Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Karst

20 Geomorphology of Karst Features of Shiraz City and Arjan Plain and Development Limitations

Authors: Meysam Jamali, Ebrahim Moghimi, Zean Alabden Jafarpour


Karst term is the determiner of a variety of areas or landforms and unique perspectives that have been formed in result of the ingredients dissolution of rocks constituter by natural waters. Shiraz area with an area of 5322km2 is located in the simple folded belt in the southern part of Zagros Mountain of Fars, and is surrounded with Limestone Mountains (Asmari formation). Shiraz area is located in Calcareous areas. The Infrastructure of this city is lime and absorbing wells that the city has, can influence on the Limestone dissolution and those accelerate its rate and increases the cavitation below the surface. Dasht-e Arjan is a graben, which has been created as the result of activity of two normal faults in its east and west sides. It is a complete sample of Karst plains (Polje) which has been created with the help of tectonic forces (fault) and dissolution process of water in Asmari limestone formation. It is located 60km. off south west of Shiraz (on Kazeroon-Shiraz road). In 1971, UNESCO has recognized this plain as a reserve of biosphere. It is considered as one of the world’s most beautiful geological phenomena, so that most of the world’s geologists are interested in visiting this place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and introduce landscapes of Karst features shiraz city and Dasht-e Arjan including Karst dissolution features (Lapiez, Karst springs, dolines, caves, underground caves, ponors, and Karst valleys), anticlines and synclines, and Arjan Lake, which are studied in this paper.

Keywords: Dasht-eArjan, fault, Karst features, polje, Shiraz city, Zagros

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19 Rodriguez Diego, Del Valle Martin, Hargreaves Matias, Riveros Jose Luis

Authors: Nathainail Bashir, Neil Anderson


The objective of this study site was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection methods and recommend the best method and pattern of arrays to acquire the desire results. Proper site investigation in karst prone regions is extremely valuable in determining the location of possible voids. Two geophysical techniques were employed: multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT).The MASW data was acquired at each test location using different array lengths and different array orientations (to increase the probability of getting interpretable data in karst terrain). The ERT data were acquired using a dipole-dipole array consisting of 168 electrodes. The MASW data was interpreted (re: estimated depth to physical top of rock) and used to constrain and verify the interpretation of the ERT data. The ERT data indicates poorer quality MASW data were acquired in areas where there was significant local variation in the depth to top of rock.

Keywords: dipole-dipole, ERT, Karst terrains, MASW

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18 Impact of External Temperature on the Speleothem Growth in the Moravian Karst

Authors: Frantisek Odvarka


Based on the data from the Moravian Karst, the influence of the calcite speleothem growth by selected meteorological factors was evaluated. External temperature was determined as one of the main factors influencing speleothem growth in Moravian Karst. This factor significantly influences the CO₂ concentration in soil/epikarst, and cave atmosphere in the Moravian Karst and significantly contributes to the changes in the CO₂ partial pressure differences between soil/epikarst and cave atmosphere in Moravian Karst, which determines the drip water supersaturation with respect to the calcite and quantity of precipitated calcite in the Moravian Karst cave environment. External air temperatures and cave air temperatures were measured using a COMET S3120 data logger, which can measure temperatures in the range from -30 to +80 °C with an accuracy of ± 0.4 °C. CO₂ concentrations in the cave and soils were measured with a FT A600 CO₂H Ahlborn probe (value range 0 ppmv to 10,000 ppmv, accuracy 1 ppmv), which was connected to the data logger ALMEMO 2290-4, V5 Ahlborn. The soil temperature was measured with a FHA646E1 Ahlborn probe (temperature range -20 to 70 °C, accuracy ± 0.4 °C) connected to an ALMEMO 2290-4 V5 Ahlborn data logger. The airflow velocities into and out of the cave were monitored by a FVA395 TH4 Thermo anemometer (speed range from 0.05 to 2 m s⁻¹, accuracy ± 0.04 m s⁻¹), which was connected to the ALMEMO 2590-4 V5 Ahlborn data logger for recording. The flow was measured in the lower and upper entrance of the Imperial Cave. The data were analyzed in MS Office Excel 2019 and PHREEQC.

Keywords: speleothem growth, carbon dioxide partial pressure, Moravian Karst, external temperature

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17 Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography to Image the Subsurface Structure of a Sinkhole, a Case Study in Southwestern Missouri

Authors: Shishay T. Kidanu


The study area is located in Southwestern Missouri and is mainly underlain by Mississippian Age limestone which is highly susceptible to karst processes. The area is known for the presence of various karst features like caves, springs and more importantly Sinkholes. Sinkholes are one of the most common karst features and the primary hazard in karst areas. Investigating the subsurface structure and development mechanism of existing sinkholes enables to understand their long-term impact and chance of reactivation and also helps to provide effective mitigation measures. In this study ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves) and borehole control data have been used to image the subsurface structure and investigate the development mechanism of a sinkhole in Southwestern Missouri. The study shows that the main process responsible for the development of the sinkhole is the downward piping of fine grained soils. Furthermore, the study reveals that the sinkhole developed along a north-south oriented vertical joint set characterized by a vertical zone of water seepage and associated fine grained soil piping into preexisting fractures.

Keywords: ERT, Karst, MASW, sinkhole

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16 Study of Sub-Surface Flow in an Unconfined Carbonate Aquifer in a Tropical Karst Area in Indonesia: A Modeling Approach Using Finite Difference Groundwater Model

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas


Due to its porous nature, karst terrains – geomorphologically developed from dissolved formations, is vulnerable to water shortage and deteriorated water quality. Therefore, a solid comprehension on sub-surface flow of karst landscape is essential to assess the long-term availability of groundwater resources. In this paper, a single-continuum model using a finite difference model, MODLFOW, was constructed to represent an unconfined carbonate aquifer in a tropical karst island of Rote in Indonesia. The model, spatially discretized in 20 x 20 m grid cells, was calibrated and validated using available groundwater level and atmospheric variables. In the calibration and validation steps, Parameter Estimation (PEST) and geostatistical pilot point methods were employed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific yield values. The results show that the model is able to represent the sub-surface flow indicated by good model performances both in calibration and validation steps. The final model can be used as a robust representation of the system for future study on climate and land use scenarios.

Keywords: carbonate aquifer, karst, sub-surface flow, groundwater model

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15 Geology, Geomorphology and Genesis of Andarokh Karstic Cave, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad


Andarokh basin is one of the main karstic regions in Khorasan Razavi province NE Iran. This basin is part of Kopeh-Dagh mega zone extending from Caspian Sea in the east to northern Afghanistan in the west. This basin is covered by Mozdooran Formation, Ngr evaporative formation and quaternary alluvium deposits in descending order of age. Mozdooran carbonate formation is notably karstified. The main surface karstic features in Mozdooran formation are Groove karren, Cleft karren, Rain pit, Rill karren, Tritt karren, Kamintza, Domes, and Table karren. In addition to surface features, deep karstic feature Andarokh Cave also exists in the region. Studying Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Fe concentration and Sr/Mn ratio in Mozdooran formation samples with distance to main faults and joints system using PCA analyses demonstrates intense meteoric digenesis role in controlling carbonate rock geochemistry. The karst evaluation in Andarokh basin varies from early stages 'deep seated karst' in Mesozoic to mature karstic system 'Exhumed karst' in quaternary period. Andarokh cave (the main cave in Andarokh basin) is rudimentary branch work consists of three passages of A, B and C and two entrances Andarokh and Sky.

Keywords: Andarokh basin, Andarokh cave, geochemical analyses, karst evaluation

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14 The Impact of Karst Structures on the Urban Environment in Semi-Arid Area

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Chaffai Hicham


Urban development is often dependent on adequate land for expansion, except that sometimes these areas have vulnerability. This is the case of karst regions characterized by carbonate geological formations marked by the presence of cavities and cracks. The impact of climate variability in Cheria area marked by a growing shortage of rainfall, the impact resulted in the development of the vulnerability of these structures. This vulnerability has led to the appearance of collapse phenomena as well in both agricultural and urban areas. Two phenomena have emerged to explain the collapses, the first is assigned a filling process in the cavities, and the second is due to a weakening of the resistance that collapses limestone slab shear phenomenon. In urban areas, the weight of the buildings has increased the load on the limestone slab and accelerated the collapse. The analysis of the environmental process is in the context of our modest work, after which we indicate the appropriate methods for management policy of urban expansion. This management more preventive (upstream), much less expensive than remedial solutions (downstream) needed after the event and sometimes ineffective.

Keywords: Cheria, urban, climate variability, vulnerability karst collapse, extension, management

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13 Identifying Karst Pattern to Prevent Bell Spring from Being Submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir

Authors: H. Shafaattalab Dehghani, H. R. Zarei


The large karstic Bell spring with a discharge ranging between 250 and 5300 lit/ sec is one of the most important springs of Kermanshah Province. This spring supplies drinking water of Nodsheh City and its surrounding villages. The spring is located in the reservoir of Daryan Dam and its mouth would be submerged after impounding under a water column of about 110 m height. This paper has aimed to render an account of the karstification pattern around the spring under consideration with the intention of preventing Bell Spring from being submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir. The studies comprise engineering geology and hydrogeology investigations. Some geotechnical activities included in these studies include geophysical studies, drilling, excavation of exploratory gallery and shaft and diving. The results depict that Bell is a single-conduit siphon spring with 4 m diameter and 85 m height that 32 m of the conduit is located below the spring outlet. To survive the spring, it was decided to plug the outlet and convey the water to upper elevations under the natural pressure of the aquifer. After plugging, water was successfully conveyed to elevation 837 meter above sea level (about 120 m from the outlet) under the natural pressure of the aquifer. This signifies the accuracy of the studies done and proper recognition of the karstification pattern of Bell Spring. This is a unique experience in karst problems in Iran.

Keywords: bell spring, Karst, Daryan Dam, submerged

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12 Hydrogeochemistry Preliminary Study of Groundwater Conservation in Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: M. S. M. Prahastomi, Riki Sunaryo, Lorasa Ximanes


The research takes place in EP Area, in the Northern part of Buton, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. It is one example of karst areas that have good water resources potential. The landscape is in the form of valleys and hills which is good enough for recharge zone and discharge zones of groundwater. However, the geological characteristics of karst dissolution and a complex geological structure are quite influential to the groundwater flow system in the region. The Discharge of groundwater to the surface can be caused by a fracture in the rock, Underground River due to dissolution, and the contact between permeable rocks with impermeable rocks. In the concept of hydrogeology, groundwater is one of the components of the hydrological cycle which is closely linked to the availability of water under the surface, precipitation, infiltration, percolation, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff. Conceptually, the condition of recharge and discharge areas can be identified through a research distribution springs in a region. The understanding of the condition and the nature of the potential catchment area of groundwater flow, mainly from the catchment area to the discharge area, is urgently needed. This research aimed to assess the general geological conditions of the study area, which is expected to provide an overview of groundwater flow events that used by the public as well as industry. Behavioral characteristics of groundwater become an integral part in the search for potential groundwater in the study area. As for the research methods used hydrogeology mapping and laboratory works.

Keywords: Buton Island, groundwater conservation, hydrogeochemistry preliminary, karst

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11 Analysis of Sustainability of Groundwater Resources in Rote Island, Indonesia under HADCM3 Global Model Climate Scenarios: Groundwater Flow Simulation and Proposed Adaptive Strategies

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas


Developing tailored management strategies to ensure the sustainability of groundwater resource under climate and demographic changes is critical for tropical karst island, where relatively small watershed and highly porous soil nature make this natural resource highly susceptible and thus very sensitive to those changes. In this study, long-term impacts of climate variability on groundwater recharge and discharge at the Oemau spring, Rote Island, Indonesia were investigated. Following calibration and validation of groundwater model using MODFLOW code, groundwater flow was simulated for period of 2020-2090 under HadCM3 global model climate (GCM) scenarios, using input data of weather variables downscaled by Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). The reported analysis suggests that the sustainability of groundwater resources will be adversely affected by climate change during dry years. The area is projected to variably experience 2.53-22.80% decrease of spring discharge. A subsequent comprehensive set of management strategies as palliative and adaptive efforts was proposed to be implemented by relevant stakeholders to assist the community dealing with water deficit during the dry years. Three main adaptive strategies, namely socio-cultural, technical, and ecological measures, were proposed by incorporating physical and socio-economic characteristics of the area. This study presents a blueprint for assessing groundwater sustainability under climate change scenarios and developing tailored management strategies to cope with adverse impacts of climate change, which may become fundamental necessities across other tropical karst islands in the future.

Keywords: climate change, groundwater, management strategies, tropical karst island, Rote Island, Indonesia

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10 Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes (ẟ18O and ẟ2H) Tools Applied to the Study of Karst Aquifers in Wonderfonteinspruit Valley: North West, South Africa

Authors: Naziha Mokadem, Rainier Dennis, Ingrid Dennis


In South Africa, Karst aquifers are receiving greater attention since they provide large supplies of water which is used for domestic and agricultural purposes as well as for industry. Accordingly, a better insight into the origin of water mineralization and the geochemical processes controlling the recharge of the aquifer is crucial. Analyses of geochemical and environmental isotopes could lead to relevant information regarding karstification and infiltration processes, groundwater chemistry and isotopy. A study was conducted in a typical karst landscape of Wonderfonteinspruit catchment, also known as Wonderfonteinspruit Valley in North-western -South Africa. Furthermore, fifty-two samples were collected from (35 boreholes, 5 surface waters, 4 Dams, 4 springs, 1 canal, 2 pipelines, 1 cave) within the study area for hydrochemistry and 2H and 18O analysis. The determination of the anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO2, NO3-) were performed using Metrohm ion chromatography, model: 761 compact IC, with a precision of ± 0.001 mg/l. While, the cations (Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+) were determined using Metrohm ion chromatography, Model: ICP-MS 7500 series. The alkalinity (Alk) was determined by pH meter with volumetric titration using HCL to pH 4.5; 4.2; and 8.2. In addition, 18O and 2H relative to the Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water (RVSMOW), were determined by picarro L2130-I Isotopic H2O (Cavity Ringdown laser spectrometer, Picarro Ltd). The hydrochemical analysis of Wonderfonteinspruit groundwater showed a dominance of the cations Ca-Mg and the anion HCO3. Piper diagram shows that the groundwater sample of study area is characterized by four hydrochemical facies: Two main groups: (1) Ca–Mg–Cl–SO4; (2) Ca–Mg–HCO3 and two minor groups: (3) Ca–Mg–Cl; (4) Na–K–HCO3. The majority of boreholes of Malmani (Transvaal Supergroup) aquifer are plotted in Ca–Mg–HCO3.Oxygen-18 (18O‰SMOW) and deuterium (D‰SMOW) isotopic data indicate that the aquifer’s recharge is influenced by two phenomena; precipitation rates for most of the samples and river flow (Wonderfonteinspruit, Middelvieinspruit, Renfonteinspruit) for some samples.

Keywords: South Africa, Wonderfonteinspruit Valley, isotopic, hydrochemical, carbonate aquifers

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9 Some Imaginative Geomorphosites in Malaysia: Study on Their Formations and Geotourism Potentials

Authors: Dony Adriansyah Nazaruddin, Mohammad Muqtada Ali Khan


This paper aims to present some imaginative geomorphological sites in Malaysia. This study comprises desk study and field study. Desk study was conducted by reviewing some literatures related to the topic and some geomorphosites in Malaysia. Field study was organized in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the recent situation of these sites and to take some measurements, photographs and rock samples. Some examples of imaginative geomorphosites all over Malaysia have been identified for this purpose. In Peninsular Malaysia, some geomorphosites in Langkawi Islands (the state of Kedah) have imaginative features such as a “turtle” atop the limestone hill of Setul Formation at the Kilim Geoforest Park, a “shoe” at the Kasut island of the Kilim Geoforest Park, a “lying pregnant lady” at the Dayang Bunting island of the Dayang Bunting Marble Geoforest Park, and a “ship” of the Singa Kecil island. Meanwhile, some other examples are from the state of Kelantan, such as a mogote hill with a “human face looking upward” at Gunung Reng, Jeli District and a “boat rock” at Mount Chamah, Gua Musang District. In East Malaysia, there is only one example can be identified, it is the “Abraham Lincoln’s face” at the Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. Karst landforms dominate the imaginative geomorphosites in Malaysia. The formations of these features are affected by some endogenic and exogenic processes, such as tectonic uplift, weathering (including solution), erosion, and so on. This study will recommend that these imaginative features should be conserved and developed for some purposes, such as research, education, and geotourism development in Malaysia.

Keywords: geomorphosite, geotourism, earth processes, karst landforms, Malaysia

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8 Climatic and Human Impact on Karst Aquifer in Semi Arid Zone

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Fehdi Chemseddine, Chaffai Hicham


The study site is the plateau Cheria, a city in south eastern Algeria (Tebessa) thanks to its structure perched syncline is the region of Tebessa a real water tower. Special rates provided by some boreholes and wells around the city Cheria have long been led to believe that the reserves were virtually limitless. The investigations carried out in this region have located karstified limestone areas at depth of 100 meters of the carbonate formation. During the last two decades a rainfall deficit has increased the effect of drought has caused an increase in flow from this aquifer. The effect on water resources is a significant and progressive reduction of the static level of the karst aquifer. The qualitative aspect has also been marked by degradation. This climate variability marked by the decade of drought (1990/2000) has had the effect on the local population, a forced change of their activity primarily agricultural. Abandoning agro pastoral mode due to prolonged drought, populations chose agriculture maraichère consumer a lot of water, this increasing the depletion of water resources. This change in activity was accompanied by a rural exodus to urban areas. The result has led to an increase in population in the urban areas, this has resulted in an increase in water demand and an increase in emissions (waste water). Uncontrolled discharges contribute to pollute a little more groundwater. The second consequence is type Geotechnical, it is the appearance of sinkholes, results of the alternating periods of drought and violent floods. Sinkholes are a real concern for the management and urban development. An interdisciplinary contribution (geology, hydrology, climatology and management) is essential to reduce or avoid impacts in different sectors.

Keywords: aquifer, carbonate formation, drought, exodus, resources, chéria, Algéria

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7 On the Application and Comparison of Two Geostatistics Methods in the Parameterisation Step to Calibrate Groundwater Model: Grid-Based Pilot Point and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point Methods

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas


Properly selecting the most suitable and effective geostatistics method in the parameterization step of groundwater modeling is critical to attain a satisfactory model. In this paper, two geostatistics methods, i.e., Grid-Based Pilot Point (GB-PP) and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point (HZB-PP) methods, were applied in an eogenetic karst catchment and compared using as model performances and computation time the criteria. Overall, the results show that appropriate selection of method is substantial in the parameterization of physically-based groundwater models, as it influences both the accuracy and simulation times. It was found that GB-PP method performed comparably superior to HZB-PP method. However, reflecting its model performances, HZB-PP method is promising for further application in groundwater modeling.

Keywords: groundwater model, geostatistics, pilot point, parameterization step

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6 Determination of Geotechnical Properties of Travertine Lithotypes in Van-Turkey

Authors: Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan


Travertine is generally a weak or medium strong rock, and physical, mechanical and structural properties of travertines are direct impacts on geotechnical studies. New settlement areas were determined on travertine units after two destructive earthquakes which occurred on October 23rd, 2011 (M=7.1) and November 9th, 2011 (M=5.6) in Tabanlı and Edremit districts of Van province in Turkey, respectively. In the study area, the travertines have different lithotype and engineering properties such as strong crystalline crust, medium strong shrub, and weak reed which can affect mechanical and engineering properties of travertine and each level have different handicaps. Travertine has a higher strength when compared to the soil ground; however, it can have different handicaps such as having poor rock mass, karst caves and weathering alteration. Physico-mechanical properties of travertine in the study area are determined by laboratory tests and field observations. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) values were detected by indirect methods, and the strength map of different lithotype of Edremit travertine was created in order to define suitable settlement areas. Also, rock mass properties and underground structure were determined by bore holes, field studies, and geophysical method. The reason of this study is to investigate the relationship between lithotype and physicomechanical properties of travertines. According to the results, lithotype has an effect on physical, mechanical and rock mass properties of travertine levels. It is detected by several research methods that various handicaps may occur on such areas when the active tectonic structure of the area is evaluated along with the karstic cavities within the travertine and different lithotype qualities.

Keywords: travertine, lithotype, geotechnical parameters, Van earthquake

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5 The Potential of Southern Malang as Geotourism Site: The Distribution of Geodiversity and Geotrek in Southern Malang, Indonesia

Authors: Arda Bagus M, Yehezkiel Festian P, Budianto Santoso


The Tourism Area of Southern Malang is administratively located in the Regency of Malang, East Java Province, Indonesia and geographically is in a position between 112o17' - 112o57' E dan 7o44' - 8o26' S. Southern Malang consists of several sub-districts that directly borders with the Indian Ocean, such as Donomulyo, Bantur, Gedangan, Sumbermanjing, Tirto Yudo, and Ampel Gading. This area has a high geotourism potential because of the existence of geodiversity such as beaches, waterfalls, caves, and karst area. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is still no systematic data that informs the geotourism potentials to the public. The aim of this research is to complete the lack of data and then arrange it systematically so it can be used for both tourism and research purposes. Research methods such as field observation, literature study, and depth interview to local people have been implemented. Aspects reviewed by visiting the field are accommodation, transportation, and the feasibility of a place to be geotourism object. The primary data was taken in Sumbermanjing, Gedangan, Bantur, and Donomulyo sub-district. A literature study is needed to determine the regional geology of Southern Malang and as a comparison to new data obtained in the field. The results of the literature study show that southern Malang consists of three formations: Wonosari Formation, Mandalaka Formation, and River-swamps Sediment Formation with the age range of Oligocene to Quaternary. Depth interviews have been conducted by involving local people with the aim of knowing cultural-history in the research area. From this research, the geotourism object distribution map has been made. The map also includes Geotrek and basic geological information of each object. The results of this research can support the development of geotourism in Southern Malang.

Keywords: geodiversity, geology, geotourism, geotrek, southern Malang

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4 Main Control Factors of Fluid Loss in Drilling and Completion in Shunbei Oilfield by Unmanned Intervention Algorithm

Authors: Peng Zhang, Lihui Zheng, Xiangchun Wang, Xiaopan Kou


Quantitative research on the main control factors of lost circulation has few considerations and single data source. Using Unmanned Intervention Algorithm to find the main control factors of lost circulation adopts all measurable parameters. The degree of lost circulation is characterized by the loss rate as the objective function. Geological, engineering and fluid data are used as layers, and 27 factors such as wellhead coordinates and WOB are used as dimensions. Data classification is implemented to determine function independent variables. The mathematical equation of loss rate and 27 influencing factors is established by multiple regression method, and the undetermined coefficient method is used to solve the undetermined coefficient of the equation. Only three factors in t-test are greater than the test value 40, and the F-test value is 96.557%, indicating that the correlation of the model is good. The funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time were selected as the main control factors by elimination method, contribution rate method and functional method. The calculated values of the two wells used for verification differ from the actual values by -3.036m3/h and -2.374m3/h, with errors of 7.21% and 6.35%. The influence of engineering factors on the loss rate is greater than that of funnel viscosity and final shear force, and the influence of the three factors is less than that of geological factors. Quantitatively calculate the best combination of funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time. The minimum loss rate of lost circulation wells in Shunbei area is 10m3/h. It can be seen that man-made main control factors can only slow down the leakage, but cannot fundamentally eliminate it. This is more in line with the characteristics of karst caves and fractures in Shunbei fault solution oil and gas reservoir.

Keywords: drilling and completion, drilling fluid, lost circulation, loss rate, main controlling factors, unmanned intervention algorithm

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3 Highly Efficient in Vitro Regeneration of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: Mahendran Ganesan, Sanjeet Kumar Verma, Zafar Iqbal, Ashish Chandran, Zakir Husain, Shama Afroz, Sana Shahid, Laiq Ur Rahman


Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, a high prized traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British and the American pharmacopeias, and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medical systems. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various phytohormones for multiple shoot induction. The nodal segments failed to respond in growth regulator free medium. All the concentrations of BAP, Kin and TDZ facilitated shoot bud break and multiple shoot induction. Among the various cytokinins tested, BAP was found to be more effective with respect to initiation and subsequent development of shoots. Of the various concentrations BAP tested, BAP at 4.0 mg/L showed the higher average number of shoot regeneration (10.80 shoots per explant). Kin at 4 mg/L and TDZ at 4 mg/L induced 5.70 and 04.5+0 shoots per explant, respectively. Further increase in concentration did not favour an increase in the number of shoots. However, these shoots failed to elongate further. Hence, addition of GA₃ (1 mg/L) was added to the above medium. This treatment resulted in the elongation of shoots (2.50 cm) and a further increase in the number of microshoots (34.20 shoots/explant). Roots were also induced in the same medium containing BAP (4 mg/L) + GA₃ (1 mg/L) + NAA (0.5 mg/L). In vitro derived plantlets with well-developed roots were transferred to the potting media containing garden soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:1). Plantlets were covered with a polyethylene bag and irrigated with water. The pots were maintained at 25 ± 2ºC, and then the polyethylene cover was gradually loosened, thus dropping the humidity (65–70%). This procedure subsequently resulted in in vitro hardening of the plantlet.

Keywords: micropropagation, nodal explant, plant growth regulators, Swertia chirayita

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2 Exposure to Radon on Air in Tourist Caves in Bulgaria

Authors: Bistra Kunovska, Kremena Ivanova, Jana Djounova, Desislava Djunakova, Zdenka Stojanovska


The carcinogenic effects of radon as a radioactive noble gas have been studied and show a strong correlation between radon exposure and lung cancer occurrence, even in the case of low radon levels. The major part of the natural radiation dose in humans is received by inhaling radon and its progenies, which originates from the decay chain of U-238. Indoor radon poses a substantial threat to human health when build-up occurs in confined spaces such as homes, mines and caves and the risk increases with the duration of radon exposure and is proportional to both the radon concentration and the time of exposure. Tourist caves are a case of special environmental conditions that may be affected by high radon concentration. Tourist caves are a recognized danger in terms of radon exposure to cave workers (guides, employees working in shops built above the cave entrances, etc.), but due to the sensitive nature of the cave environment, high concentrations cannot be easily removed. Forced ventilation of the air in the caves is considered unthinkable due to the possible harmful effects on the microclimate, flora and fauna. The risks to human health posed by exposure to elevated radon levels in caves are not well documented. Various studies around the world often detail very high concentrations of radon in caves and exposure of employees but without a follow-up assessment of the overall impact on human health. This study was developed in the implementation of a national project to assess the potential health effects caused by exposure to elevated levels of radon in buildings with public access under the National Science Fund of Bulgaria, in the framework of grant No КП-06-Н23/1/07.12.2018. The purpose of the work is to assess the radon level in Bulgarian caves and the exposure of the visitors and workers. The number of caves (sampling size) was calculated for simple random selection from total available caves 65 (sampling population) are 13 caves with confidence level 95 % and confidence interval (margin of error) approximately 25 %. A measurement of the radon concentration in air at specific locations in caves was done by using CR-39 type nuclear track-etch detectors that were placed by the participants in the research team. Despite the fact that all of the caves were formed in karst rocks, the radon levels were rather different from each other (97–7575 Bq/m3). An assessment of the influence of the orientation of the caves in the earth's surface (horizontal, inclined, vertical) on the radon concentration was performed. Evaluation of health hazards and radon risk exposure causing by inhaling the radon and its daughter products in each surveyed caves was done. Reducing the time spent in the cave has been recommended in order to decrease the exposure of workers.

Keywords: tourist caves, radon concentration, exposure, Bulgaria

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1 Verification of Geophysical Investigation during Subsea Tunnelling in Qatar

Authors: Gary Peach, Furqan Hameed


Musaimeer outfall tunnel is one of the longest storm water tunnels in the world, with a total length of 10.15 km. The tunnel will accommodate surface and rain water received from the drainage networks from 270 km of urban areas in southern Doha with a pumping capacity of 19.7m³/sec. The tunnel is excavated by Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) through Rus Formation, Midra Shales, and Simsima Limestone. Water inflows at high pressure, complex mixed ground, and weaker ground strata prone to karstification with the presence of vertical and lateral fractures connected to the sea bed were also encountered during mining. In addition to pre-tender geotechnical investigations, the Contractor carried out a supplementary offshore geophysical investigation in order to fine-tune the existing results of geophysical and geotechnical investigations. Electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and Seismic Reflection survey was carried out. Offshore geophysical survey was performed, and interpretations of rock mass conditions were made to provide an overall picture of underground conditions along the tunnel alignment. This allowed the critical tunnelling area and cutter head intervention to be planned accordingly. Karstification was monitored with a non-intrusive radar system facility installed on the TBM. The Boring Electric Ahead Monitoring(BEAM) was installed at the cutter head and was able to predict the rock mass up to 3 tunnel diameters ahead of the cutter head. BEAM system was provided with an online system for real time monitoring of rock mass condition and then correlated with the rock mass conditions predicted during the interpretation phase of offshore geophysical surveys. The further correlation was carried by Samples of the rock mass taken from tunnel face inspections and excavated material produced by the TBM. The BEAM data was continuously monitored to check the variations in resistivity and percentage frequency effect (PFE) of the ground. This system provided information about rock mass condition, potential karst risk, and potential of water inflow. BEAM system was found to be more than 50% accurate in picking up the difficult ground conditions and faults as predicted in the geotechnical interpretative report before the start of tunnelling operations. Upon completion of the project, it was concluded that the combined use of different geophysical investigation results can make the execution stage be carried out in a more confident way with the less geotechnical risk involved. The approach used for the prediction of rock mass condition in Geotechnical Interpretative Report (GIR) and Geophysical Reflection and electric resistivity tomography survey (ERT) Geophysical Reflection surveys were concluded to be reliable as the same rock mass conditions were encountered during tunnelling operations.

Keywords: tunnel boring machine (TBM), subsea, karstification, seismic reflection survey

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