Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Justa Rufina Martel

8 A Descriptive Approach towards the Understanding of the Central American Coffee Business Demography Phenomena

Authors: Jesus David Argueta Moreno, Justa Rufina Martel, Edith Gabriela Carrasco


The Central American Coffee small, medium, and large corporations search for excellence, sustainability, and continuous improvement, triggers in a still unknown scale the Local expansion, crusading, and franchising strategies towards a more suitable commercial opportunity, where the dynamics of the Central American business displacement can be explained through the markets permeability traits. By considering the previously mentioned, the present study aims to evaluate the franchising potentialities offered by Central American Coffee business scenario, in order to explain dynamics of the business demography phenomena and its relevance on the Central American competitiveness landscape.

Keywords: competitiveness, franchising, business demography, Central American Coffee

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7 Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticles: Sensing Properties and Cytotoxicity Studies in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Cristina Núñez, Rufina Bastida, Elena Labisbal, Alejandro Macías, María T. Pereira, José M. Vila


A highly selective quinoline-based fluorescent sensor L was designed in order to functionalize gold nanoparticles ([email protected]). The cytotoxicity of compound L and [email protected] on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells was explored and it was observed that L and [email protected] compounds induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cancer cells. The cellular uptake of the hybrid system [email protected] was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, fluorescent probes, nanoparticles, quinoline

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6 From Vegetarian to Cannibal: A Literary Analysis of a Journey of Innocence in ‘Life of Pi’

Authors: Visvaganthie Moodley


Language use and aesthetic appreciation are integral to meaning-making in prose, as they are in poetry. However, in comparison to poetic analysis, a literary analysis of prose that focuses on linguistics and stylistics is somewhat scarce as it generally requires the study of lengthy texts. Nevertheless, the effect of linguistic and stylistic features in prose as conscious design by authors for creating specific effects and conveying preconceived messages is drawing increasing attention of linguists and literary experts. A close examination of language use in prose can, among a host of literary purposes, convey emotive and cognitive values and contribute to making interpretations about how fictional characters are represented to the imaginative reader. This paper provides a literary analysis of Yann Martel’s narrative of a 14-year-old Indian boy, Pi, who had survived the wreck of a Japanese cargo ship, by focusing on his 227-day journey of tribulations, along with a Bengal tiger, on a lifeboat. The study favours a pluralistic approach blending literary criticism, linguistic analysis and stylistic description. It adopts Leech and Short’s (2007) broad framework of linguistic and stylistic categories (lexical categories, grammatical categories, figures of speech etc. [sic] and context and cohesion) as well as a range of other relevant linguistic phenomena to show how the narrator, Pi, and the author influence the reader’s interpretations of Pi’s character. Such interpretations are made using the lens of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory (which focuses on the interplay of the instinctual id, the ego and the moralistic superego) and Blake’s philosophy of innocence and experience (the two contrary states of the human soul). The paper traces Pi’s transformation from animal-loving, God-fearing vegetarian to brutal animal slayer and cannibal in his journey of survival. By a close examination of the linguistic and stylistic features of the narrative, it argues that, despite evidence of butchery and cannibalism, Pi’s gruesome behaviour is motivated by extreme physiological and psychological duress and not intentional malice. Finally, the paper concludes that the voice of the narrator, Pi, and that of the author, Martel, act as powerful persuasive agents in influencing the reader to respond with a sincere flow of sympathy for Pi and judge him as having retained his innocence in his instinctual need for survival.

Keywords: foregrounding, innocence and experience, lexis, literary analysis, psychoanalytical lens, style

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5 Economic Implications of the Arrival of Syrian Refugees in Jordan

Authors: Ammar Z. Alwrekiat, Sara Ojeda Gonzalez, Maria Jose Miranda Martel, Antonio Mihi-Ramirez


This paper analyses the economic situation in Jordan, which has been the political asylum destination for Syrians since 2011. We analyze the effects of the Jordanian situation through the following indicators: international aid, gross domestic product, remittances, and unemployment. A correlation analysis has been used to identify the main connections of these parameters with the reception of refugees. Although the economic effects of Syrian refugees in Jordan are uncertain, it involves an important challenge in the development of migration policies. Jordan has a special economic situation and limited capacities, but the country has provided humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees. In this case, the support of the international community is of particular importance, taking an important role in the negotiation of international agreements on refugees.

Keywords: correlation analysis, economic implications, migration, refugees

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4 Assessment of Population Trends of Birds at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan

Authors: Fehmeada Bibi, Shafqat Nawaz Qaisrani, Masood Akhtar, Zulfiqar Ali


Population trends learning is an important tool for conservation programs in rare as well as in common species of birds. A study was conducted to assess annual decline in species of birds and to identify the causes of this decline at Taunsa Barrage wildlife Sanctuary, Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected by direct census method during wintering and breeding periods (2001 to 2002 and 2008 to 2011). The results indicated an increasing trend in 157, whereas a decreasing trend in 14 species of birds. Among the species with declining trend, there was a 92% decrease in White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), 60% in Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis), 57% in Garganey (Anas querquedula), Pallas’s Fish Eagle and Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) 50% each, 41% in Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), 39% in Little Cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger), 37% in Gadwall (Anas strepera), 33% in Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), 30% in Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) and 26% in Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) population. Habitat exploitation, hunting and grazing were found the main causes of this decline. In conclusion, conservation and management of the study area is foremost to interests of declining bird population. It is suggested, therefore, to take immediate steps for the protection of the sanctuary to conserve the declining population of birds.

Keywords: population trends, wildlife sanctuary, bird, habitat exploitation

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3 Protective Effect of Saponin Extract from the Root of Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Alli Smith Yemisi Rufina, Adanlawo Isaac Gbadura


Liver disorders are one of the major problems of the world. Despite its frequent occurrence, high morbidity, and high mortality, its medical management is currently inadequate. This study was designed to evaluate the Hepatoprotective effect of saponin extract of the root of Garcinia kola on the integrity of the liver of paracetamol induced Wistar albino rats. Twenty-five male adult Wistar albino rats were divided into five (5) groups. Group I, was the Control group that received distilled water only, group II was the negative control that received 2 g/kg of paracetamol on the 13th day, and group III, IV, and V were pre-treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the saponin extract before inducing the liver damage on the 13th day with 2 g/kg of paracetamol. Twenty-four hours after administration, the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected. The serum Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities, Bilirubin and Conjugated Bilirubin, Glucose and Protein concentrations were evaluated. The liver was fixed immediately in Formalin and was processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Administration of saponin extract from the root of Garcinia kola significantly decreased paracetamol induced elevated enzymes in the test group. Also, histological observations showed that saponin extract of the root of Garcinia kola exhibited a significant liver protection against the toxicant as evident by the cells trying to return to normal. Saponin extract from the root of Garcinia kola indicated a protection of the structural integrity of the hepatocytic cell membrane and regeneration of the damaged liver.

Keywords: hepatoprotective, liver damage, Garcinia kola, saponin, paracetamol

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2 Appearance of Ciguatoxin Fish in Atlantic Europe Waters

Authors: J. Bravo, F. Cabrera Suárez, B. Vega, L. Román, M. Martel, F. Acosta


Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common non-bacterial intoxication in the world caused by ingestion of fish with bio-accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). It is typical in tropical and subtropical areas, mainly affecting the Caribbean Sea, Polynesia and other areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Interest in Europe by the CFP is increasing in recent years as more and more cases in European hospitals are appearing, usually by people who have consumed ciguatoxin imported fish or have travelled to areas of risk for this poisoning. Since 2004 a series of poisonings raised the question of a possible occurrence of ciguatoxin in Europe, especially in the area of Macaronesia in the East Atlantic temperate zone. Furthermore, some studies have identified the presence of Gambierdiscus spp. in waters surrounding the Canary Islands and Madeira, a toxic dinoflagellate related to this poisoning. The toxin accumulates and concentrates through the food chain and affects to the end of the chain, the human consumer. Fish were collected from the Canary Islands waters and the toxin has been extracted and purified by using acetone and liquid/liquid partition in order to eliminate the excess of fatty acids that may interfere with the detection of the toxin. The fish extracts were inoculated in Neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cells. After 24-h cell viability was used as an endpoint for cytotoxic effects measurement. Since 2011 our laboratory is collecting data for species such Seriola spp., Epinephelus spp., Makaira spp., Pomatomus spp., Xiphias spp., and Acantocybium spp., from all islands and including the sports fishing and professional activities, we obtained a 8% of fish that have ciguatoxin in their muscle. With these results, we conclude that the island where fishing and fish size affects the probability of catching a fish with the ciguatoxin.

Keywords: Canary Islands, ciguatera fish poisoning, ciguatoxin, Europe

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1 Anti-lipidemic and Hematinic Potentials of Moringa Oleifera Leaves: A Clinical Trial on Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Rural Nigerian Community

Authors: Ifeoma C. Afiaenyi, Elizabeth K. Ngwu, Rufina N. B. Ayogu


Diabetes has crept into the rural areas of Nigeria, causing devastating effects on its sufferers; most of them could not afford diabetic medications. Moringa oleifera has been used extensively in animal models to demonstrate its antilipidaemic and haematinic qualities; however, there is a scarcity of data on the effect of graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on the lipid profile and hematological parameters in human diabetic subjects. The study determined the effect of Moringa oleifera leaves on the lipid profile and hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic subjects in Ukehe, a rural Nigerian community. Twenty-four adult male and female diabetic subjects were purposively selected for the study. These subjects were shared into four groups of six subjects each. The diets used in the study were isocaloric. A control group (diabetics, group 1) was fed diets without Moringa oleifera leaves. Experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20g, 40g and 60g of Moringa oleifera leaves daily, respectively, in addition to the diets. The subjects' lipid profile and hematological parameters were measured prior to the feeding trial and at the end of the feeding trial. The feeding trial lasted for fourteen days. The data obtained were analyzed using the computer program Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) for windows version 21. A Paired-samples t-test was used to compare the means of values collected before and after the feeding trial within the groups and significance was accepted at p < 0.05. There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in the mean total cholesterol of the subjects in groups 1, 2 and 3 after the feeding trial. There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in the mean triglyceride levels of the subjects in group 1 after the feeding trial. Groups 1 and 3 subjects had a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in their mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol after the feeding trial. Groups 1, 2 and 4 had a significant (p < 0.05) increase in their mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol after the feeding trial. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean hemoglobin level was observed only in group 4 subjects. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean packed cell volume of group 4 subjects. It was only in group 4 that a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean white blood cells of the subjects was also observed. The changes observed in the parameters assessed were not dose-dependent. Therefore, a similar study of longer duration and more samples is imperative to authenticate these results.

Keywords: anemia, diabetic subjects, lipid profile, moringa oleifera

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