are the most threatened plant species in the world. In South Africa over 70% of cycads are threatened with extinction with 60% of them as a result of bark harvest of these highly endangered species for medicinal purposes. 3 cycads species in South Africa have gone extinct due to bark harvest for medicinal purpose. This practice keeps increasing biodiversity loss within the nation and this has generated concern for conservationists on different way to discover how people go about this practices and how it can be discouraged. Studies have revealed this practice to be common practice in provinces like Kwazulu natal, Eastern cape, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, but studies in the past have not really focused on cycads bark harvest in Limpopo province. In this study we use the indigenous knowledge to discover a particular location within the Soutpansberg Montane (a major biodiversity hotspot in Limpopo Province in South Africa) in Vhembe district in Limpopo province not yet conserved where we have a highly disturbed population of cycads. Several individuals of cycads species have been highly damaged due to bark harvest in this location. We are about proposing that such areas needs attention for conservation to prevent the loss of these species endemic to this particular location. Our study hereby reveals that cycads bark harvest which is a major threat to African cycads is also a common practice in Limpopo Province in South Africa. Rigorous conservation action is required to discourage this practice in order to prevent further biodiversity loss in this region.

Keywords: bark harvest, Cycads, conservation, extinction, Limpopo

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54 Examining the Perceived Usefulness of ICTs for Learning about Indigenous Foods

Authors: Khumbuzile M. Ngcobo, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

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Science and technology has a major impact on many societal domains such as communication, medicine, food, transportation, etc. However, this dominance of modern technology can have a negative unintended impact on indigenous systems, and in particular on indigenous foods. This problem serves as a motivation to this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of learners on the usefulness of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT's) for learning about indigenous foods. This aim will be subdivided into two types of research objectives. The design and identification of theories and models will be achieved using literature content analysis. The objective on the empirical testing of such theories and models will be achieved through the survey of Hospitality studies learners from different schools in the iLembe and Umgungundlovu Districts of the South African Kwazulu-Natal province. SPSS is used to quantitatively analyse the data collected by the questionnaire of this survey using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after the assessment of the validity and the reliability of the data. The main hypothesis behind this study is that there is a connection between the demographics of learners, their perceptions on the usefulness of ICTs for learning about indigenous foods and the following personality an e-learning related theories constructs: computer self-efficacy, trust in ICT systems, and conscientiousness; as suggested by existing studies on learning theories. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the survey conducted by this study except for the demographic factors where gender and age were not found to be determinant factors of learners’ perceptions on the usefulness of ICT's for learning about indigenous foods.

Keywords: e-learning, indigenous foods, information and communication technologies, learning theories, personality

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53 Formal Sector Employment, Economic Capital and Human Capacity Development: Voices of Single Mothers from South Africa and Germany

Authors: Tanusha Raniga, Michael Boecker, Maud Mthembu

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This paper considers the formal employment sector, human capacity development and economic capital of single-mother households’ as they strive to sustain livelihoods. This paper advances empirical data in the field of economic and social development policy. The correlation between educational level, human capacity development and economic self-reliance of single-mother households is considered. This paper presents empirical evidence obtained from qualitative in-depth interviews conducted with twenty-five single mothers who were working in the formal work sector in Hagen, Germany and two provinces, namely KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng in South Africa. This is an underexplored research area as most of the international literature focuses on pathology and victimhood related to single-mother households. Instead, this paper presents the biographic profiles and discusses two key themes that emerged from the data analysis namely; formal and informal streams of income enhanced human capital development through access to further education and training opportunities. The women perceived these themes as facilitating factors which helped them sustain their households. The paper presents some suggestions for policymakers and social work practitioners to consider to improve support systems and avoid economic exclusion of single mothers who work within the first economy.

Keywords: single mothers, formal work sector, economic capital, human capital

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52 Medical Radiation Exposure in a Cohort of Children Diagnosed with Solid Tumors: Single Institution Study 1985-2015

Authors: Robin L. Rohrer

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Introduction: Pre-natal or early childhood exposure to the medical radiation used in diagnosis or treatment is an identified risk for childhood cancers but can be difficult to document. The author developed a family questionnaire/interview form to identify possible exposures. Aims: This retrospective study examines pre-natal and early childhood medical radiation exposure in a cohort of children diagnosed with a solid tumor including brain tumors from 1985-2015 at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (CHP). The hospital is a tri-state regional referral center which treats about 150-180 new cases of cancer in children per year. About 70% are diagnosed with a solid tumor. Methods: Each consented family so far (approximately 50% of the cohort) has been interviewed in person or by the phone call. Medical staff and psycho- social staff referred patient families for the interview with the author. Results: Among the families interviewed to date at least one medical radiation exposure has been identified (pre-conception, pre-natal or early childhood) in over 70% of diagnosed children. These exposures have included pre-conception sinus or chest CT or X-ray in either parent, sinus CT or X-ray in the mother or diagnostic radiation of chest or abdomen in children. Conclusions: Exposures to medical radiation for a child later diagnosed with cancer may occur at several critical junctures. These exposures may well contribute to a ‘perfect storm’ in the still elusive causes of childhood cancer. The author plans to expand the study from 1975 to present to hopefully further document these junctures.

Keywords: pediatric, solid tumors, medical radiation, cancer

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51 Educators’ Adherence to Learning Theories and Their Perceptions on the Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning

Authors: Samson T. Obafemi, Seraphin D. Eyono-Obono

Abstract:

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are pervasive nowadays, including in education where they are expected to improve the performance of learners. However, the hope placed in ICTs to find viable solutions to the problem of poor academic performance in schools in the developing world has not yet yielded the expected benefits. This problem serves as a motivation to this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of educators on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning. This aim will be subdivided into two types of research objectives. Objectives on the identification and design of theories and models will be achieved using content analysis and literature review. However, the objective on the empirical testing of such theories and models will be achieved through the survey of educators from different schools in the Pinetown District of the South African Kwazulu-Natal province. SPSS is used to quantitatively analyse the data collected by the questionnaire of this survey using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after assessing the validity and the reliability of the data. The main hypothesis driving this study is that there is a relationship between the demographics of educators’ and their adherence to learning theories on one side, and their perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning on the other side, as argued by existing research; but this research views these learning theories under three perspectives: educators’ adherence to self-regulated learning, to constructivism, and to progressivism. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the empirical study except for the demographic factor where teachers’ level of education was found to be the only demographic factor affecting the perceptions of educators on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.

Keywords: academic performance, e-learning, learning theories, teaching and learning

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50 Predictors of Ante-Natal Care and Health Facility Delivery Services Utilization in a Rural Area in Plateau State

Authors: Lilian A. Okeke, I. Okeke, N. Waziri, S. Balogun, P. Nguku, O. Fawole

Abstract:

Background: Access to ante-natal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. We conducted this study to identify factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and health delivery services. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Households were numbered and a one in three sample was selected using a systematic sampling method. One hundred and ninety eight women who were either pregnant or had previous deliveries were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics, and reasons for non-utilization of ANC and health delivery services. We performed univariate and bivariate analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3. Results: The age of respondents ranged from (17-55 years) with a median age of 29 years. One hundred and ninety two (97%) utilized antenatal care services. Ninety three (47.9%) attended ANC at second trimester. More than half (58.6%) had ≥ 4 visits to ANC. One hundred and thirty one (66.2%) had their last delivery at home by a traditional birth attendant. Factors associated with ANC and health facility delivery services utilization were: age group 45-55 (OR 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.16) and > 55 years (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.00-0.60), wife’s educational status (OR 3.17; 95% CI: 1.66-8.30), husband’s permission (OR 11.8; 95% CI 2.19-63.62), and distance ≥ 5km (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.60). Conclusion: ANC services were well utilized. Most women did not book early and had their last delivery at home. Predictors of ANC use and health facility delivery were age, wife’s educational status, husband's permission and long distance from health facility. A one-day health sensitization of the benefits of ANC utilization and the dangers of delivering at home was implemented.

Keywords: ante natal care, health facility, delivery services, rural area, Plateau state

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
49 Modelling the Effect of Psychological Capital on Climate Change Adaptation among Smallholders from South Africa

Authors: Unity Chipfupa, Aluwani Tagwi, Edilegnaw Wale

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Climate change adaptation studies are challenged by a limited understanding of how non-cognitive factors such as psychological capital affect adaptation decisions of smallholder farmers. The concept of psychological capital has not been fully applied in the empirical literature on climate change adaptation strategies. Hence, the study was meant to assess how psychological capital endowment affects climate change adaptation among smallholder farmers. A multivariate probit regression model was estimated using data collected from 328 smallholder farmers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The findings indicate that, among other factors, self-confidence and hope or aspirations in farming influence climate change adaptation decisions of smallholders. The psychological capital theory proved to be comprehensive in identifying specific psychological dimensions associated with adaptation decisions. However, the non-alignment of approaches for measuring non-cognitive factors made it difficult to compare results among different studies. In conclusion, the study recommends the need for practical ways for enhancing smallholders’ endowment with key non-cognitive abilities. Researchers should develop and agree on a comprehensive framework for assessing non-cognitive factors critical for climate change adaptation. This will improve the use of positive psychology theories to advance the literature on climate change adaptation. Other key recommendations include targeted support for communities facing higher risks of climate change, improving smallholders’ ability to adapt, promotion of social networks and the inclusion of farming objectives as an important indicator in climate change adaptation research.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, climate change adaptation, psychological capital, multivariate probit, non-cognitive factors.

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
48 The Association Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Health-related Quality of Life, Life-space Mobility and Successful Aging in Older Indian Adults

Authors: Jeanne Grace, Jacqueline Naiker

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Background: Longevity is increasing, accompanied by a rise in disability and chronic diseases with physical activity (PA) delaying disability, ensuring successful aging (SA) and independent living in older adults. Aim: This study aimed to determine objectively measured PA levels, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), life-space mobility, and successful aging (SA) of older adults in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, as well as their mutual associations. Methods: A total of 210 older adults aged 65–92 years were purposively sampled and completed the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the Life-Space Mobility, and Successful Aging questionnaires. PA levels were measured using an Omron Pedometer, which the participants wore for seven consecutive days. Results: The average number of steps taken per day for the seven days was 2025, with 98.6% of the entire study population classified as sedentary. The Vitality domain (one of 8 categorized) reflected the best health status (M = 59.9, SD ± 18.8), with a significant 93% of the participants indicating that they had not visited places outside their immediate neighborhood (P < 0.0005). A significant, negative association between the average number of steps taken in 7 days and all three SA variables – namely, the physical (r = –0.152, P = 0.027), sociological (r = –0.148, P = 0.032) and psychological (r = –0.176, P = 0.010), and a significant, positive association with life-space mobility (r = 0.224, P = 0.001) was noted. Conclusion: The majority of the elderly were sedentary, affecting their HRQoL, life-space mobility, and SA negatively.

Keywords: active life expectancy, geriatrics, nursing homes, well-being

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47 On the Factors Affecting Computing Students’ Awareness of the Latest ICTs

Authors: O. D. Adegbehingbe, S. D. Eyono Obono

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The education sector is constantly faced with rapid changes in technologies in terms of ensuring that the curriculum is up to date and in terms of making sure that students are aware of these technological changes. This challenge can be seen as the motivation for this study, which is to examine the factors affecting computing students’ awareness of the latest Information Technologies (ICTs). The aim of this study is divided into two sub-objectives which are: the selection of relevant theories and the design of a conceptual model to support it as well as the empirical testing of the designed model. The first objective is achieved by a review of existing literature on technology adoption theories and models. The second objective is achieved using a survey of computing students in the four universities of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Data collected from this survey is analyzed using Statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS) using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlations. The main hypothesis of this study is that there is a relationship between the demographics and the prior conditions of the computing students and their awareness of general ICT trends and of Digital Switch Over (DSO) a new technology which involves the change from analog to digital television broadcasting in order to achieve improved spectrum efficiency. The prior conditions of the computing students that were considered in this study are students’ perceived exposure to career guidance and students’ perceived curriculum currency. The results of this study confirm that gender, ethnicity, and high school computing course affect students’ perceived curriculum currency while high school location affects students’ awareness of DSO. The results of this study also confirm that there is a relationship between students prior conditions and their awareness of general ICT trends and DSO in particular.

Keywords: education, information technologies, IDT, awareness

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46 On the Perceived Awareness of Physical Education Teachers on Adoptable ICTs for PE

Authors: Tholokuhle T. Ntshakala, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

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Nations are still finding it quite difficult to win mega sport competitions despite the major contribution of sport to society in terms of social and economic development, personal health, and in education. Even though the world of sports has been transformed into a huge global economy, it is important to note that the first step of sport is usually its introduction to children at school through physical education or PE. In other words, nations who do not win mega sport competitions also suffer from a weak and neglected PE system. This problem of the neglect of PE systems is the main motivation of this research aimed at examining the factors affecting the perceived awareness of physical education teachers on the ICT's that are adoptable for the teaching and learning of physical education. Two types of research objectives will materialize this aim: relevant theories will be identified in relation to the analysis of the perceived ICT awareness of PE teachers and subsequent models will be compiled and designed from existing literature; the empirical testing of such theories and models will also be achieved through the survey of PE teachers from the Camperdown magisterial district of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The main hypothesis at the heart of this study is the relationship between the demographics of PE teachers, their behavior both as individuals and as social entities, and their perceived awareness of the ICTs that are adoptable for PE, as postulated by existing literature; except that this study categorizes human behavior under performance expectancy, computer attitude, and social influence. This hypothesis was partially confirmed by the survey conducted by this research in the sense that performance expectancy and teachers’ age, gender, computer usage, and class size were found to be the only factors affecting their awareness of ICT's for physical education.

Keywords: human behavior, ICT Awareness, physical education, teachers

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45 No Histological and Biochemical Changes Following Administration of Tenofovir Nanoparticles: Animal Model Study

Authors: Aniekan Peter, ECS Naidu, Edidiong Akang, U. Offor, R. Kalhapure, A. A. Chuturgoon, T. Govender, O. O. Azu

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Introduction: Nano-drugs are novel innovations in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, especially resistant strains of the virus in their sanctuary sites: testis and the brain. There are safety concerns to be addressed to achieve the full potential of this new drug delivery system. Aim of study: Our study was designed to investigate toxicity profile of Tenofovir Nanoparticle (TDF-N) synthesized by University of Kwazulu-Natal (UKZN) Nano-team for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. Methodology: Ten adult male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained at the Animal House of the Biomedical Resources Unit UKZN were used for the study. The animals were weighed and divided into two groups of 5 animal each. Control animals (A) were administered with normal saline. Therapeutic dose (4.3 mg/kg) of TDF-N was administered to group B. At the end of four weeks, animals were weighed and sacrificed. Liver and kidney were removed fixed in formal saline, processed and stained using H/E, PAS and MT stains for light microscopy. Serum was obtained for renal function test (RFT), liver function test (LFT) and full blood count (FBC) using appropriate analysers. Cellular measurements were done using ImageJ and Leica software 2.0. Data were analysed using graph pad 6, values < 0.05 were significant. Results: We reported no histological alterations in the liver, kidney, FBC, LFT and RFT between the TDF-N animals and saline control. There were no significant differences in weight, organo-somatic index and histological measurements in the treatment group when compared with saline control. Conclusion/recommendations: TDF-N is not toxic to the liver, kidney and blood cells in our study. More studies using human subjects is recommended.

Keywords: tenofovir nanoparticles, liver, kidney, blood cells

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