Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2929

Search results for: Central American Coffee

2929 A Descriptive Approach towards the Understanding of the Central American Coffee Business Demography Phenomena

Authors: Jesus David Argueta Moreno, Justa Rufina Martel, Edith Gabriela Carrasco

Abstract:

The Central American Coffee small, medium, and large corporations search for excellence, sustainability, and continuous improvement, triggers in a still unknown scale the Local expansion, crusading, and franchising strategies towards a more suitable commercial opportunity, where the dynamics of the Central American business displacement can be explained through the markets permeability traits. By considering the previously mentioned, the present study aims to evaluate the franchising potentialities offered by Central American Coffee business scenario, in order to explain dynamics of the business demography phenomena and its relevance on the Central American competitiveness landscape.

Keywords: competitiveness, franchising, business demography, Central American Coffee

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2928 Corporate Demography: An Unexplored Trend along the Latin American Context

Authors: Jesus Argueta

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the Business Demography Phenomena along the Central American context, through the examination of its theoretical background, and the revision of Central American corporations success stories, that will eventually guide this research towards the business Demography Key Performance Indicators, across the Central American Business Ambiance. Considering that this analysis will support the development of a Small and Medium Business Observatory over the Honduran commercial landscapes, as platform for the reinforcement of this global topic.

Keywords: business demography, economic dynamism, small, medium and large enterprises, corporate demography

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2927 Central American Security Issue: Civil War Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets

Abstract:

The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Central America, insecurity, instability, post-war countries, violence

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2926 Central American Security Issue: Civil Wars Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets

Abstract:

The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Central America, insecurity, instability, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2925 Effect of Brewing on the Bioactive Compounds of Coffee

Authors: Ceyda Dadali, Yeşim Elmaci

Abstract:

Coffee was introduced as an economic crop during the fifteenth century; nowadays it is the most important food commodity ranking second after crude oil. Desirable sensory properties make coffee one of the most often consumed and most popular beverages in the world. The coffee preparation method has a significant effect on flavor and composition of coffee brews. Three different extraction methodologies namely decoction, infusion and pressure methods have been used for coffee brew preparation. Each of these methods is related to specific granulation (coffee grind) of coffee powder, water-coffee ratio temperature and brewing time. Coffee is a mixture of 1500 chemical compounds. Chemical composition of coffee highly depends on brewing methods, coffee bean species and roasting time-temperature. Coffee contains a wide number of very important bioactive compounds, such as diterpenes: cafestol and kahweol, alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, melanoidins, phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds of coffee include chlorogenic acids (quinyl esters of hidroxycinnamic acids), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric acid. In coffee caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids and di-caffeoylquinic acids are three main groups of chlorogenic acids constitues 6% -10% of dry weight of coffee. The bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee depends on the absorption and metabolization to biomarkers in individuals. Also, the interaction of coffee polyphenols with other compounds such as dietary proteins affects the biomarkers. Since bioactive composition of coffee depends on brewing methods effect of coffee brewing method on bioactive compounds of coffee will be discussed in this study.

Keywords: bioactive compounds of coffee, biomarkers, coffee brew, effect of brewing

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2924 Determination of the Element Contents in Turkish Coffee and Effect of Sugar Addition

Authors: M. M. Fercan, A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun

Abstract:

Coffee is a widely consumed beverage with many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Coffee consumption continues to increase due to its physiological effects, its pleasant taste, and aroma. Robusta and Arabica are two basic types of coffee beans. The coffee bean used for Turkish coffee is Arabica. There are many elements in the structure of coffee and have various effect on human health such as Sodium (Na), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). In this study, the amounts of Mg, Na, Fe, and B contents in Turkish coffee are determined and effect of sugar addition is investigated for conscious consumption. The analysis of the contents of coffees was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). From the results of the experiments the Mg, Na, Fe and B contents of Turkish coffee after sugar addition were found as 19.83, 1.04, 0.02, 0.21 ppm, while without using sugar these concentrations were found 21.46, 0.81, 0.008 and 0.16 ppm. In addition, element contents were calculated for 1, 3 and 5 cups of coffee in order to investigate the health effects.

Keywords: health effect, ICP-OES, sugar, Turkish coffee

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2923 Analysis of Total Acid in Arabica Coffee Beans after Fermentation with Ohmic Technology

Authors: Reta

Abstract:

Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polyphenols, and it stimulates brain's performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine, when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic-based fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. We used Arabica coffee, which although cheaper than Luwak coffee, has high acidity, which needs to be reduced. Hence, we applied the ohmic technology, varied the time and temperature of the process and measured the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions; 0.32% at 400C and 12 hr, and 0.52% at 400C and 6 hr. The longer the fermentation, the lower was the acidity. The acidity of the mongoose-fermented (natural fermentation) beans was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the acidity of the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality, and this is discussed to highlight the potential of ohmic technology in coffee processing.

Keywords: ohmic technology, fermentation, coffee quality, Arabica coffee

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2922 Discrimination between Defective and Non-Defective Coffee Beans Using a Laser Prism Spectrometer

Authors: A. Belay, B. Kebede

Abstract:

The concentration- and temperature-dependent refractive indices of solutions extracted from defective and non-defective coffee beans have been investigated using a He–Ne laser. The refractive index has a linear relationship with the presumed concentration of the coffee solutions in the range of 0.5–3%. Higher and lower values of refractive index were obtained for immature and non-defective coffee beans, respectively. The Refractive index of bean extracts can be successfully used to separate defective from non-defective beans.

Keywords: coffee extract, refractive index, temperature dependence

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2921 Phytoremediation Waste Processing of Coffee in Various Concentration of Organic Materials Plant Using Kiambang

Authors: Siti Aminatu Zuhria

Abstract:

On wet coffee processing can improve the quality of coffee, but the coffee liquid waste that can pollute the environment. Liquid waste a lot of coffee resulting from the stripping and washing the coffee. This research will be carried out the process of handling liquid waste stripping coffee from the coffee skin with media phytoremediation using plants kiambang. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the coffee liquid waste and plant phytoremediation kiambang as agent in various concentrations of liquid waste coffee as well as determining the most optimal concentration in the improved quality of waste water quality standard approach. This research will be conducted through two stages, namely the preliminary study and the main study. In a preliminary study aims to determine the ability of the plant life kiambang as phytoremediation agent in the media well water, distilled water and liquid waste coffee. The main study will be conducted wastewater dilution and coffee will be obtained COD concentration variations. Results are expected at this research that can determine the ability of plants kiambang as an agent for phytoremediation in wastewater treatment with various concentrations of waste and the most optimal concentration in the improved quality of waste water quality standard approach.

Keywords: wet coffee processing, phytoremediation, Kiambang plant, variation concentration liquid waste

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2920 The Impact of Coffee Consumption to Body Mass Index and Body Composition

Authors: A.L. Tamm, N. Šott, J. Jürimäe, E. Lätt, A. Orav, Ü. Parm

Abstract:

Coffee is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world but still its effects on human organism are not completely understood. Coffee has also been used as a method for weight loss, but its effectiveness has not been proved. There is also not similar comprehension in classifying overweight in choosing between body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage (fat%). The aim of the study was to determine associations between coffee consumption and body composition. Secondly, to detect which measure (BMI or fat%) is more accurate to use describing overweight. Altogether 103 persons enrolled the study and divided into three groups: coffee non-consumers (n=39), average coffee drinkers, who consumed 1 to 4 cups (1 cup = ca 200ml) of coffee per day (n=40) and excessive coffee consumers, who drank at least five cups of coffee per day (n=24). Body mass (medical electronic scale, A&D Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and height (Martin metal anthropometer to the nearest 0.1 cm) were measured and BMI calculated (kg/m2). Participants´ body composition was detected with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic) and general data (history of chronic diseases included) and information about coffee consumption, and physical activity level was collected with questionnaires. Results of the study showed that excessive coffee consumption was associated with increased fat-free mass. It could be foremost due to greater physical activity level in school time or greater (not significant) male proportion in excessive coffee consumers group. For estimating the overweight the fat% in comparison to BMI recommended, as it gives more accurate results evaluating chronical disease risks. In conclusion coffee consumption probably does not affect body composition and for estimating the body composition fat% seems to be more accurate compared with BMI.

Keywords: body composition, body fat percentage, body mass index, coffee consumption

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2919 Stability Analysis of Green Coffee Export Markets of Ethiopia: Markov-Chain Analysis

Authors: Gabriel Woldu, Maria Sassi

Abstract:

Coffee performs a pivotal role in Ethiopia's GDP, revenue, employment, domestic demand, and export earnings. Ethiopia's coffee production and exports show high variability in the amount of production and export earnings. Despite being the continent's fifth-largest coffee producer, Ethiopia has not developed its ability to shine as a major exporter in the globe's green coffee exports. Ethiopian coffee exports were not stable and had high volume and earnings fluctuations. The main aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of the export of coffee variation to different importing nations using a first-order Markov Chain model. 14 years of time-series data has been used to examine the direction and structural change in the export of coffee. A compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was used to determine the annual growth rate in the coffee export quantity, value, and per-unit price over the study period. The major export markets for Ethiopian coffee were Germany, Japan, and the USA, which were more stable, while countries such as France, Italy, Belgium, and Saudi Arabia were less stable and had low retention rates for Ethiopian coffee. The study, therefore, recommends that Ethiopia should again revitalize its market to France, Italy, Belgium, and Saudi Arabia, as these countries are the major coffee-consuming countries in the world to boost its export stake to the global coffee markets in the future. In order to further enhance export stability, the Ethiopian Government and other stakeholders in the coffee sector should have to work on reducing the volatility of coffee output and exports in order to improve production and quality efficiency, so that stabilize markets as well as to make the product attractive and price competitive in the importing countries.

Keywords: coffee, CAGR, Markov chain, direction of trade, Ethiopia

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2918 Maras and Public Security in Central America in XXI Century

Authors: Michal Stelmach

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is a critical analysis of the security policy in the field of the fight against transnational criminal groups in Central America in XXI century. We are analyzing all taken issues from several perspectives: political, anthropological, sociological and legal which allows me to confront behavior and the attitudes of the political elites against official legislative changes and declared actions, strategies and policies against practice. In the first part of paper we would like to present the genesis and characteristic of transnational gangs, called maras and next we would like to present their activities and roles within chosen sectors of organized crimes. In the second part we will analyze the government’s policy towards transnational criminal groups. The analysis will be concentrated on public safety policy implemented in specific Central American countries as well as regional international cooperation. The main intention of the author is to present the state of the security in Central America in XXI century by emphasizing failures and successes in the fight against transnational criminal organizations. Additionally we want to present and define the challenges currently facing the region now and to show the prediction of the situation’s development within next future and to define the recommendations on the design of public security policies in Central American countries.

Keywords: maras, public security, human rights, Central America

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2917 Improving the Supply Chain of Vietnamese Coffee in Buon Me Thuot City, Daklak Province, Vietnam to Achieve Sustainability

Authors: Giang Ngo Tinh Nguyen

Abstract:

Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of Vietnam and coffee is one of most crucial agricultural commodities for exporting but the current farming methods and processing infrastructure could not keep up with the development of the sector. There are many catastrophic impacts on the environment such as deforestation; soil degradation that leads to a decrease in the quality of coffee beans. Therefore, improving supply chain to develop the cultivation of sustainable coffee is one of the most important strategies to boost the coffee industry and create a competitive advantage for Vietnamese coffee in the worldwide market. If all stakeholders in the supply chain network unite together; the sustainable production of coffee will be scaled up and the future of coffee industry will be firmly secured. Buon Ma Thuot city, Dak Lak province is the principal growing region for Vietnamese coffee which accounted for a third of total coffee area in Vietnam. It plays a strategically crucial role in the development of sustainable Vietnamese coffee. Thus, the research is to improve the supply chain of sustainable Vietnamese coffee production in Buon Ma Thuot city, Dak Lak province, Vietnam for the purpose of increasing the yields and export availability as well as helping coffee farmers to be more flexible in an ever-changing market situation. It will help to affirm Vietnamese coffee brand when entering international market; improve the livelihood of farmers and conserve the environment of this area. Besides, after analyzing the data, a logistic regression model is established to explain the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables to help sustainable coffee organizations forecast the probability of farmer will be having a sustainable certificate with their current situation and help them choose promising candidates to develop sustainable programs. It investigates opinions of local farmers through quantitative surveys. Qualitative interviews are also used to interview local collectors and staff of Trung Nguyen manufacturing company to have an overview of the situation.

Keywords: supply chain management, sustainable agricultural development, sustainable coffee, Vietnamese coffee

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2916 Coffee Consumption: Predictors, Prevalence, Awareness, and Trend among Saudi University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Hanan A. Alfawaz, Sobhy M. Yakout, Malak N. K. Khattak, Amani A. Alsaikhan, Areej A. Almousa, Taghreed A. Alsuwailem, Taghreed M. Almjlad, Nada A. Alamri, Sahar G. Alshammari, Nasser M. Al-Daghri

Abstract:

The consumption of coffee as a beverage is increasing in every part of the world. However, its excessive intake might exert negative effects. Our objective was to demonstrate the prevalence and awareness of coffee consumption among Saudi students and its determinants among this section of the population. Nine hundred thirty female students participated from various departments of King Saud University in a survey-based study using a face-to-face interview. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of coffee consumption (88.2%) among students in the Riyadh region. Certain situations such as exams were associated with increased frequency of coffee intake combined with unhealthy dietary habits of adding other ingredients such as sugar and spices in amount more than needed. Unmarried and fresh year students with high academic grades were associated with higher coffee consumption. The main determinants of coffee consumption among university students were high BMI and increased family income level. Continued awareness and basic knowledge, along with understanding the importance of reading food labels, should be provided to young generations. The university students must be cautioned to limit excessive coffee consumption and maintain healthy dietary habits.

Keywords: academic performance, BMI, coffee, health awareness

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2915 Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Oil from Spent Coffee Grounds Using a Central Composite Rotatable Design

Authors: Malek Miladi, Miguel Vegara, Maria Perez-Infantes, Khaled Mohamed Ramadan, Antonio Ruiz-Canales, Damaris Nunez-Gomez

Abstract:

Coffee is the second consumed commodity worldwide, yet it also generates colossal waste. Proper management of coffee waste is proposed by converting them into products with higher added value to achieve sustainability of the economic and ecological footprint and protect the environment. Based on this, a study looking at the recovery of coffee waste is becoming more relevant in recent decades. Spent coffee grounds (SCG's) resulted from brewing coffee represents the major waste produced among all coffee industry. The fact that SCGs has no economic value be abundant in nature and industry, do not compete with agriculture and especially its high oil content (between 7-15% from its total dry matter weight depending on the coffee varieties, Arabica or Robusta), encourages its use as a sustainable feedstock for bio-oil production. The bio-oil extraction is a crucial step towards biodiesel production by the transesterification process. However, conventional methods used for oil extraction are not recommended due to their high consumption of energy, time, and generation of toxic volatile organic solvents. Thus, finding a sustainable, economical, and efficient extraction technique is crucial to scale up the process and to ensure more environment-friendly production. Under this perspective, the aim of this work was the statistical study to know an efficient strategy for oil extraction by n-hexane using indirect sonication. The coffee waste mixed Arabica and Robusta, which was used in this work. The temperature effect, sonication time, and solvent-to-solid ratio on the oil yield were statistically investigated as dependent variables by Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) 23. The results were analyzed using STATISTICA 7 StatSoft software. The CCRD showed the significance of all the variables tested (P < 0.05) on the process output. The validation of the model by analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed good adjustment for the results obtained for a 95% confidence interval, and also, the predicted values graph vs. experimental values confirmed the satisfactory correlation between the model results. Besides, the identification of the optimum experimental conditions was based on the study of the surface response graphs (2-D and 3-D) and the critical statistical values. Based on the CCDR results, 29 ºC, 56.6 min, and solvent-to-solid ratio 16 were the better experimental conditions defined statistically for coffee waste oil extraction using n-hexane as solvent. In these conditions, the oil yield was >9% in all cases. The results confirmed the efficiency of using an ultrasound bath in extracting oil as a more economical, green, and efficient way when compared to the Soxhlet method.

Keywords: coffee waste, optimization, oil yield, statistical planning

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2914 Cotton Treated with Spent Coffee Extract for Realizing Functional Textiles

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of spent coffee extract to enhance the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of cotton fabrics. The emergence and spread of infectious diseases has raised a global interest in the antimicrobial substances. The safety of chemical agents, such as antimicrobials and dyes, which may irritate the skin, cause cellular and organ damage, and have adverse environmental impacts during their manufacturing, in relation to the human body has not been established. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in natural antimicrobials that kill microorganisms or stop their growth without dangerous effects on human health. Spent coffee is the by-product of coffee brewing and amounted to 96,000 tons worldwide in 2015. Coffee components such as caffeine, melanoidins, and chlorogenic acid have been reported to possess multifunctional properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the current study examined the possibility of applying spent coffee in functional textile finishing. Spent coffee was extracted with 60% methanol solution, and the major components of the extract were quantified. In addition, cotton fabrics treated with spent coffee extract through a pad-dry-cure process were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract showed an increase in yellowness, which is an unfavorable outcome from the fabric finishing process. However, the cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant ability significantly increased with increasing concentrations of the spent coffee extract. The finished cotton fabrics showed antimicrobial ability against S. aureus but relatively low antimicrobial ability against K. pneumoniae. Therefore, further investigations are needed to determine the appropriate concentration of spent coffee extract to inhibit the growth of various pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: spent coffee grounds, cotton, natural finishing agent, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity

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2913 Effect of Coffee Grounds on Physical and Heating Value Properties of Sugarcane Bagasse Pellets

Authors: K. Rattawan, W. Intagun, W. Kanoksilapatham

Abstract:

Objective of this research is to study effect of coffee grounds on physical and heating value properties of sugarcane bagasse pellets. The coffee grounds were tested as an additive for pelletizing process of bagasse pellets. Pelletizing was performed using a Flat–die pellet mill machine. Moisture content of raw materials was controlled at 10-13%. Die temperature range during the process was 75-80 oC. Physical characteristics (bulk density and durability) of the bagasse pellet and pellets with 1-5% coffee ground were determined following the standard assigned by the Pellet Fuel Institute (PFI). The results revealed increasing values of 648±3.4, 659 ± 3.1, 679 ± 3.3 and 685 ± 3.1 kg/m3 (for pellet bulk density); and 98.7 ± 0.11, 99.2 ± 0.26, 99.3 ± 0.19 and 99.4 ± 0.07% (for pellet durability), respectively. In addition, the heating values of the coffee ground supplemented pellets (15.9 ± 1.16, 17.0 ± 1.23 and 18.8 ± 1.34 MJ/kg) were improved comparing to the non-supplemented control (14.9 ± 1.14 MJ/kg), respectively. The results indicated that both the bulk density and durability values of the bagasse pellets were increased with the increasing proportion of the coffee ground additive.

Keywords: bagasse, coffee grounds, pelletizing, heating value, sugar cane bagasse

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2912 Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

Authors: Meareg Amare, Senait Aklog

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Lignin film was deposited at the surface of the glassy carbon electrode potential-statically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at the modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 × 10⁻⁶ to 100 × 10⁻⁶ mol L⁻¹ with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope) of 0.99925 and 8.37 × 10⁻⁷ mol L⁻¹, respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79–102.17%, validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie) and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w%) of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected, confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users’ highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

Keywords: electrochemical, lignin, caffeine, electrode

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2911 Exploration Study of Civet Coffee: Amino Acids Composition and Cup Quality

Authors: Murna Muzaifa, Dian Hasni, Febriani, Anshar Patria, Amhar Abubakar

Abstract:

Coffee flavour is influenced by many factors such as processing techniques. Civet coffee is known as one of premium coffee due to its unique processing technique and its superior cupping quality. The desirable aroma of coffee is foremost formed during roasting step at a high temperature from precursors that are present in the green bean. Sugars, proteins, acids and trigonelline are the principal flavor precursors compounds in green coffee bean. It is now widely accepted that amino acids act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. To investigate amino acids on civet coffee, concentration of 20 amino acids (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine, L-Alanine and Glycine) were determined in green and roasted bean of civet coffee by LCMS analysis. The cup quality of civet coffee performed using professional Q-grader followed SCAA standard method. The measured parameters were fragrance/aroma, flavor, acidity, body, uniformity, clean up, aftertaste, balance, sweetness and overall. The work has been done by collecting samples of civet coffee from six locations in Gayo Higland, Aceh-Indonesia. The results showed that 18 amino acids were detected in green bean of civet coffee (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine) and 2 amino acids were not detected (L-Alanine and Glycine). On the other hand, L-Tyrosine and Glycine were not detected in roasted been of civet coffee. Glutamic acid is the amino acid with highest concentration in both green and roasted bean (21,02 mg/g and 24,60 mg/g), followed by L- Valine (19,98 mg/g and 20,22 mg/g) and Aspartic acid (14,93 mg/g and 18,58 mg/g). Civet coffee has a fairly high cupping value (cup quality), ranging from 83.75 to 84.75, categorized as speciality coffee. Moreover, civet coffee noted to have nutty, chocolaty, fishy, herby and watery.

Keywords: amino acids, civet coffee, cupping quality, luwak

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2910 Survey of American Women to Promote Social Citizenship among White, African American, and Muslim American Women

Authors: Rachel Turney

Abstract:

American Woman is a discussion of being a woman in American through the lens of intersectionality, critical race theory, Muslim American identities, and social citizenship. The survey design and resulting paper are based on the researcher’s personal experience studying intersectionality and Muslim American identities through National Endowment for the Humanities. The researcher poses three questions to White, African American, and Muslim American women about female identify in America. Results are coded and analyzed in their meaning in the context of American society. Results show the similarities, primarily the idea of motherhood and fighting in society. Results also examine differences like those related to faith and family identifies in responses. The researcher examines the specific overlap in responses in the context of social citizenship.

Keywords: women, Muslim women, intersectionality, feminism

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2909 Yield and Physiological Evaluation of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Response to Biochar Applications

Authors: Alefsi D. Sanchez-Reinoso, Leonardo Lombardini, Hermann Restrepo

Abstract:

Colombian coffee is recognized worldwide for its mild flavor and aroma. Its cultivation generates a large amount of waste, such as fresh pulp, which leads to environmental, health, and economic problems. Obtaining biochar (BC) by pyrolysis of coffee pulp and its incorporation to the soil can be a complement to the crop mineral nutrition. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the application of BC obtained from coffee pulp on the physiology and agronomic performance of the Castillo variety coffee crop (Coffea arabica L.). The research was developed in field condition experiment, using a three-year-old commercial coffee crop, carried out in Tolima. Four doses of BC (0, 4, 8 and 16 t ha-1) and four levels of chemical fertilization (CF) (0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of the nutritional requirements) were evaluated. Three groups of variables were recorded during the experiment: i) physiological parameters such as Gas exchange, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), biomass, and water status were measured; ii) physical and chemical characteristics of the soil in a commercial coffee crop, and iii) physiochemical and sensorial parameters of roasted beans and coffee beverages. The results indicated that a positive effect was found in plants with 8 t ha-1 BC and fertilization levels of 66 and 100%. Also, a positive effect was observed in coffee trees treated with 8 t ha-1 BC and 100%. In addition, the application of 16 t ha-1 BC increased the soil pHand microbial respiration; reduced the apparent density and state of aggregation of the soil compared to 0 t ha-1 BC. Applications of 8 and 16 t ha-1 BC and 66%-100% chemical fertilization registered greater sensitivity to the aromatic compounds of roasted coffee beans in the electronic nose. Amendments of BC between 8 and 16 t ha-1 and CF between 66% and 100% increased the content of total soluble solids (TSS), reduced the pH, and increased the titratable acidity in beverages of roasted coffee beans. In conclusion, 8 t ha-1 BC of the coffee pulp can be an alternative to supplement the nutrition of coffee seedlings and trees. Applications between 8 and 16 t ha-1 BC support coffee soil management strategies and help the use of solid waste. BC as a complement to chemical fertilization showed a positive effect on the aromatic profile obtained for roasted coffee beans and cup quality attributes.

Keywords: crop yield, cup quality, mineral nutrition, pyrolysis, soil amendment

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2908 Coffee Consumption and Glucose Metabolism: a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

Authors: Caio E. G. Reis, Jose G. Dórea, Teresa H. M. da Costa

Abstract:

Objective: Epidemiological data shows an inverse association of coffee consumption with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the clinical effects of coffee consumption on the glucose metabolism biomarkers remain controversial. Thus, this paper reviews clinical trials that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption on glucose metabolism. Research Design and Methods: We identified studies published until December 2014 by searching electronic databases and reference lists. We included randomized clinical trials which the intervention group received caffeinated and/or decaffeinated coffee and the control group received water or placebo treatments and measured biomarkers of glucose metabolism. The Jadad Score was applied to evaluate the quality of the studies whereas studies that scored ≥ 3 points were considered for the analyses. Results: Seven clinical trials (total of 237 subjects) were analyzed involving adult healthy, overweight and diabetic subjects. The studies were divided in short-term (1 to 3h) and long-term (2 to 16 weeks) duration. The results for short-term studies showed that caffeinated coffee consumption may increase the area under the curve for glucose response, while for long-term studies caffeinated coffee may improve the glycemic metabolism by reducing the glucose curve and increasing insulin response. These results seem to show that the benefits of coffee consumption occur in the long-term as has been shown in the reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in epidemiological studies. Nevertheless, until the relationship between long-term coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus is better understood and any mechanism involved identified, it is premature to make claims about coffee preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The findings suggest that caffeinated coffee may impairs glucose metabolism in short-term but in the long-term the studies indicate reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. More clinical trials with comparable methodology are needed to unravel this paradox.

Keywords: coffee, diabetes mellitus type 2, glucose, insulin

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2907 Coffee Consumption Has No Acute Effects on Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men: A Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial

Authors: Caio E. G. Reis, Sara Wassell, Adriana L. Porto, Angélica A. Amato, Leslie J. C. Bluck, Teresa H. M. da Costa

Abstract:

Background: Multiple epidemiologic studies have consistently reported association between increased coffee consumption and a lowered risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. However, the mechanisms behind this finding have not been fully elucidated. Objective: We investigate the effect of coffee (caffeinated and decaffeinated) on glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity using the stable isotope minimal model protocol with oral glucose administration in healthy men. Design: Fifteen healthy men underwent 5 arms randomized crossover single-blinding (researchers) clinical trial. They consumed decaffeinated coffee, caffeinated coffee (with and without sugar), and controls – water (with and without sugar) followed 1 hour by an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g of available carbohydrate) with intravenous labeled dosing interpreted by the two compartment minimal model (225 minutes). One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment were used to compare the effects of the tested beverages on glucose metabolism parameters. Results: Decaffeinated coffee resulted in 29% and 85% higher insulin sensitivity compared with caffeinated coffee and water, respectively, and the caffeinated coffee showed 15% and 60% higher glucose effectiveness compared with decaffeinated coffee and water, respectively. However, these differences were not significant (p > 0.10). In overall analyze (0 – 225 min) there were no significant differences on glucose effectiveness, insulin sensitivity, and glucose and insulin area under the curve between the groups. The beneficial effects of coffee did not seem to act in the short-term (hours) on glucose metabolism parameters mainly on insulin sensitivity indices. The benefits of coffee consumption occur in the long-term (years) as has been shown in the reduction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus risk in epidemiological studies. The clinical relevance of the present findings is that there is no need to avoid coffee as the drink choice for healthy people. Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrate that the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee with or without sugar has no acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy men. Further researches, including long-term interventional studies, are needed to fully elucidate the mechanisms behind the coffee effects on reduced risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Keywords: coffee, diabetes mellitus type 2, glucose, insulin

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2906 Association of Caffeine Consumption in Coffee, Tea and Soft Drinks with Age of Menopause

Authors: Julita D. L. Nainggolan, Cindy Novita Ongkowijoyo, Veli Sungono, Dyana Safitri Velies, Ernestine Vivie Sadeli, Jimmy

Abstract:

Introduction: Normal menstrual cycle in women ranges from 21-34 days. Menopause is defined as the time when there have been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. Caffeine might increase the estradiol in the early of follicular phase and possibly increase the progesterone and shorten menstruation cycle. Women with shorter menstrual cycle, (below 26 days) would likely get to menopause 1.4 years earlier than those who are normal, and 2.2 years earlier than women with longer menstrual cycle. Purpose: To study the association of caffeine consumption in coffee, tea, and soft drinks with the age of menopause. Design Study: A cross-sectional study using purposive sampling of 132 menopause women from elderly nursing, hospitals and students’ relatives from August 2015-December 2015. The mean difference of age of menopause among the caffeine intake was analyzed by using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression. Results: Mean current age of the respondents are 61.4 years ± SD 9.8; and age of menopause was 47.7 years ± SD 4.2. There are 49.6% who drink coffee, 62.6% of tea and 7.6% of soft drinks. The analysis of t-test showed no significant mean difference in age of menopause among women who drink coffee, tea and soft drinks, mean age of 47.63 ± 4.3 in coffee with p=0.392, mean age of 47.8 ± 4 in tea with p=0.373; and mean age of 46 ± 5.5 with p=0.083 after adjustment of smoking history. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeine among women who drink coffee, tea, and soft drinks did not show significant mean difference in age of menopause.

Keywords: caffeine, menopause, coffee, tea, soda, soft drinks

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2905 Examination of Predictive Factors of Depression among Asian American Adolescents: A Narrative Review

Authors: Annisa Siu, Ping Zou

Abstract:

Background: Existent literature addressing Asian American children and adolescents reveals that this population is experiencing rates of depression comparable to those of European American and other ethnic minority youths. Within the last decade, increased attention has been given to Asian American adolescent mental health. Methods: 44 articles were extracted from Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Proquest CINAHL. Data were subject to thematic analyses and categorized into factors under individual, familial, and community levels. Results: Of all the individual factors, age and gender were the most supported in their relationship with depressive symptoms. Likewise, living situations, parent-child relations, peer relations, and broader environmental factors were strongly evidenced. The remaining psychosocial factors faced contrary evidence or were insubstantially addressed in the empirical literature. Discussion: The identified psychosocial factors within this study offer a starting point for future research to examine what factors should be included in formal or informal methods of screening/consultations. Clinicians should aim to understand the cultural influences specific to Asian American adolescents, particularly the central role that family relations may have on their depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low awareness of culturally linked expressions of psychological distress can lead to misdiagnosis or under-diagnosis of depression in Asian American youth. Further evidence is needed to clarify the relationship of psychosocial factors linked to Asian American adolescent depressive symptoms.

Keywords: adolescent, Asian American, depression, psychosocial factors

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2904 Clarification of Taxonomic Confusions among Adulterated Drugs Coffee Seena and Seena Weed through Systematic and Pharmaceutical Markers

Authors: Shabnum Shaheen, Nida Haroon, Farah Khan, Sumera Javad, Mehreen Jalal, Samina Sarwar

Abstract:

Coffee Senna is pharmaceutically very important and used for multiple health disorders such as gastric pains, indigestion, snakebites, asthma and fever, tuberculosis and menstrual problems. However, its immense medicinal value and great demand lead to adulteration issue which could be injurious for users. Some times its adulterant Seena weed (Senna occidentalis L.) is used as its substitute which definitely not as effective as Coffee Senna. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide some tools for systematic and pharmaceutical authentication of a shrubby plant Coffee Senna (Cassia occidentalis Linn.). These parameters included macro and micro morphological characters, anatomical and palynomorph characterization, solubility, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. By the application of these parameters acquired results revealed that, these two plants are distinct from each other. The Coffee Seena was found to be an annual shrub with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic and anisocytic stomata whereas the Seena weed stands out as an annual or perennial herb with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata. The powdered drug of Coffee seena is dark grayish green whereas the powdered drug of Seena weed is light green in color. These findings are constructive in authentic identification of these plants.

Keywords: coffee senna, Senna weed, taxonomic evaluation, pharmaceutical markers

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2903 Transmigration of American Sign Language from the American Deaf Community to the American Society

Authors: Russell Rosen

Abstract:

American Sign Language (ASL) has been developed and used by signing deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) individuals in the American Deaf community since early nineteenth century. In the last two decades, secondary schools in the US offered ASL for foreign language credit to secondary school learners. The learners who learn ASL as a foreign language are largely American native speakers of English. They not only learn ASL in US schools but also create spaces under certain interactional and social conditions in their home communities outside of classrooms and use ASL with each other instead of their native English. This phenomenon is a transmigration of language from a native social group to a non-native, non-kin social group. This study looks at the transmigration of ASL from signing Deaf community to the general speaking and hearing American society. Theoretical implications of this study are discussed.

Keywords: American Sign Language, Foreign Language, Language transmission, United States

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2902 Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modelling of Instant Coffee Solution

Authors: Apolinar Picado, Ronald Solís, Rafael Gamero

Abstract:

The thin-layer drying characteristics of instant coffee solution were investigated in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (80, 100 and 120 °C) and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s. Drying experimental data obtained are fitted to six (6) thin-layer drying models using the non-linear least squares regression analysis. The acceptability of the thin-layer drying model has been based on a value of the correlation coefficient that should be close to one, and low values for root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (x²). According to this evaluation, the most suitable model for describing drying process of thin-layer instant coffee solution is the Page model. Further, the effective moisture diffusivity and the activation energy were computed employing the drying experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 1.6133 × 10⁻⁹ to 1.6224 × 10⁻⁹ m²/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 162.62 J/mol.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusivity, instant coffee, thin-layer models

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2901 Humanitarian Emergency of the Refugee Condition for Central American Immigrants in Irregular Situation

Authors: María de los Ángeles Cerda González, Itzel Arriaga Hurtado, Pascacio José Martínez Pichardo

Abstract:

In México, the recognition of refugee condition is a fundamental right which, as host State, has the obligation of respect, protect, and fulfill to the foreigners – where we can find the figure of immigrants in irregular situation-, that cannot return to their country of origin for humanitarian reasons. The recognition of the refugee condition as a fundamental right in the Mexican law system proceeds under these situations: 1. The immigrant applies for the refugee condition, even without the necessary proving elements to accredit the humanitarian character of his departure from his country of origin. 2. The immigrant does not apply for the recognition of refugee because he does not know he has the right to, even if he has the profile to apply for. 3. The immigrant who applies fulfills the requirements of the administrative procedure and has access to the refugee recognition. Of the three situations above, only the last one is contemplated for the national indexes of the status refugee; and the first two prove the inefficiency of the governmental system viewed from its lack of sensibility consequence of the no education in human rights matter and which results in the legal vulnerability of the immigrants in irregular situation because they do not have access to the procuration and administration of justice. In the aim of determining the causes and consequences of the no recognition of the refugee status, this investigation was structured from a systemic analysis which objective is to show the advances in Central American humanitarian emergency investigation, the Mexican States actions to protect, respect and fulfil the fundamental right of refugee of immigrants in irregular situation and the social and legal vulnerabilities suffered by Central Americans in Mexico. Therefore, to achieve the deduction of the legal nature of the humanitarian emergency from the Human Rights as a branch of the International Public Law, a conceptual framework is structured using the inductive deductive method. The problem statement is made from a legal framework to approach a theoretical scheme under the theory of social systems, from the analysis of the lack of communication of the governmental and normative subsystems of the Mexican legal system relative to the process undertaken by the Central American immigrants to achieve the recognition of the refugee status as a human right. Accordingly, is determined that fulfilling the obligations of the State referent to grant the right of the recognition of the refugee condition, would mean a guideline for a new stage in Mexican Law, because it would enlarge the constitutional benefits to everyone whose right to the recognition of refugee has been denied an as consequence, a great advance in human rights matter would be achieved.

Keywords: central American immigrants in irregular situation, humanitarian emergency, human rights, refugee

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2900 Development of a Dairy Drink Made of Cocoa, Coffee and Orange By-Products with Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Gianella Franco, Karen Suarez, María Quijano, Patricia Manzano

Abstract:

Agro-industries generate large amounts of waste, which are mostly untapped. This research was carried out to use cocoa, coffee and orange industrial by-products to develop a dairy drink. The product was prepared by making a 10% aqueous extract of the mixture of cocoa and coffee beans shells and orange peel. Extreme Vertices Mixture Design was applied to vary the proportions of the ingredients of the aqueous extract, getting 13 formulations. Each formulation was mixed with skim milk and pasteurized. The attributes of taste, smell, color and appearance were evaluated by a semi-trained panel by multiple comparisons test, comparing the formulations against a standard marked as "R", which consisted of a coffee commercial drink. The formulations with the highest scores were selected to maximize the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) through a process of linear optimization resulting in the formulation 80.5%: 18.37%: 1.13% of cocoa bean shell, coffee bean shell and orange peel, respectively. The Total Polyphenol Content was 4.99 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g of drink, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) was 80.14 ± 0.05 and caffeine concentration of 114.78 mg / L, while the coffee commercial drink presented 3.93 ± 0.84 mg GAE / g drink, 55.54 ± 0.03 % and 47.44 mg / L of TPC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and caffeine content, respectively. The results show that it is possible to prepare an antioxidant - rich drink with good sensorial attributes made of industrial by-products.

Keywords: DPPH, polyphenols, waste, food science

Procedia PDF Downloads 386